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  • 1
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: C-PON ; Co-localization ; Electron microscopy ; Immunocytochemistry ; NPY ; Pre-pro-peptides
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0926-6542
    Keywords: FFA ; free fatty acids
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of a bombesin-like immunoreactive peptide in the avian gastro-intestinal tract was analysed by combined radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts showed that the largest quantities of bombesin-like immunoreactivity were present in the proventriculus (64.5±6.0 pmol/g) with smaller but still considerable amounts in the gizzard (40.0±6.0 pmol/g). Immunocytochemically the extractable bombesin-like immunoreactivity was localised in numerous endocrine cells. These, in the proventriculus, were found mainly in the deeper layers of the mucosa. Further study of these cells by the semi-thin/thin technique revealed the presence of characteristic secretory granules. The functional name BN is proposed for this cell type.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary VIP-like immunoreactive material is present in the female reproductive tract, with a distinct pattern of distribution. The highest concentrations of extractable material and immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the cervix and vagina. In the cervix these fibres were seen below the surface epithelium and around cervical glands as well as in association with blood vessels and smooth muscle bundles. In the vagina the nerve fibres were most abundant in the superficial regions of the lamina propria. Scattered fibres were also present in the rest of the uterus and in the fallopian tubes. Chromatographic evidence indicates that this VIP-like material is of a similar molecular size to that extracted from other organs. Possible roles for VIP in the regulation of myometrial activity and of cervical and vaginal dilation and secretion are proposed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The guinea pig uterus is supplied by different populations of nerves which can be demonstrated by specific immunocytochemical and histochemical techniques. So far, there has been no single marker displaying entire peripheral innervation patterns. Recently, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, a cytoplasmic protein in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, was found to visualize both different populations and subtypes of nerves. This prompted the present study of using PGP 9.5 for visualization of the whole uterine innervation. This was performed by the indirect immunofluorescence method using antiserum to PGP 9.5 raised in rabbits. PGP-immunoreactivity was present in all neuronal parts of the extrinsic and intrinsic uterine innervation, including different subpopulations of nerves. This was verified by chemical sympathectomy and sensory denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine and capsaicin-treatment respectively, and double immunostaining. By term a disappearance of uterine PGP-nerve-immunoreactivity was observed which was almost complete in fetus-bearing uterine tissue and further strengthens previous assumptions of a general, pregnancy-induced uterine neuronal degeneration. The developmental time-course and morphology of PGP-immunoreactive nerve structures was similar to that for other neuronal markers and support the suggestion of PGP-immunoreactivity as a general marker for the entire uterine innervation, and suggests that the presence of PGP 9.5-immunoreactivity may coincide with functional maturation of uterine innervation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ontogenetic development of the guinea pig uterine autonomic innervation was studied immunohistochemically using neurofibrillary protein (NF) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) as general neuronal markers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) as specific markers for adrenergic innervation and S-100 protein as marker for Schwann cell structure and/or function. In addition, comparisons were made of the development of the different populations of peptide-containing nerves. The structure and time of appearance were similar for nerves with NF-, NSE-, TH- and DBH-immunoreactivities, which were first present in the organ periphery as coarse nerve trunks, then extending centrally and branching into non-varicose nerves. From these, varicose nerves developed first in relation to vessels and then in association with the myometrial smooth musculature. Development was completed carlier in the cervix than in the uterine horns suggesting differences in local environment. In comparison, S-100 nerve-immunoreactivity appeared later but attained complete development more rapidly than axonal structures. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerves showed a similar developmental pattern to presumed adrenergic nerves, further verifying the assumption of intraneuronal localization of NPY in uterine adrenergic nerves. Other peptide-containing nerves were developed later probably reflecting differences in neuronal growth properties.