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  • 1
    Unknown
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Call number: C020:115
    Keywords: Epidemiologic Methods ; Biometry ; Treatment Outcome
    Description / Table of Contents: Clinical epidemiology: what it is and how it is used -- Diagnostic and screening tests: measuring their ability to predict adverse outcomes of illness -- Diagnostic and screening tests: measuring their role in improving the outcome of illness -- Therapeutic efficacy: randomized controlled trials -- Therapeutic efficacy: nonrandomized studies -- Therapeutic safety -- Natural history of illness -- Summarizing evidence: systematic reviews and meta-analysis / Peter Cummings and Noel S. Weiss
    Pages: ix, 178 p. : ill.
    Edition: 3rd ed.
    ISBN: 9780195305234
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  • 2
    Unknown
    New York : Oxford University Press
    Call number: 09-MED:176(2)
    Keywords: Epidemiologie / Arbeitsmethodik ; Clinical epidemiology ; Biometry ; Epidemiologic Methods ; Epidemiology
    Pages: vii, 163 p.
    Edition: 2nd. ed.
    ISBN: 0195037189
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    09-MED:176(2) departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 3
    Call number: G260:4
    Keywords: Epidemiologic Methods
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction : an epidemic of blindness in young children -- Diseases and populations -- Disease frequency : basic -- Disease frequency : advanced -- Overview of study designs -- Sources of data on disease occurrence -- Person, place, and time -- Inferring a causal relation between exposure and disease -- Measures of excess risk -- Measurement error -- Confounding and its control : basic -- Confounding and its control : advanced -- Randomized trials -- Cohort studies -- Case-control studies -- Ecologic and multi-level studies -- Induction periods and latent periods -- Improving the sensitivity of epidemiologic studies -- Screening -- Outbreak investigation -- Evaluating the effects of policies on health
    Notes: Author's names reversed on the first edition.
    Pages: viii, 472 pages : illustrations.
    Edition: 2nd edition.
    ISBN: 9780195314465
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    G260:4 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cancer causes & control 3 (1992), S. 95-99 
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Colorectal neoplasms ; incidence ; sunlight ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been suggested that sunlight might have a role in the prevention of colorectal cancer via a mechanism involving vitamin D. We used data from nine population-based cancer registries in the United States to analyze incidence rates for colon and rectal cancer during 1973–84 as a function of regional variation in the levels of available solar radiation. Data were restricted to include only those persons born and diagnosed in the same state. Incidence rates of colon and rectal cancer among men tended to increase with decreasing levels of solar radiation. Compared to rates in New Mexico and Utah, for example, rates in the Detroit area (MI), Connecticut, and western Washington were 50 percent to 80 percent higher. Among women, colon cancer rates showed a similar trend, though of smaller magnitude; rates of rectal cancer among women did not vary in relation to levels of available solar radiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Genital skin cancer ; ultraviolet radiation ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In men, genital exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been hypothesized to increase the risk of nonmelanotic skin tumors at that site. However, during the period 1973–86, no change in the incidence of penile or scrotal skin tumors occurred in the United States, despite a likely increase in the population's level of genital exposure to UVR through the use of sunlamps and sunbeds. While UVR in conjunction with use of 8-methoxypsoralen by men with psoriasis is clearly related to an increase in the incidence of male genital skin tumors, our data provide no support for the hypothesis that, among men in general, UVR alone has this same effect.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Environmental exposure ; infection ; ionizing radiation ; multiple myeloma ; occupational diseases ; risk factors ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this population-based case-control study was to learn whether risk factors differ for the individual immunoglobulin types of multiple myeloma. In particular, we sought to determine whether IgA and IgG myeloma were related to a history of exposure to reported IgA- and IgG-stimulating conditions, respectively, or to a history of selected occupational and physicochemical exposures. The M-component immunoglobulin type was determined from immunoelectrophoresis as reported in medical records, and exposure status was obtained through in-person interviews. IgG (56 percent) and IgA (22 percent) M-components predominated. For 17 percent of cases, no peak was found on immunoelectrophoresis; they were presumed to have light-chain myeloma. Persons with these three types of myeloma did not differ with respect to distributions of age or race, but a somewhat higher proportion of light-chain cases were women (58 percent cf 45 percent of all other cases). Detailed analysis of the IgA and IgG subtypes provided little evidence that they differ with respect to prior immune stimulation or employment in several specific jobs. IgA myeloma, but not IgG myeloma, was associated modestly with a history of exposure to chest and dental X-rays. Our study provides little evidence that IgA and IgG myeloma differ with respect to the risk factors examined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer surveillance system ; cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia ; cutaneous melanoma ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stimulated by a recent report from a Norwegian pathology institute of an excess risk of melanoma among women with cervical neoplasia, we analyzed the relevant data from a population-based cancer registry serving western Washington State (United States). Among 11,693 