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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 30 (1969), S. 614-615 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 29 (1969), S. 170-171 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Blood lead levels ; Amount of lead in the placenta ; Mothers ; Newborns ; Environment ; Blutbleispiegel ; Bleigehalt der Placenta ; Mütter ; Neugeborene ; Umwelt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Der Bleigehalt von menschlichen Placentagewebe und der Blutbleispiegel von Neugeborenen und ihren Müttern von vier Kollektiven unterschiedlicher Lebensräume der Bundesrepublik Deutschland wurden atomabsorptionsspektrophotometrisch bestimmt. Während für die Blutbleikonzentrationen z.T. deutliche regionale Unterschiede ermittelt werden konnten, waren diese für den Placenta-Bleispiegel nicht nachweisbar. Keine Korrelationen bestanden auch zwischen den mütterlichen Blutbleispiegeln und dem Bleigehalt der Placenten; dagegen sind die mütterlichen und kindlichen Blutbleikonzentrationen durch einen mittleren Faktor von 1,4 miteinander verknüpft. Der Bleigehalt der menschlichen Placenta liegt für die von uns untersuchten Kollektive ungefähr in der Größenordnung des erythrozytenbezogenen Blutbleispiegels. Er stellt sich ungefahr konzentrationsabhängig von der Blutbleikonzentration ein. Eine Depotfunktion für Blei scheint der Placenta nicht zuzukommen. Zwischen mütterlichem und kindlichem Organismus stellt sich wahrscheinlich lediglich eine Diffusionsbarriere für Blei tar. Für eine Gefährdung der Frucht durch Blei ergab sich in den von uns untersuchten Expositionsbereichen kein Anhalt.
    Notes: Summary The amount of lead in the tissue of human placenta and the blood-lead level of newborns and their mothers (mothers and newborn are divided into 4 collectives, each from a different environment in the FRG) was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. While there was evidence for a sometimes striking regional dependence of the blood-lead level it was not possible to find any for the amount of lead in the placenta. No correlations existed between the amount of lead in the placenta and that in the blood of the mother, the blood-lead level of mother and child, however, correlated by an average factor of 1.4. The examination of our 4 collectives shows that the amount of lead in the human placenta runs approximately up to the amount of the lead level in erythrocytes. Its concentration almost correlates with the blood-lead level. The placenta doesn't seem to have a deposit function for lead. It obviously has the function of a diffusion barrier between the organism of the mother and that of the child. In all the examined exposure range was not due to a danger caused by lead for the fetus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Soluble barium ; Welding fumes ; Cast welding ; Self-shielded flux cored wires ; Personal air sampling ; Biological monitoring ; Electrolytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Soluble barium (Ba) compounds are well-known toxicants. Intoxications are mainly known in an acute form from casual or suicidal oral ingestion. No scientifically based data are available on possible health effects of inhalative exposure to soluble Ba salts at the workplace. Therefore, we investigated 18 welders in an interventional study over 1 week. They performed welding of Ba-containing stick electrodes and self-shielded flux cored wires under conditions similar to real working conditions. The welding fumes contained 31%–37% Ba, more than 90% of which was soluble in acids. Without appropriate preventive measures, a high rate of measurements exceeded the TLV values for total welding fumes of 5 mg/m3 and for soluble Ba of 0.5 mg/m3. The median fume concentrations were 13.2 mg/m3 in stick electrode welding and 12.3 mg/m3 in flux cored wire welding. The median Ba concentrations were 4.4 and 2.0 mg/m3 respectively. An integrated exhaust system built into the gun proved to be efficient in flux cored wire welding. The internal exposure to Ba reached median urine levels up to 101.7 μg/l (normal: below 20 μg/l) and median plasma concentrations of up to 24.7 μg/l (normal: below 8 μg/l). No health impact on the welders could be proven, but hypokalemia may have occurred as a result of the Ba exposure.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Neurotoxicity ; Organic solvents ; Spray painters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A multidisciplinary cross-sectional study was carried out in 105 spray painters with long-term solvent exposure (10–44 years) and in 58 control subjects not exposed to solvents. By means of air monitoring the solvent concentrations in the ambient air during spray painting were determined using charcoal and silicagel tubes with pumps and passive samplers. In general, the air concentrations of the individual compounds did not exceed the current limit values (MAK values). Aromatic hydrocarbons like toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, trimethylbenzene, aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., heptane) and acetates (ethylacetate, butylacetate) were determined to be important components of paint solvents. However, in unfavorable work conditions the “exposure index” could exceed the permissible limits two or three times. To assess the body solvent load at the time of examination, biological monitoring (BM) was performed. The main finding was that there was no evidence of neuro-toxicologically relevant solvent exposure. Only in the case of methyl hippuric acid in urine spot samples did the spray painters show a higher mean value (80 mg/l) than control subjects (below 20 mg/l), indicating recent xylene exposure. Elevated urinary chromium concentrations (maximum value 29 μg/l) were found in 28 spray painters as a result of using zinc chromate-containing wash primers without taking protective measures. To assess the degree of past solvent exposure a special questionnaire was used. This included variables like duration and amount of solvent exposure, the presence of a technical ventilation system, health complaints during painting, etc. Additionally, three “solvent exposure indices” (SEI) were calculated and used for evaluation of “dose-effect relationships.” In summary, the responses to the questionnaire did not show a characteristic pattern of symptoms. The frequency of symptoms is more likely to be determined by age than by chronic solvent exposure. Health complaints like increased tiredness, deterioration in short-term memory, and headache were equally frequent in spray painters and controls. In correlation analyses no hints of a dose-response relationship could be found.