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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Cell Culture ; Biomedicine ; Molecular Medicine ; Cell Culture ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preparation of ‘Functional’ Mitochondria: A Challenging Business -- Isolation and Quality Control of Functional Mitochondria -- Isolation of Mitochondria-Associated ER Membranes (MAMs) and Glycosphingolipid Enriched Microdomains (GEMs) from Brain Tissues and Neuronal Cells -- Fluorescence Analysis of Single Mitochondria with Nanofluidic Channels -- Optical Microwell Arrays for Large Scale Studies of Single Mitochondria Metabolic Responses -- Deep Resequencing of Mitochondrial DNA -- Single Cell Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA -- A High-Throughput Next-Generation Sequencing Assay for the Mitochondrial Genome -- Rapid Mitochondrial DNA Isolation Method for Direct Sequencing -- Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA and RNA Integrity by a Real-Time qPCR Based Method -- Mitochondria-Targeted RNA Import -- Accurate Measurement of Circulating Mitochondrial DNA Content from Human Blood Samples Using Real Time Quantitative PCR -- mTRIP: An Imaging Tool to Investigate Mitochondrial DNA Dynamics in Physiology and Disease at the Single-Cell Resolution -- Simultaneous Quantification of Mitochondrial ATP and ROS Production -- Live-Cell Assessment of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Using Dihydroethidine -- Detection and Differentiation Between Peroxynitrite and Hydroperoxides Using Mitochondria-Targeted Arylboronic Acid -- Time-Resolved Spectrometry of Mitochondrial NAD(P)H Fluorescence and Its Applications for Evaluating the Oxidative State in Living Cells -- Novel Methods for Measuring the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential -- High-Throughput Real-Time Analysis of Cell Oxygenation Using Intracellular Oxygen-Sensitive Probes -- In Vivo Assessment of Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption -- Imaging Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Cells -- Simultaneous High-Resolution Measurement of Mitochondrial Respiration and Hydrogen Peroxide Production -- Measurement of Mitochondrial NADH and FAD Autofluorescence in Live Cells -- Mitochondrial Coenzyme Q10 Determination Via Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry -- Assessing the Bioenergetic Profile of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells -- Integrative Methods for Studying Cardiac Energetics -- Computer-Based Prediction of Mitochondria-Targeting Peptides -- Prediction of Mitochondrial Protein Function by Comparative Physiology and Phylogenetic Profiling -- Assessment of Posttranslational Modification of Mitochondrial Proteins -- Assessment of Mitochondrial Protein Glutathionylation as Signaling for CO Pathway -- High-Resolution Melting Analysis for Identifying Sequence Variations in Nuclear Genes for Assembly Factors and Structural Subunits of Cytochrome C Oxidase -- Heterologous Inferential Analysis (HIA) as a Method to Understand the Role of Mitochondrial rRNA Mutations in Pathogenesis -- Analysis of Mitochondrial Dysfunction During Cell Death -- The Use of FLIM-FRET for the Detection of Mitochondria-Associated Protein Interactions -- Assessment of Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uptake -- Qualitative Characterization of the Rat Liver Mitochondrial Lipidome Using All Ion Fragmentation on an Exactive Benchtop Orbitrap MS -- Characterization of Mitochondrial Populations During Stem Cell Differentiation -- An Ex Vivo Model for Studying Mitochondrial Trafficking in Neurons
    Abstract: This expert volume covers an interdisciplinary and rapidly growing area of biomedical research comprising genetic, biochemical, pathological, and clinical studies aimed at the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases which are either caused by or associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. It dedicates itself to showcasing the tremendous efforts and the progress that has been made over the last decades in developing techniques and protocols for probing, imaging, and manipulating mitochondrial functions. Mitochondrial Medicine: Methods and Protocols, Volume I: Probing Mitochondrial Function focuses on methods being used for the assessment of mitochondrial function under physiological conditions as well as in healthy isolated mitochondria. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and practical, Mitochondrial Medicine: Methods and Protocols provides an essential source of know-how and inspiration to all researchers who are fascinated by this tiny organelle that seems so clearly to control the life and death of a single cell and whole organisms alike
    Pages: XXV, 480 p. 108 illus., 66 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493922574
