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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENOME ; PATIENT ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; BRCA1 ; WOMEN ; MUTATION ; REPAIR ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; case-control studies ; RISK ASSESSMENT ; PREVALENCE ; BRCA1/2 ; EUROPE ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; ALLELE ; case control studies ; NEED ; EUROPEAN POPULATIONS ; breast cancer patients selected for family history and age ; CHEK2 GENE ; CHEK2*1100delC variant ; population-based study
    Abstract: CHEK2*1100delC is associated with a twofold increased breast cancer risk. This was shown in a collaborative analysis of European populations, but not in other populations from Europe and the US. Accordingly, there is a need to clarify the role of CHEK2*1100delC in breast cancer. We established its prevalence in two German populations GENICA (Northrhine-Westphalia, it = 724) and KORA (Bavaria, n = 600) and in women with breast cancer. The latter included cases (n = 688) from the GENICA breast cancer case-control study, patients with early-onset breast cancer (n = 86) and patients with familial breast cancer (n = 71). The latter patient groups were previously investigated for BRCA1/2-mutations and tested negative. Mutation analysis was performed by combined PCR/DHPLC methodology. CHEK2*1100delC was found in 0.9% of GENICA controls and was absent in the KORA controls indicating a significant difference between the two populations (P = 0.03). The frequency of CHEK2*1100delC in age-matched cases of the GENICA collection was 0.8% and thus not different from controls (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.21-3.50). In patients with early-onset disease CHEK2*1100delC was found at a frequency of 2.3% referring to an increased breast cancer risk of 2.56 (95% Cl 0.25-14.58). In patients with familial disease the frequency was 1.4% referring to an increased risk of 1.53 (95% CI 0.03-12.93). Our data showed variations in CHEK2*1100delC prevalence within German populations suggesting possible inaccuracies in breast cancer risk assessments from non population-based studies. In patients with a high-risk profile however, CHEK2*1100delC was indicative for this risk and highest for early-onset breast cancer. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16239104
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELL ; LUNG ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; validation ; DNA ; BIOMARKERS ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; REPAIR ; smoking ; p53 ; cancer risk ; FRANCE ; genotyping ; DNA repair ; TP53 ; ONCOLOGY ; VARIANT ; METAANALYSIS ; XRCC1 ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; biomarker ; analysis ; methods ; DNA repair genes ; pooled analysis ; USA ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; OGG1 ; NOV ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; XRCC3 ; discussion ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; CONSORTIUM ; genetic variants ; GENOME-WIDE ; APEX1
    Abstract: Background: The International Lung Cancer Consortium was established in 2004. To clarify the role of DNA repair genes in lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a pooled analysis of genetic variants in DNA repair pathways, whose associations have been investigated by at least 3 individual studies. Methods: Data from 14 studies were pooled for 18 sequence variants in 12 DNA repair genes, including APEX1, OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, ERCC1, XPD, XPF, XPG, XPA, MGMT, and TP53. The total number of subjects included in the analysis for each variant ranged from 2,073 to 13,955 subjects. Results: Four of the variants were found to be weakly associated with lung cancer risk with borderline significance: these were XRCC3 T241M [heterozygote odds ratio (OR), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-0.99 and homozygote OR, 0.84; 95% Cl, 0.71-1.00] based on 3,467 cases and 5,021 controls from 8 studies, XPD K751Q (heterozygote OR, 0.99; 95% Cl, 0.89-1.10 and homozygote OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39) based on 6,463 cases and 6,603 controls from 9 studies, and TP53 R72P (heterozygote OR, 1.14; 95% Cl, 1.00-1.29 and homozygote OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.42) based on 3,610 cases and 5,293 controls from 6 studies. OGG1 S326C homozygote was suggested to be associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians (homozygote OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79) based on 2,569 cases and 4,178 controls from 4 studies but not in Asians. The other 14 variants did not exhibit main effects on lung cancer risk. Discussion: In addition to data pooling, future priorities of International Lung Cancer Consortium include coordinated genotyping and multistage validation for ongoing genome-wide association studies. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(11):3081-9)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18990748
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; METABOLISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; smoking ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; inflammation ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; VARIANT ; CANDIDATE GENES ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; INCREASED RISK ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; CHINESE POPULATION ; XUAN-WEI ; METHYLENE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; Genetic ; CENTRAL-EUROPE ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS
    Abstract: Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case-control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 x 10(-4)). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89-0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85-0.95), P = 1 x 10(-4)]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20106900
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  • 4
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols that are taken up from food and can serve as biomarkers of cholesterol uptake. Serum levels are under tight genetic control. We used a genomic approach to study the molecular regulation of serum phytosterol levels and potential links to coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide association study for serum phytosterols (campesterol, sitosterol, brassicasterol) was conducted in a population-based sample from KORA (Cooperative Research in the Region of Augsburg) (n=1495) with subsequent replication in 2 additional samples (n=1157 and n=1760). Replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with premature CAD in a metaanalysis of 11 different samples comprising 13 764 CAD cases and 13 630 healthy controls. Genetic variants in the ATP-binding hemitransporter ABCG8 and at the blood group ABO locus were significantly associated with serum phytosterols. Effects in ABCG8 were independently related to SNPs rs4245791 and rs41360247 (combined P=1.6 x 10(-50) and 6.2 x 10(-25), respectively; n=4412). Serum campesterol was elevated 12% for each rs4245791 T-allele. The same allele was associated with 40% decreased hepatic ABCG8 mRNA expression (P=0.009). Effects at the ABO locus were related to SNP rs657152 (combined P=9.4x10(-13)). Alleles of ABCG8 and ABO associated with elevated phytosterol levels displayed significant associations with increased CAD risk (rs4245791 odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14; P=2.2 x 10(-6); rs657152 odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.19; P=9.4 x 10(-6)), whereas alleles at ABCG8 associated with reduced phytosterol levels were associated with reduced CAD risk (rs41360247 odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.91; P=1.3 x 10(-5)). CONCLUSION: Common variants in ABCG8 and ABO are strongly associated with serum phytosterol levels and show concordant and previously unknown associations with CAD.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20529992