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 43 (1987), S. 821-832 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Peptides ; cardiovascular system ; immunocytochemistry ; neuropeptide Y ; calcitonin gene-related peptide ; tachykinins ; substance P ; vasoactive intestinal polypeptide ; atrial natriuretic peptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ample immunocytochemical evidence is now available demonstrating that several peptides are present in the mammalian cardiovascular system where they are localised to nerve fibres and myocardial cells. The neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, tachykinins and vasoctive intestinal polypeptide) are localised to large secretory vesicles in subpopulations of afferent or efferent nerves supplying the heart and vasculature of several mammals, including man. Although they often exert potent pharmacological effects on the tissues in which they occur their physiological significance has still to be established. They may act directly via specific receptors and/or indirectly by influencing the release and action of other cardiovascular transmitters. In marked contrast, atrial natriuretic peptide is produced by cardiac myocytes and considered to act as a circulating hormone.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— [2-14C]Propionate injected into rats was metabolized into [14C]glucose and 14C-labelled aspartate, glutamate, glutamine and alanine. The results are consistent with the conversion of propionate into succinate and the oxidation of succinate into oxaloacetate, the precursor of labelled amino acids and the substrate for gluconeogenesis.The ratio of the specific radioactivity of glutamine to glutamate was greater than 1 during the 30 min period in the brain, indicating that propionate taken up by the brain was metabolized mainly in the ‘small glutamate compartment’ in the brain. The results, therefore, support the previous conclusion (Gaitonde, 1975) that the labelling of amino acids by [14C]propionate formed from [U-14C〉]-threonine in thiamin-deficient rats was metabolized in the ‘large glutamate compartment’ of the brain.The specific radioactivity ratio of glutamine to glutamate in the liver was less than 1 during the 10 min period but greater than 1 at 30min. These findings which gave evidence against metabolic compartments of glutamate in the liver, were interpreted as indicative of the entry of blood-borne [14C]glutamine synthesized in other tissues, e.g. brain. The labelling of amino acids when compared to that after injection of [U-14C]glucose showed that [2-14C]propionate was quantitatively a better source of amino acids in the liver. The concentration of some amino acids in the brain and liver was less in the adult than in the young rats, except for alanine and glutathione, where the liver content was more than double that in the adult.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied the biological responses of six ovarian cancer patients after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of virus-modified tumor cell extracts (VMTE) and autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected by leukapheresis after two injections of VMTE. VMTE was prepared from allogeneic ovarian cell lines, OV2774 and CaOV3, modified by influenza virus, A/PR8/34. A dose of 9 mg VMTE was given i.p. in total of 2–4 injections, and (1−9) × 108 autologous mononuclear cells were infused i.p., 24 h after the second VMTE injection, and 24 h and 72 h after the third VMTE injection. Both peripheral blood (PB) and peritoneal cavity (PC) effector cell cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced against the K562 cell line in the majority of patients, 24–48 h after the second and third VMTE injections. This was accompanied by a dramatic influx of neutrophils into PC (57-550-fold), increase in absolute numbers of lymphocytes, (including large granular lymphocytes) and monocytes, and resulted also in a significant decrease in the number of ascitic tumor cells (98% reduction). The infusion of autologous mononuclear cells did not appear to influence either cytotoxicity or cell infiltration of the peritoneal cavity. We also investigated the in vitro effect of recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) on effector cells from PB and PC from patients before and after VMTE treatment. Cytotoxicity of both of these compartments was significantly potentiated after culture with IL-2. In three out of five VMTE-treated patients, PC cytotoxicity was significantly higher after activation with IL-2 than that of patients before VMTE treatment. These data suggest that VMTE induces regional cellular immunity, which could be further potentiated by culture of PC effector cells with IL-2. Thus, combination of VMTE and IL-2 after regional administration could represent the effective therapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eight patients with squamous carcinoma of the vulva and two or more positive nodes have received adjunctive immunotherapy with a virus modified homologous cell extract. Seven of eight patients received radiation therapy in addition. Cells derived from the SW962 vulvar carcinoma cell line were infected with PR8/A/34 strain of influenza and a membrane extract was used for immunization. The extract was administered by the intradermal route weekly for three doses and then biweekly for up to 2 years. Each dose is equivalent to 1.5 mg protein. None of the patients have recurred and durations of remission are 24, 24, 22, 22, 21, 16, 7, and 2 months respectively. This compares favourably with similar groups of patients who were treated with surgery alone (22/33 recurred, median recurrence time 14.8 months) or surgery plus radiation therapy (8/9 recurrences, median recurrence time 11.0 months). No serious side effects have occurred with more than 200 doses of extract. Post immunization monitoring has indicated good in vitro and in vivo immunological responses and antibody titers to PR8 increased significantly in five of eight patients.
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