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Nanotechnology ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Nanotechnology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1 Overview of present problems facing commercialization of nanomedicines, Aleš Prokop and Volkmar Weissig -- 2 Precision medicine and site-specific drug delivery, Karel Petrák -- 3 Extracellular matrix degrading enzymes for nanocarrier-based anticancer therapy, Pablo Scodeller -- 4 Nanocarrier-based anticancer therapies with the focus on strategies for targeting the tumor microenvironment, Francisca Leonard and Biana Godin -- 5 New approach to minimize the MPS/RES uptake resulting a reduce toxic side effects of nanodrugs, Li Liu and Chien Ho -- 6 Authentic vascular and stromal structure in animal disease model for nanomedicine, Hiroshi Nishihara and Mitsunobu R Kano -- 7 Ligand-targeted nanocarriers with respect to their translation into the clinic, in particular in comparison with non-targeted nano-medicines, Roy Van der Meel, Laurens J.C. Vehmeijer, Robbert Jan Kok, Gert Storm, Ethlinn V.B. van Gaaland Gert Storm -- 8 Anti-angiogenic therapy by targeting the tumor vasculature with liposomes, Yu Sakurai and Hideyoshi Harashima -- 9 Accessing mitochondrial targets using nanocargos, Ru Wen, Afoma C. Umeano and Shanta Dhar -- 10 Redox-responsive nano-delivery systems for cancer therapy, Amit Singh, Thanh-Huyen Tran and Mansoor M. Amiji -- 11 Nano-emulsions for drug delivery and biomedical imaging, Nicolas Anton, François Hallouard, Mohammed F. Attia and Thierry F. Vandamme -- 12 The tumor microenvironment in nanoparticle delivery and the role of Imaging to navigate roadblocks and pathways, Dmitri Artemov and Zaver M Bhujwalla -- 13 Microscopic mass spectrometry for the precise design of drug delivery systems, Yasuhiro Matsumura and Masahiro Yasunaga -- 14 Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nano-drug delivery systems, David Stepensky -- 15 Intracellular drug delivery in PBPK modelling though active and passive transport processes, Lars Kuepfer, Christoph Niederalt, Thomas Wendl, Jan-Frederil Schlender, Michael Block, Thomas Eissing, Donato Teutonic -- 16 Exploiting nanocarriers for combination cancer therapy, Yi Wen Kong, Erik C. Dreaden, Paula T. Hammond and Michael B. Yaffe -- 17 Commercialization of nanotechnology for medical applications, David W. Hobson -- Index
    Abstract: A critical review is attempted to assess the status of nanomedicine entry onto the market. The emergence of new potential therapeutic entities such as DNA and RNA fragments requires that these new “drugs” will need to be delivered in a cell-and organelle-specific manner. Although efforts have been made over the last 50 years or so to develop such delivery technology, no effective and above all clinically approved protocol for cell-specific drug delivery in humans exists as yet. Various particles, macromolecules, liposomes and most recently “nanomaterials” have been said to “show promise” but none of these promises have so far been “reduced” to human clinical practice. The focus of this volume is on cancer indication since the majority of published research relates to this application; within that, we focus on solid tumors (solid malignancies). Our aim is critically to evaluate whether nanomaterials, both non-targeted and targeted to specific cells, could be of therapeutic benefit in clinical practice. The emphasis of this volume will be on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in animal and human studies. Apart from the case of exquisitely specific antibody-based drugs, the development of target-specific drug–carrier delivery systems has not yet been broadly successful at the clinical level. It can be argued that drugs generated using the conventional means of drug development (i.e., relying on facile biodistribution and activity after (preferably) oral administration) are not suitable for a target-specific delivery and would not benefit from such delivery even when a seemingly perfect delivery system is available. Therefore, successful development of site-selective drug delivery systems will need to include not only the development of suitable carriers, but also the development of drug entities that meet the required PK/PD profile
    Pages: XIII, 453 p. 81 illus., 65 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319435251
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  • 3
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biotechnology ; Nanotechnology ; Chemistry ; Biotechnology ; Nanotechnology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Nanoparticle-GFP “Chemical Nose” Sensor for Cancer Cells Identification -- A Method to Map Spatiotemporal pH Changes in a Multicellular Living Organism using a DNA Nanosensor -- A Simple Method to Visualize and Assess the Integrity of Lysosomal Membrane in Mammalian Cells using a Fluorescent Dye -- Gold Nanoparticle as a Marker for Precise Localization of Nano-objects within Intracellular Sub-Domains -- Immunoisolation of Nanoparticles Containing Endocytic Vesicles for Drug Quantitation -- Methods for Isolation and Identification of Nanoparticle-Containing Subcellular Compartments -- Permeabilization of Cell Membrane for Delivery of Nano-objects to Cellular Sub-domains -- A Method to Encapsulate Molecular Cargo within DNA