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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Chemicals that are active at the benzodiazepine receptor (endozepines) are naturally present in the CNS. These substances are present in tissue from humans and animals and in plants and fungi. Using selective extraction protocols, HPLC purification, receptor binding displacement studies, and selective anti-benzodiazepine antibodies, we have identified six or seven peaks of endozepines in rat and human brain. All material could competitively displace [3H]flunitrazepam binding to cerebellar benzodiazepine binding sites. Two peaks also competitively displaced Ro 5-4864 binding to the mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site. Total amounts of brain endozepines were estimated to be present in potentially physiological concentrations, based on their ability to displace [3H]flunitrazepam binding. Although endozepine peaks 1 and 2 had HPLC retention profiles similar to those of nordiazepam and diazepam, respectively, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as high-performance TLC revealed biologically insignificant amounts of diazepam (〈 0.02 pg/g) and nordiazepam (〈0.02 pg/g) in the purified material. Electrophysiologically, some purified endozepines positively modulated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) action on Cl− conductance, monitored in patch-clamped cultured cortical neurons or in mammalian cells transfected with cDNA encoding various GABAA receptor subunits. These studies demonstrate that mammalian brains contain endozepines that could serve as potent endogenous positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The role of endogenous benzodiazepine receptor ligands in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy was studied in humans and in rat models of hepatic encephalopathy. Endogenous benzodiazepine ligands were extracted from rat brain and human CSF by acid treatment and purification by HPLC. Detection and partial characterization of these endogenous benzodiazepine ligands were carried out using both radioreceptor binding assays and radioimmunoassays with anti-benzodiazepine antibodies. Four different benzodiazepine receptor ligands were identified in human and rat tissue, two of which may be diazepam and desmethyldiazepam, based on elution profiles and anti-benzodiazepine antibody reactivity. Human CSF and serum from patients with hepatic encephalopathy contained ∼ 10 times more endogenous benzodiazepine receptor ligand than CSF from controls or nonencephalopathic patients with liver disease. The levels of brain benzodiazepine receptor ligand compounds were also increased ∼ 10-fold in rats suffering from fulminant hepatic failure, but not in rats with portacaval shunts, a model of chronic hepatic disease. The increased concentrations of these substances could be behaviorally significant and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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