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  • 1
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  A polymorphism in the promoter region of the CD14 gene, C-159T, has been shown to be associated with increased levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and decreased serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the expression of a more severe atopic phenotype in previous studies.Methods:  To test if these associations are consistently found in different populations and different age groups, we genotyped 2048 children of different age groups as well as 888 adults from different regions of Germany for the CD14 C-159T polymorphism.Results:  While an association between this promoter polymorphism and levels of sCD14 could be confirmed in our study population (CC: 1017 ng/ml vs TT: 1370 ng/ml, P = 0.03), no association between CD14 C-159T genotypes and IgE levels or the prevalence of atopic diseases was seen.Conclusions:  The lack of association between CD14 genotypes and IgE as well as atopic outcomes in this large German study population seems to indicate that CD14 genotypes may not directly be involved in the development of allergies during childhood.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective: To assess time trends in symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children in Münster, Germany.Methods: Two cross-sectional surveys 5-years apart (1994/1995, 1999/2000) using ISAAC core written and video questionnaires and applying the ISAAC protocol. Two main age groups (6–7 and 13–14 year olds) were designated with information collected by parental and self-report for both age groups, respectively. A school-based sample of 7744 participants in the 1994/1995 survey and 7962 participants in the 1999/2000 survey was recruited. In the first and second surveys, response rates for the 6–7 year olds were 81 and 82%, respectively, while for the 13–14 year olds response rates were 94% in both. Analyses focus on the change in 12-month prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema.Results: There is a tendency towards an increase in current symptoms for all three conditions and in both age groups, but more so among girls. Indices of diagnosis either remained the same or increased in parallel to the increase in symptoms. Indices of severity also showed a homogenous increase in the 5-year study period.Conclusions: Our study shows that symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing, reflecting a change in the morbidity of these conditions in our population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Atopic diseases are characterized by immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated immune responses towards common allergens, many of which are proteases. Recently it has been suggested that a proteinase inhibitor gene, SPINK5, which is located on chromosome 5q31, may play a role in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases.Objective We investigated the association between the polymorphism G1258A leading to a putative amino acid change (Glu420Lys) in serine protease inhibitor, kazal type 5 (SPINK5) and phenotypes of atopic diseases in a large general population sample of German children.Methods Parental questionnaires were used and children underwent skin prick testing, pulmonary function testing and bronchial challenge. Blood was collected for serum IgE measurements and DNA extraction. In total, 1161 children were genotyped for the SPINK5 Glu420Lys polymorphism and association studies were performed.Results A significant association between SPINK5 420Lys and the development of asthma was observed (OR 1.77; 95%CI: 1.02–3.06, P=0.041 for 420Lys homocygotes). Atopic carriers of SPINK5 420Lys showed an increased risk for asthma and asthma symptoms (OR 2.06; 95%CI: 1.01–4.20, P=0.047). When children with a combination of asthma and atopic dermatitis were compared with normal controls, the SPINK5 420Lys genotype was more prevalent in the disease group (OR 4.56; 95%CI: 1.370–15.12, P=0.007). No association between SPINK5 420Lys genotypes and total serum IgE levels, skin prick test (SPT) reactivity or atopic dermatitis was observed.Conclusion These results suggest that SPINK5 Glu420Lys polymorphism may be associated with certain asthma phenotypes characterized by the concomitant expression of asthma and atopic dermatitis or SPT reactivity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background It has been suggested that fetal growth and maturation have an impact on the development of allergic diseases later in life.Objective To examine the association between measures of fetal growth and allergic disease in children at age 5–7 years.Methods As part of the German International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase II surveys, a random sample of school beginners (n=1138) was examined in 1995. Data on anthropometric measures at birth and gestational age were obtained from maternal copies of birth records. Data on symptoms and doctor-diagnosed asthma, atopic dermatitis and hayfever were gathered by parental questionnaires. Atopic sensitization was assessed by serum IgE and skin prick tests to common aeroallergens. Children (741) had complete data for the explanatory variables of interest and were thus eligible for this analysis. Confounder-adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and means ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multiple logistic and linear regression.Results Birth weight and gestational age were positively associated with atopic sensitization (Ptrend=0.025 and 0.035, respectively). Children with a low birth weight relative to head circumference had a decreased risk of sensitization (POR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.91; Ptrend=0.020). Moreover, total serum IgE increased with increasing birth weight (Ptrend=0.042). No consistent relationship was observed between markers of fetal growth and wheezing, doctor-diagnosed asthma, atopic dermatitis and hayfever.Conclusion These data suggest that fetal growth and maturity are associated with atopic sensitization and total serum IgE levels in childhood.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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