Icosahedra -- Delivery of Plasmid DNA to Mammalian Cells using Polymer-Gold Nanorod Assemblies -- Lipophilic Formulated Gold Porphyrin Nanoparticles for Chemotherapy -- Mitochondria-specific Nano-Emulsified Therapy for Myocardial Protection against Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity -- Formation of Pit-Spanning Phospholipid Bilayers on Nanostructured Silicon Dioxide Surfaces for Studying Biological Membrane Events -- Characterization of Nanoparticle – Lipid Membrane Interactions using QCM-D -- Single-Cell Nanosurgery -- Single Quantum Dot Imaging in Living Cells -- Fabrication of Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles with Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogens for Cell Imaging -- Monitoring the Degradation of Reduction Sensitive Gene Carriers with Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Flow Cytometry -- Quantification of Intracellular Mitochondrial Displacements in Response to Nanomechanical Forces -- Imaging Select Mammalian Organelles Using Fluorescent Microscopy: Application to Drug Delivery -- Real-Time Particle Tracking for Studying Intracellular Trafficking of Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers -- Interactions of Nanoparticles with Proteins -Determination of Equilibrium Constants -- Tracing the Endocytic Pathways and Trafficking Kinetics of Cell Signaling Receptors using Single QD Nanoparticles -- Cellular Internalization of Quantum Dots -- Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy for Single Molecule Investigation -- Intracellular Delivery of Biologically Active Proteins with Peptide-based Carriers -- Lipo-oligoarginine-based Intracellular Delivery -- Fluorescent Spherical Monodisperse Silica Core-shell Nanoparticles with a Protein-binding Biofunctional Shell -- Direct Quantification of PTD Transduction Using Real-Time Monitoring -- Genotoxic Assessment of Carbon Nanotubes -- Separation Science: Principles and Applications for the Analysis of Bionanoparticles by Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) -- Polymersomes-mediated Delivery of Fluorescent Probes for Targeted and Long Term Imaging in Live Cell Microscopy -- Protocol for the Preparation of Stimuli-responsive Gold Nanoparticles Capped with Elastin-based Pentapeptides
    Abstract: In Cellular and Subcellular Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols expert researchers in the field detail the most recent advances which have been made in utilizing the enormous potential of nanotechnology for probing, imaging and manipulating life on a cellular and subcellular level. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biologý„Ø series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. ℗ Authoritative and Practical, Cellular and Subcellular Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in the further study of applying nanotechnology to all areas of biomedical sciences
    Pages: XVI, 370 p. 90 illus., 52 illus. in color. : digital.
    ISBN: 9781627033367
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  • 4
    Keywords: Pharmaceutical technology ; Nanotechnology ; Pharmaceutical Sciences/Technology ; Nanotechnology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Nanovesicles for Nanomedicine: Theory and Practices -- Preparation and Characterization of Micelles -- Anionic and Cationic Vitamin E-TPGS Mixed Polymeric Phospholipid Micellar Vehicles -- Phospholipid Micelles for Peptide Drug Delivery -- Design, Preparation, and Characterization of Peptide-Based Nanocarrier for Gene Delivery -- Gelatin Nanoparticles -- Green Synthesis of Chitosan-Silver/Gold Hybrid Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications -- Methods of Fabrication of Chitosan-Based Nano-in-Microparticles (NMPs) -- Fabrication of Mucoadhesive-Dendrimers as Solid Dosage Forms -- In Situ Vaccination of Tumors Using Plant Viral Nanoparticles -- Bioconjugation in Drug Delivery: Practical Perspectives and Future Perceptions -- Conjugation of Triphenylphosphonium Cation to Hydrophobic Moieties to Prepare Mitochondria-Targeting Nanocarriers -- Surface Modification of Biomedically Essential Nanoparticles Employing Polymer Coating -- Peptide-Modified Gemini Surfactants: Preparation and Characterization for Gene Delivery -- Preparation of Responsive Carbon Dots for Anticancer Drug Delivery -- Surface Modification of Nanoparticles and Nanovesicles via Click Chemistry -- Polymersomes: Preparation and Characterization -- Partially Polymerized Phospholipid Vesicles for Efficient Delivery of Macromolecules -- Fabrication of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC)-Based Gels from Microemulsion Template for Delivery through Skin -- Preparation and Characterization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles-Based Gel for Topical Delivery -- Molecular-Level €œÓbservationś€ of the Behavior of Gold Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution and Interacting with a Lipid Bilayer Membrane -- Atomic Force Microscopy for Cell Membrane Investigation -- Physico-Chemical Characterization of Phthalocyanine-Functionalized Quantum Dots by Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled to a LED Fluorescence Detector -- In Vitro Testing of Anticancer Nanotherapeutics Using Tumor Spheroids