women diagnosed with cervicalintra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) between 1974 and 1989 who were followed-up for at least a year, 14 cases of cutaneous melanoma were identified, in comparison with 13.7 cases expected (relative risk=1.0,95 percent confidence interval=0.5-1.7) based on the rates of melanoma among all women who resided in this area. While these results are at odds with those recently reported from the pathology institute, they are similar to those obtained in previous cancer-registry studies in several countries, which found little or no excess occurrence of melanoma following cervical cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Endometrial cancer ; estrogens ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: While there are a number of benefits to the health of postmenopausal women from use of unopposed estrogens, the increased risk of endometrial cancer related to these hormones has led many women to use combined estrogen-progestogen therapy instead, or not to use hormones at all. Most women who take hormones do so only in the early portion of their postmenopausal years, so the risk of endometrial cancer following cessation of use might bear heavily on the overal risk/benefit evaluation. We analyzed data from a case-control study of women in western Washington (United States) to assess the magnitude of excess risk of endometrial cancer following discontinuation of estrogen use. Cases (n=661) consisted of women aged 45 to 74 diagnosed between 1985 and 1991 who resided in one of three counties in Washington State. Controls (n=865) were identified by random-digit dialing. Subjects were interviewed in-person to ascertain current and prior hormone use. The analysis was restricted to women who had not received combined estrogen-progestin therapy. Among women who had used unopposed estrogens at some time, risk of endometrial cancer declined as time since last use increased. Nonetheless, even among women who used these hormones for just a few years, the risk remained elevated by 30 to 70 percent almost a decade after cessation. These results, combined with those of most (but not all) other studies of this issue, suggest that a woman who has discontinued unopposed estrogen therapy may retain a small increased risk of endometrial cancer for a long period of time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast neoplasms ; menopausal status ; second primary neoplasms ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To evaluate predictors of contralateral breast cancer risk, we examined data from a nested case-control study of second primary cancers among a cohort of women in western Washington (United States) diagnosed with breast cancer during 1978 through 1990 and identified through a population-based cancer registry. Cases included all women in the cohort who subsequently developed contralateral breast cancer at least six months after the initial diagnosis, but prior to 1992 (n=234). Controls were sampled randomly from the cohort, matched to cases on age, stage, and year of initial breast cancer diagnosis. Information on potential risk factors for second primary cancer was obtained through medical record abstractions and physician questionnaires. Women who were postmenopausal due to a bilateral oophorectomy (i.e., a surgical menopause) at initial breast cancer diagnosis had a reduction in contralateral breast cancer risk compared with premenopausal women (matched odds ratio [mOR]=0.25, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.09–0.68), whereas no reduction in risk was noted among postmenopausal women who had had a natural menopause (mOR=0.90, CI=0.39–2.09). Among postmenopausal women, there was a suggestion of a lower risk associated with relatively high parity (2+). A family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk (mOR=1.96, CI=1.22–5.15) and varied little by menopausal status. Having an initial tumor with a lobular component (c.f. a ductal histology) was not related strongly to risk (mOR=1.47, CI=0.79–2.74). The results of the present and earlier studies argue that we have limited ability to predict the occurrence of a contralateral breast tumor. Better predictors will be required before diagnostic and preventive interventions can be targeted to subgroups of patients with unilateral breast cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control studies ; diabetes mellitus ; insulin resistance ; ovarian neoplasms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Insulin resistance characterizes non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Insulin resistance may coexist in clinical syndromes with hyperestrogenism and hyperandrogenism, suggesting that the ovary may be sensitive to effects of insulin. In addition, insulin-like growth factor-I receptors, which are capable of binding insulin, have been identified in ovarian cancer tissue and are proposed to regulate cell growth. We evaluated the association between a history of diabetes mellitus and ovarian cancer in a case-control study in seven counties in Washington and in Utah (United States) during the years 1975–87. Cases included women newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer over a five-year period who were identified through population-based cancer reporting. Controls similar to cases with regard to age and county of residence were identified via household surveys or random digit dialing. The study included 595 cases and 1,587 controls. Twenty-seven cases (4.5 percent) and 72 controls (4.5 percent) reported a history of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis of the association between diabetes and ovarian cancer controlling for age, body mass index, and race resulted in an odds ratio (OR) of 0.9 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.6–1.5). The OR was not changed with further controlling for prior oral contraceptive use or prior pregnancy. None of the 20 women with nonepithelial tumors (15 of which were stromal tumors) had a history of diabetes (upper CI=4.0). These results, together with findings of two earlier cohort studies, do not support the hypothesis that diabetes is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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