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  • 1
    Unknown
    Berlin : Springer
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Forests and forestry ; Trees ; Wood ; Life sciences ; Forestry Management ; Forestry ; Tree Biology ; Wood Science & Technology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Plantation Forests -- Biology of Plantation Growth -- Growth Rates and Wood Quality -- Choosing the Species and Site -- Establishment -- Nutrient Management -- Stand Density and Initial Spacing -- Thinning -- Pruning -- Pests -- Diseases -- Tree Breeding -- 13 Mixed-Species Plantations -- Silviculture and Sustainability
    Abstract: This book describes the scientific principles that are used throughout the world to ensure the rapid, healthy growth of forest plantations. As the population of the world increases so does the amount of wood people use. Large areas of natural forests are being cleared every year and converted to other uses. Almost as large an area of plantation forests is being established annually to replace those lost natural forests. Eventually, plantations will produce a large proportion of the wood used around the world for firewood, building, the manufacture of paper and bioenergy. Forest plantations can also provide various environmental benefits including carbon storage, rehabilitation of degraded land, serving as disposal sites for various forms of industrial or agricultural waste and enhancing biodiversity in regions that have been largely cleared for agriculture. Whatever their motivation, plantation forest growers want their plantations to be healthy and grow rapidly to achieve their purpose as soon as possible. This book discusses how this is done. It is written for a worldwide audience, from forestry professionals and scientists through to small plantation growers, and describes how plantations may be grown responsibly and profitably
    Pages: XII, 329 p. 44 illus., 15 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 2nd ed. 2014.
    ISBN: 9783319018270
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  • 2
    Unknown
    Cham : Springer International Publishing
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Landscape ecology ; Forests and forestry ; Botany ; Life sciences ; Forestry Management ; Landscape ecology ; Plant Sciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction -- Measurements -- Stem Diameter -- Tree Height -- Stem Volume -- Stem Volume and Taper Functions -- Biomass -- Stand Measurement -- Measuring Populations -- Sampling Theory -- Conducting an Inventory -- The Plane Survey -- Remote Sensing
    Abstract: Forests must be measured if they are to be managed and conserved properly. This book describes the essential principles of modern forest measurement, whether using simple hand-held equipment or sophisticated satellite imagery. It particularly focuses on measuring forest biomass over large forest areas, a key aspect of climate change studies, as well as the volumes of wood that are commercially available. Written in a straightforward style, it will be accessible to anyone who works with forests, from the professional forester to the layperson. It considers not only how and why forests are measured but also the scientific basis of the measurements taken
    Pages: XII, 214 p. 37 illus. : online resource.
    Edition: 3rd ed. 2015.
    ISBN: 9783319147086
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Allometry ; Eucalyptus ; Height prediction ; Diameter prediction ; Mechanistic models
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Previous work has suggested that tree stems are structured dimensionally to resist the forces to which they are subjected by the weight of the crown and the action of wind, snow and other loads on the crown. This proposition has been used to develop allometric relationships relating diameter at breast height or height of individual trees growing in even-aged monoculture to their above-ground fresh biomass. These models have practical application as estimators of tree diameters or heights from tree biomass as extensions of mechanistically based models of forest tree growth which predict tree biomasses. The present work applied these models to Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell, E. delegatensis R. Baker, E. nitens (Deane: Maiden) Maiden and E. grandis Hill ex Maiden trees, growing in plantation or regrowth stands, aged between 1.5 and 20 years, at eight geographically diverse sites extending from temperate to sub-tropical regions of Australia. While the models held for the various species at the various sites, their parameter values differed significantly between sites and/or species. This suggested there may be some inadequacy in the models. However, the differences were small and it was found reasonable to fit single models across all species and sites for practical use in estimating diameter or height. The errors about predicted values of height and diameter from these models were quantified. The models were also found to estimate diameter or height with little loss of precision when dry biomass was used in place of fresh biomass.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Bending stress ; Stem shape ; Radial growth rate ; Eucalyptus regnans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A glasshouse experiment investigated the effect of bending stress on stem radial and height growth and stem taper ofEucalyptus regnans seedlings. Eighteen-week-old, potted seedlings were bent continuously for 8 weeks with a static bending stress. The bending treatment was then removed and the seedlings grown for another 12 weeks. Other seedlings were stayed vertically throughout the experiment whilst control seedlings were neither bent nor stayed. Seedlings were rotated every 2 days to prevent reaction wood developing asymmetrically in the stems of bent trees. Bent trees had higher radial growth rates, developed more tapered stems and had higher safety factors (the ratio of stem radius to the minimum radius required to prevent the tree toppling over) than unbent seedlings. They produced a band of tension wood in their stems and ceased height growth whilst bent. When bending ceased, they resumed normal radial and height growth. Unbent trees developed more cylindrical stems. There were no differences in growth behaviour between stayed and control trees. Bent and unbent trees all developed a butt swell, the taper of which was not affected by treatment. It was concluded that bending stress has substantial effects on both the size and taper of tree stems. However, the development of butt swell is independent of the bending stress applied. The results were considered in relation to biomechanical theories of tree stem development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 9 (1994), S. 47-50 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Stem defect ; Tree breakage ; Wood engineering
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Stems of trees hollowed by agents such as fungal decay, fire or termites have reduced strength and increased likelihood of breakage. This may pose a serious hazard when hollow trees are growing near public places. Previous theoretical studies and field studies of hollow trees, of both hardwood and softwood species, in Europe and America have suggested rules to quantify the risk of breakage of hollow trees. These rules are confirmed and expanded here, using data collected from hollow trees of several species of the hardwood genus Eucalyptus in Australia. It is concluded that where the ratio of the minimum wall thickness of a stem hollow to the total radius of the hollow exceeds 0.3–0.35 and at least one-half of the girth of the tree stem is intact, it is extremely unlikely that the stem of the hollow tree will break. These rules appear to apply for a wide range of tree species throughout the world.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 28 (1956), S. 757-766 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 28 (1956), S. 1816-1819 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 28 (1956), S. 1834-1838 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Environmental science & technology 5 (1971), S. 550-550 
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 21 (1949), S. 121-131 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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