    Abstract: This volume details protocols on formulation, surface modification, characterization, and application of a variety of pharmaceutical nanocarriers such as micelles, nanoparticles, dendrimers, carbon dots, polymersomes, and others. Chapters are targeted toward investigators working in academic and industrial laboratories conducting research in the broad field of pharmaceutical sciences, with an emphasis on drug delivery. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Basic Protocols aims to be a source of inspiration to all investigators who are interested in the potential of the merger of nanotechnology with pharmaceutical sciences
    Pages: XII, 398 p. 131 illus., 98 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493995165
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  • 5
    Keywords: Medicine ; Medical laboratories ; Toxicology ; Biomedicine ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Laboratory Medicine ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: DQAsomes as the Prototype of Mitochondria-targeted Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers: Preparation, Characterization, and Use -- Predicting Mitochondrial Targeting by Small Molecule Xenobiotics Within Living Cells Using QSAR Models -- Targeting Mitochondria with Small Molecules: The Preparation of MitoB and MitoP as Exomarkers of Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide -- Synthesis of Triphenylphosphonium Phospholipid Conjugates for the Preparation of Mitochondriotropic Liposomes -- Synthesis and Evaluation of 18F-Labeled Fluoroalkyl Triphenylphosphonium Salts as Mitochondrial Voltage Sensors in PET Myocardial Imaging -- Bridging the Gap Between Nature and Antioxidant Setbacks: Delivering Caffeic Acid to Mitochondria -- Mitochondriotropic Nano-Emulsified Genistein-Loaded Vehicles for Cancer Therapy -- Formulation and Optimization of Mitochondria-Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles -- Ex Vivo Generation of Functional Immune Cells by Mitochondria-Targeted Photosensitization of Cancer Cells -- Targeting the Mitochondrial Genome Via a Dual Function MITO-Porter: Evaluation of mtDNA-Levels and Mitochondrial Function -- Mitochondrial, Acidic, and Cytosolic pHs Determination by 31P NMR Spectroscopy: Design of New Sensitive Targeted pH Probes -- Methodology for Use of Mitochondria-Targeted Cations in the Field of Oxidative Stress-Related Research -- Synthesis and Testing of Novel Isomeric Mitochondriotropic Derivatives of Resveratrol and Quercetin -- Evaluation of Respiration of Mitochondria in Cancer Cells Exposed to Mitochondria-Targeted Agents -- The Effect of Mitochondrially Targeted Anti-Cancer Agents on Mitochondrial (Super)Complexes -- Mitochondrial Targeting of Recombinant RNA -- Mitochondrial Targeting of Catalytic RNAs -- Allotopic Expression of ATP6 in the Mouse as a Transgenic Model of Mitochondrial Disease -- Analysis of Pollutant-Induced Changes in Mitochondrial DNA Methylation -- ETS and DEAS Studies of the Reduction of Xenobiotics in Mitochondrial Intermembrane Space -- Analysis of Mitochondrial Morphology and Function Under Conditions of Mitofusin 2 Deficiency -- Yeast as a Tool to Study Mitochondrial Retrograde Pathway En Route to Cell Stress Response -- Cell Energy Budget Platform for Assessment of Cell Metabolism -- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) for Modeling Mitochondrial DNA Disorders -- Cytoplasmic Transfer Methods for Studying the Segregation of Mitochondrial DNA in Mice -- In Vivo Visualization and Quantification of Mitochondrial Morphology in C. elegans -- Mitochondrial DNA as a Biosensor of UV Exposure in Human Skin -- Assessment of Short- and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Mitochondrial Function in Severe Inflammation -- Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Shape Analysis of Heart Mitochondria -- Enzymatic Assays for Probing Mitochondrial Apoptosis -- A Cybrid Cell Model for the Assessment of the Link Between Mitochondrial Deficits and Sporadic Parkinson’s Disease -- Analysis of Mitochondrial Network by Imaging: Proof of Technique in Schizophrenia
    Abstract: This expert volume covers an interdisciplinary and rapidly growing area of biomedical research comprising genetic, biochemical, pathological, and clinical studies aimed at the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases which are either caused by or associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. It dedicates itself to showcasing the tremendous efforts and the progress that has been made over the last decades in developing techniques and protocols for probing, imaging, and manipulating mitochondrial functions. Mitochondrial Medicine: Methods and Protocols, Volume II: Manipulating Mitochondrial Function describes techniques developed for manipulating and assessing mitochondrial function under general pathological conditions and specific disease states. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and practical, Mitochondrial Medicine: Methods and Protocols provides an essential source of know-how and inspiration to all researchers who are fascinated by this tiny organelle that seems so clearly to control the life and death of a single cell and whole organisms alike
