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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; MODELS ; THERAPY ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; ACCUMULATION ; MICE ; TIME ; PATIENT ; LIGAND ; IFN-GAMMA ; prognosis ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; NUMBER ; LIGANDS ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; STRATEGIES ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; REJECTION ; CANCER PATIENTS ; chemokine ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; CAPACITY ; THERAPIES ; TUMOR TISSUE ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; LEVEL ; USA ; survival time ; cancer research ; ANTITUMOR RESPONSES ; NATURAL-KILLER-CELL ; ECTOPIC EXPRESSION ; natural killer ; NK-CELLS ; CHEMOKINE FAMILY
    Abstract: Several studies have correlated high numbers of tumor-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells with a good prognosis for cancer patients. Our study aimed at identifying factors controlling intratumoral NK cell accumulation in s.c. injected NK cell sensitive tumor models and at studying their effect on survival time of recipient mice. We observed that fewer NK cells infiltrated the tumors in IFN-gamma receptor knockout (IFN-gamma R-/-) mice compared with wild-type controls that correlated with decreased survival rate. Exogenous application of lFN-gamma in the tumor augmented levels of ligands of the chemokine receptor CXCR3, increased NK cell accumulation, and prolonged survival. Furthermore, our data show that CD27(high) NK cells, which under steady-state conditions express CXCR3, preferentially accumulated in the tumor tissue. Accordingly, significantly lower numbers of tumor-infiltrating NK cells were detected in CXCR3(-/-) mice, and the capacity of adoptively transferred CXCR3(-/-) NK cells to accumulate in the tumor was severely impaired. Finally, exogenous application of the CXCR3 ligand CXCL10 in the tumor or ectopic expression of CXCL10 by tumor cells increased the numbers of NK cells in the tumors and prolonged NK cell-dependent survival. Our results identify IFN-gamma and the expression of CXCR3 on NK cells as prerequisites for NK cell infiltration into tumors. Exploiting strategies to augment NK cell accumulation in the tumor might lead to the development of effective antitumor therapies. [Cancer Res 2008;68(20):8437-45]
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18922917
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  • 2
    Abstract: Strategies of manipulating immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg) in cancer patients are currently evaluated in clinical trials. Treg suppress immune responses of tumor-specific T cells; yet, relatively little is known about the impact of Treg on innate immune cells in tumor models in vivo. Many tumors lose expression of MHC class I. Therefore, our study aimed at defining strategies to strengthen immune responses against a high tumor burden of the MHC class I-deficient mouse lymphoma RMA-S. We demonstrate that Treg depletion in mice led to tumor rejection that was dependent on T cells, NK cells and IFN-gamma. In the absence of Treg elevated levels of IFN-gamma were produced by tumor-infiltrating T cells and NK cells. Tumor rejection observed in the absence of Treg correlated with a substantial IFN-gamma-dependent increase in the numbers of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. The most abundant cell population in the tumors was macrophages. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages from Treg-depleted mice expressed increased amounts of MHC class II, produced highly enhanced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited tumor cell proliferation. It was reported that tumor-infiltrating macrophages have multi-faceted functions promoting or counteracting tumor growth. In our study, high numbers of macrophages infiltrating RMA-S tumors in the absence of Treg correlated with tumor rejection suggesting that macrophages are additional targets for Treg-mediated immune suppression in cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20027632
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Hamiltonian of Quantum Chromodynamics is approximated by restricting the spatial dependencies of the quark-antiquark and gluon fields to a small number of modes (few-mode approximation). As a working hypothesis, we assume that the ground states of the dynamical sectors of the theory are automatically gauge invariant so that Gauss's law need not be strictly satisfied by a trial state. We derive and apply a method for explicit calculation of expectation values for wavefunctions in colour space depending on the twoSU (3) invariants acting as dynamical variables. An interacting ground state is constructed by a dynamical dressing transformation of the bare fermionic vacuum which may be regarded as a few-mode approximation to a quark-gluon (or mesonic) condensate. Based on this vacuum a nucleon state is formulated quite similar to the solition bag construction. Some of its effective properties are calculated by a variational calculation and comparison is made with experimental data as well as with other theoretical models of bag-type.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 322 (1985), S. 115-120 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 14.20.Dh ; 12.35.Eq ; 21.10.−K
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the scalar Soliton model of QCD the gluon field operators are replaced by a classical selfcoupling scalar field with solitontype interaction. The quark wave-functions and the soliton field are calculated for the free nucleon as compared to a nucleon inside nuclear matter approximated by averaged boundary conditions to simulate the surrounding nucleons. The mass of the nucleon as well as its mean effective radius are given in terms of the nuclear-matter density and the model parameters. For large quark-soliton coupling the EMC-effect is seen, and then at high densities a plasma of free quarks and free localized solitons is the lowest energy solution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1090-6487