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The determination of mercury concentrations in blood and urine is currently the best way of monitoring individual uptake of organic and inorganic mercury. In Germany these determinations must be carried out under the conditions of an external quality assurance programme. The German performance evaluation, based on reference values established by reference laboratories yields success rates in percent for the participants in the intercomparison programme of about 60%. A Canadian evaluation system based on two evaluations scores, yields success rates of 25–50% for “good performance” and of 65–80% for “acceptable performance”. The determination of mercury in blood and urine is at present not carried out with the necessary reliability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The investigations ofγγ-triple correlations following (pp′)-reactions are used to determine the spins of the second and third excited level in Fe56 and theE2/M1 mixing ratio of the transition from the third to the first excited level. The population numbers of the substates are also determined. AtE p =4.9 MeV the correlation associated with the second level was measured. AtE p =5.5 MeV the correlations associated with the second and third level and the angular distributions of the photons were investigated. The spin series of 0ü, 2ü, 4ü, 2ü and a mixing ratio ofδ=0.20 was obtained. The results of the angular distributions and the correlations are compared. They agree well with experimental results of other authors, obtained by various methods of measurement, and with theoretical predictions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The low-lying levels of54Fe were studied. The method ofγ γ-triple-correlations was used. Angular distributions were also measured. The levels at 2.5 MeV were found to be a doublett, withI=0(+) for the 2563 keV-level andI=4(+ or 2(+) for the lower level at 2539 keV. The experimental level scheme is compared with calculations according to nuclear models.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Due to the technical rule for dangerous agents (TRgA 410) “statistical quality control” from the German Society of Occupational Medicine three intercomparison programmes on toxicological analysis in blood and urine were organized. In 1982 35 laboratories participated in the analysis of twelve parameters in two urine samples. The round-robin 1983 considered blood analysis (3 metals) as well as determinations in urine samples (15 components) by 51 laboratories. In the third intercomparison programme in 1985 determinations of 4 metals in blood samples as well as 10 inorganic and 8 organic substances in urine specimens were carried out (75 laboratories). Two samples with two concentration adjustments were used. A successful participation was certified, if both results of one parameter are in the tolerance range (assigned value±3s). For the round robin 1982 the percental rate of accurate results was 42%, in 1983 64%. In 1985 62% of the results were located within the 3s-range.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Physical Strain and Stress ; Long-distance March ; Catecholamines ; Glucocorticoids ; Cyclic Nucleotides ; Physische Belastung und Beanspruchung ; Langstreckenmarsch ; Catecholamine ; Glucocorticoide ; cylische Nukleotide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Beanspruchung in Arbeit und Beruf und ihre Auswirkungen auf biochemische Größen stehen seit Jahren zur Diskussion. In vorliegender Studie sollte das Verhalten verschiedener biochemischer Parameter bei physischer Belastung geprüft werden. Wir untersuchten Blut- und Urinproben von 31 Offiziers-anwärten der Bundeswehr vor und unmittelbar im Anschluß an einen Langstrecken marsch von 25 km. Analysiert wurden das Laktat im Vollblut, Noradrenalin, Cortisol und die cyclischen Nukleotide c-AMP und c-GMP im Plasma sowie Adrenalin, Noradrenalin, Vanillinmandelsäure und die 17-Hydroxycorticosteroide im Urin. Signifikante Erhöhungen ergaben sich für die Konzentrationen der Catecholamine und der cyclischen Nukleotide nach der physischen Belastung. Keine signifikanten Abweichungen waren für die Substanzen des Glucocorticoid-Stoffwechsels festzustellen. Die einzelnen Parameter werden hinsichtlich ihrer Relevanz für die Objektivierung physischer Beanspruchung diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary The study presented was performed to evaluate the behaviour of some stress-related biochemical parameters induced by physical stress. We investigated urine and blood samples of 32 graduating officers of the German Bundeswehr before and after a long-distance march over 25 km. The concentrations of lactate in blood, noradrenaline, cortisol and the cyclic nucleotides c-AMP and c-GMP in plasma and adrenaline, noradrenaline, vanillic mandelic acid and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in urine were determined. Significant elevations were detectable for the concentrations of catecholamines and cyclic nucleotides after the physical work-load. No significant differences were observed for the substances of the glucocorticoid metabolism. The single parameters are discussed in respect to their significance for the objectification of physical strain.
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