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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Genetic polymorphism of human apolipoprotein E (apo E) has previously been demonstrated by one-dimensional isoelectric focusing (Utermann et al. 1977b) and by two-dimensional electrophoresis of apolipoproteins (Zannis et al. 1981), but the relationship between the results obtained by these methods remained unclear. We therefore performed comparative phenotyping by one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Apoproteins from very low-density lipoproteins (apo VLDL) prepared by ultracentrifugation or from an apo Erich lipoprotein fraction prepared by heparin/Mg++ precipitation, were used as a source of apo E. Six common phenotypes designated apo E-4/4, apo E-N/N, apo E-D/D, apo E-4/N, apo E-4/D, and apo E-N/D were differentiated irrespective of the technique used or the source of apolipoproteins, but the two-dimensional electrophoresis of apo VLDL and apo VLDL which had been treated with neuraminidase was the key for the correct genetic interpretation of those phenotypes exhibiting the E4 isoform of the protein. Each phenotype is characterized by the presence of either one or two of three major isoforms E2, E3, and E4 and by the presence of several minor sialylated forms of these proteins (apo Es) that have higher apparent molecular weights. The unsialylated major isoform apo E2 does not only differ in charge but also has a higher apparent mol.wt. (about 34,500) than the major isoforms apo E3 and apo E4 (mol. wt. about 33,000). Family studies including 90 matings with a total of 203 offspring confirmed the genetic one locus model of Zannis et al. (1981). Apo E phenotypes are controlled by three autosomal codominant alleles apo Ed, apo En, and apo E4 that specify for the E2, E3, and E4 isoforms respectively. Phenotypes apo E-D/D,-N/N, and-4/4 represent homozygotes and phenotypes apo E-4/N,-4/D, and-N/D heterozygotes for these alleles. The frequencies of apo E alleles in 1031 blood donors were apo E4=0.150, apo En=0.773, and apo Ed=0.077. Homozygosity for the allele apo Ed is associated with hyperlipoproteinemia type III. Hence a large number of the population (about 1%) are at risk for this specific lipoprotein disorder that is associated with premature atherosclerosis and xanthomatosis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] We describe the design and detailed characterization of a gas-inducible transgene control system functional in different mammalian cells, mice and prototype biopharmaceutical manufacturing. The acetaldehyde-inducible AlcR-PalcA transactivator-promoter interaction of the Aspergillus nidulans ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Several lines of evidence exist for the presence of a second distinct receptor that binds apo E-containing chylomicron remnants in the liver2"6. In particular, the uptake of chylomicron remnants that contain apo E remains normal in animals with defective LDL receptors10. It is extremely difficult, ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Heterologous mammalian gene regulation systems for adjustable expression of multiple transgenes are necessary for advanced human gene therapy and tissue engineering, and for sophisticated in vivo gene-function analyses, drug discovery, and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. The ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] In multicellular systems cell identity is imprinted by epigenetic regulation circuits, which determine the global transcriptome of adult cells in a cell phenotype–specific manner. By combining two repressors, which control each other's expression, we have developed a mammalian epigenetic ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Dans cette série de patients, la localisation préopératoire des insulinomes était précise chez 13 (61.9%) des 21 patients ayant eu une échographie, chez 3 (21.4%) des 14 patients après un examen tomodensitométrique sans préparation, chez 11 (73.3%) des 15 patients après un examen tomodensitométrique avec injection de produit de contraste, chez 20 (66.7%) des 30 patients qui avaient eu une angiographie, et chez 10 (76.9%) des 13 patients ayant eu une opacification de la veine porte par voie transhépatique percutanée avec dosage de l'insuline par cathéterisation. A l'intervention, 40 (95.2%) des 42 insulinomes étaient palpables et dans 12 des 16 cas d'échographie peropératoire, cet examen a localisé avec précision la tumeur. Bien que 95.2% des insulinomes étaient reconnus à la palpation, nous continuons de recommander des examens d'imagérie pour augmenter la fiabilité de la palpation.
    Abstract: Resumen Estudiado nuestro material clínico, se encontró que la localización preoperatoria del insulinoma mediante sonografía résultó correcta en 13 (61.9%) de 21 pacientes; mediante tomografía computadorizada en 3 (21.4%) de 14 pacientes; mediante tomografía computadorizada con inyección en bolo de medio de contraste en 11 (73.8%) de 15 pacientes; mediante angiografía en 20 (66.6%) de 30 pacientes; y mediante cateterización percutánea de la vena porta y medición selectiva de la insulina en 10 (76.9%) de 13 pacientes. Intraoperatoriamente 40 (95.2%) de 42 insulinomas aparecieron palpables y 12 de 16 insulinomas fueron identificados mediante sonografía intraoperatoria. Aunque 95.2% de los insulinomas pueden ser palpados, nosotros recomendamos estudios de diagnóstico adicionales que pueden hacer mas confiable la palpacion intraoperatoria.
    Notes: Abstract Based on our patient material, preoperative localization of insulinoma was correct with sonography in 13 (61.9%) of 21 patients, with computed tomography in 3 (21.4%) of 14 patients, with computed tomography with bolus injection of contrast medium in 11 (73.3%) of 15 patients, with angiography in 20 (66.6%) of 30 patients, and with percutaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterization with selective measurement of insulin in 10 (76.9%) of 13 patients. Intraoperatively, 40 (95.2%) of 42 insulinomas were palpable and 12 of 16 insulinomas were identified during intraoperative sonography. Although 95.2% of the insulinomas can be palpated, we would support additional diagnostic localization since it may improve the reliability of palpation.
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