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract It is detected experimentally for the first time that the connection of 2D electron systems with different electrochemical potentials results in long-range (τ 50 μm) electron density disturbances. When a gated region of a Corbino sample is strongly depleted, the amplitude of the magnetoresistance oscillations caused by high density ungated regions is found to increase in direct proportion to the sample resistance, which is dominated by low-density regions with small conductivity. Experiments on samples with an artificial potential profile (antidots and etched rings) below the gate show that the observed effects are not due to contact effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Mathematical Physics 26 (1985), S. 1570-1575 
    ISSN: 1089-7658
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Generalized integral moments are defined for a general class of saturating functions [ f(0)=ρ0, f(∞)=0]. They are useful as independent variables for describing surface properties or macroscopic dynamics of finite systems. Applied especially to functions of the Fermi type, analytic solutions are given in terms of a semiconverging, and of a numerically semiunstable expansion, respectively, suitable for numerical evaluation. Results are compared to the semidivergent expansion as given by A(ring)berg, of which some properties are exhibited here, and with the exact numerical solutions known for this special example.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We describe a novel technique using an atomic force microscope (AFM) for integrated nanometer-scale lithography on various mask materials such as photoresist or gold covering a mesa-etched GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure at ambient conditions. The generated patterns can be transferred to the two-dimensional electron gas by wet chemical etching or by ion beam irradiation. We succeed in fabricating hole arrays with a periodicity down to 35 nm and a hole diameter of only a few nanometers. In magnetoresistance studies on so-called antidot devices with 95 nm period at T=4.2 K we can clearly observe commensurability oscillations, demonstrating the successful pattern transfer to the electron system. With the AFM we can also pattern lines of varying width and depth into prefabricated devices. © 1994 American Institue of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: During rapid melting and resolidification of As-implanted Si(100) by pulsed laser irradiation a periodic lateral grating has been created on the Si surface. Structure and perfection of the grating is investigated by specular and diffuse x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and exit angles. Using synchrotron radiation we find sharp, off-specular diffraction rods perpendicular to the sample surface. Their lateral separation is given by the periodicity of the grating (522±1 nm), which is nearly the same as the light wavelength (530 nm) used in laser annealing the samples. Intensity measurements along the diffraction rods are used to determine the detailed structure of the surface grating by fitting the experimental results with model calculations. A sinusoidal shape is found with an average amplitude of 6±1 nm. This structure is confirmed by atomic force microscopy studies. The x-ray method presented will be a unique tool also applicable in the case of buried lateral nanostructures which are not accessible by surface-sensitive techniques, e.g., scanning probe methods. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Magnetotransport of high-mobility electrons in quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires in Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructures is studied. Arrays of shallow and deep etched wires with a period of 480 nm are defined by laser holography and patterned by reactive ion etching. Typical features of transport in narrow electron channels, such as oscillations due to the depopulation of quasi-one-dimensional subbands and an anomalous resistance maximum at low magnetic fields are observed. The narrowest channels have an effective width of ≈70 nm and a sublevel spacing of 1 meV. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 4 (1958), S. 249-256 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The rate of absorption of nitrogen peroxide into water at 25° and 40°C. has been found to be a linear function of the concentration of nitrogen tetroxide in the gas phase and directly proportional to the interfacial partial pressure of the same species.The rate of absorption is independent of gas velocity over a range of ReG from 170 to 350. The results plotted as absorption rate divided by interfacial partial pressure of nitrogen tetroxide show no effect of liquid rate or contact time between gas and liquid over a tenfold range of contact time from 0.03 to 0.3 sec. This indicates that the rate-controlling step during nitrogen dioxide absorption into water is the rate of hydrolysis of nitrogen tetroxide.The absorption rate decreases with increasing temperature from 25° to 40°C., owing to the shift of the equilibrium in the gas phase away from the reacting species nitrogen tetroxide toward nitrogen dioxide and owing to the the decreased solubility of nitrogen tetroxide in water. The effect of these factors on absorption more than offsets the effect of the increase in reaction rate and higher diffusivity on absorption at 40°C.The reaction rate constant for the hydrolysis of nitrogen tetroxide has been determined and the solubility of dissolved but unreacted nitrogen tetroxide in equilibrium with gaseous nitrogen tetroxide has been found.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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