    Pages: XXIII, 447 p. 124 illus., 65 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493922888
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: tumor targeting ; protein delivery ; drug carriers ; micelles ; long-circulating liposomes ; Lewis lung carcinoma ; tumor targeting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. The purpose of our work was to compare the biodistribution and tumor accumulation of a liposome- or micelle-incorporated protein in mice bearing subcutaneously-established Lewis lung carcinoma. Methods. A model protein, soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) was modified with a hydrophobic residue of N-glutaryl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (NGPE) and incorporated into both polyethyleneglycol(MW 5000)-distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) micelles (〈 20 nm) and PEG-DSPE-modified long-circulating liposomes (ca. 100 nm). The protein was labeled with 111In via protein-attached diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and samples of STI-containing liposomes or micelles were injected via the tail vein into mice bearing subcutaneously-established Lewis lung carcinoma. At appropriate time points, mice were sacrified and the radioactivity accumulated in the tumor and main organs was determined. Results. STI incorporated into PEG-lipid micelles accumulates in sub-cutaneously established Lewis lung carcinoma in mice better than the same protein anchored in long-circulating PEG-liposomes. Conclusions. Small-sized long-circulating delivery systems, such as PEG-lipid micelles, are more efficient in the delivery of protein to Lewis lung carcinoma than larger long-circulating liposomes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: dequalinium ; liposome ; bolaform drug ; non-viral transfection vector ; gene therapy ; drug delivery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. Dequalinium, a drug known for over 30 years, is a dicationic amphiphile compound resembling bolaform electrolytes. The purpose of our work was to determine the state of aggregation of dequalinium in aqueous medium and to investigate both, its ability to bind DNA and its potential to serve as a novel non-viral transfection vector. Methods. The form of aggregation was determined employing electron microscopic techniques. The DNA binding capacity of dequalinium was assayed using SYBR™ Green I stain. For in vitro cell transfection experiments plasmid DNA encoding for firefly luciferase was used. Results. Dequalinium forms in aqueous medium liposome-like aggregates, which we term DQAsomes. These dequalinium vesicles bind DNA and they are able to transfect cells in vitro with an efficiency comparable to Lipofectin™. Conclusions. Based on the intrinsic properties of dequalinium such as the in vivo selectivity for carcinoma cells and selective accumulation in mitochondria we propose DQAsomes as a novel and unique drug and gene delivery system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: drug targeting ; viral surface glycoproteins ; glycoproteins ; HIV-1 gp160 ; gene delivery ; ricin-a ; artificial viral envelopes ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The goal of this study was to exploit molecular recognition of cell surface receptors by viral surface glycoproteins as a means for the selective intracellular delivery of macromolecules. To accomplish this, artificial viral envelopes (AVE) resembling the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) were designed as a model system. Recombinant HIV-1 surface glycoprotein gp160 (HIV-1 rgp 160) was inserted in the artificial envelope by a two-step detergent dialysis process. The artificial HIV-1 envelope recognized the CD4 cell surface receptor. FITC-dextran and ricin A were employed as model macromolecules as they cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes. Selective transfer of FITC-dextran encapsulated in HIV-1 rgp160 AVE into a CD4-positive cell line (REX-1B) versus a CD4-negative cell line (KG-1) was demonstrated. Ricin A at concentrations as low as 2 ng/ml arrested cell growth of CD4-positive MOLT-4 cells, whereas 8ng/ml ricin A in solution had no effect on cell growth. The arrest of cell growth was reverted in the presence of excess anti-gp120 monoclonal antibody. Naked enveloped (without HIV-1 rgp 160 inserted) were alsofound to interact with cells and transfer material, although less efficiently and in a non-specific manner. Viral mimicry using AVE may be a means for targeted intracellular delivery of peptides, proteins, enzymes, toxins, oligodeoxynucleotides, gene constructs, and other non-diffusive, labile or toxic macromolecules.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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