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  • 5
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; RISK ; GENE ; MICE ; ASSOCIATION ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; HYPERTENSION ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; METAANALYSIS ; HEART-FAILURE ; ADRENERGIC-RECEPTOR TRAFFICKING
    Abstract: Numerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans(1-3). We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P = 2.7 x 10(-8) to P = 2.3 x 10(-13)) four new PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV and 11q24.3 near ADAMTS8), two new MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4 and 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both of these traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) that has also recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the new PP loci, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite of that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants, which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings suggest new genetic pathways underlying blood pressure variation, some of which may differentially influence SBP and DBP
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21909110
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  • 6
  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; human ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; MESSENGER-RNA ; RAT ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; ACID ; ACIDS ; IDENTIFICATION ; HEALTH ; resistance ; PROMOTER ; SNP ; REDUCED RISK ; REGION ; POPULATIONS ; RECEPTORS ; TYPE-2 ; insulin ; SINGLE ; RE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; HAPLOTYPE ; single-nucleotide ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; prospective ; INHIBITOR DBI ; EVALUATE ; CANDIDATE ; odds ratio ; type 2 diabetes ; association study ; acyl-CoA-binding protein ; CELL-LINE LNCAP ; CHOLECYSTOKININ ; PROCESSING PRODUCTS
    Abstract: The human acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a potential candidate gene of type 2 diabetes (T2D), since it plays a central role in determining the intracellular concentration of activated fatty acids which contribute to insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ACBP gene are associated with risk of T2D. Genotyping of eight SNPs (rs2084202, rs3731607, rs8192501, rs8192504, rs2244135, rs2276596, rs8192506, rs2289948) was performed in 192 incident T2D subjects and 384 matched controls of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. A putative promoter SNP (rs2084202) of splice variant ACBP 1c showed decreased risk of T2D (odds ratio (OR) 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.96). The haplotype, that contained the mutant base of rs2084202 showed similar evidence for the association with disease risk as single SNP rs2084202. In a second population-based study, Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region of 226 individuals with T2D and 863 control subjects a borderline significant association between rs2084202 and T2D (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.51 - 1.0 1) was observed. In summary, we obtained evidence from two Caucasian study populations that the minor allele of ACBP rs2084202 might be associated with reduced risk of T2D
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17262885
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  • 8
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; score ; PHENOTYPES ; SUBUNIT ; genetics ; smoking ; REGION ; PHENOTYPE ; VARIANT ; DEPENDENCE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; ADDICTION ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; pharmacogenomics ; pharmacology ; smoking cessation ; EXTENT ; Polymorphism,Single Nucleotide ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; genetic association ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; Genetic ; Determination ; CHRNA4 ; Fagerstrom score ; TOBACCO DEPENDENCE
    Abstract: Polymorphisms in the CHRNA4 gene coding the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 have recently been suggested to play a role in the determination of smoking-related phenotypes. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a genetic association study in three large samples from the German general population (N-1 = 1412; N-2 = 1855; N-3 = 2294). Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CHRNA4 were genotyped in 5561 participants, including 2707 heavily smoking cases (regularly smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day) and 2399 never-smoking controls (〈= 100 cigarettes over lifetime). We examined associations of the polymorphisms with smoking case-control status and with the extent of nicotine dependence as measured by the Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence (FTND) score (N = 1030). The most significant association was observed between rs2236196 and FTND (P = 0.0023), whereas the closely linked rs1044396 had most statistical support in the case-control models (P = 0.0080). The consistent effect estimates across three independent cohorts elaborate on recently published functional studies of rs2236196 from the CHRNA4 3'-untranslated region and seem to converge with accumulating evidence to firmly implicate the variant G allele of this polymorphism in the intensification of nicotine dependence. The Pharmacogenomics Journal (2009) 9, 219-224; doi: 10.1038/tpj.2009.6; published online 17 March 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19290018
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  • 9
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; human ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; DNA ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; HUMANS ; ASSAY ; PROMOTER ; SNP ; OBESITY ; SINGLE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION ; HAPLOTYPES ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; metabolic syndrome ; USA ; REPLACEMENT ; Adiponectin ; STATE ; Luciferase reporter ; PLASMA ADIPONECTIN ; TYPE-2 DIABETIC-PATIENTS ; APM1 GENE ; HYPOADIPONECTINEMIA
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE-Adiponectin (APM1, ACDC) is an adipocyte-derived protein with downregulated expression in obesity and insulin-resistant states. Several potentially regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the APM1 gene promoter region have been associated with circulating adiponectin levels. None of them have been functionally characterized in adiponectin-expressing cells. Hence, we investigated three SNPs (rs16861194, rs17300539, and rs266729) for their influence on adiponectin promoter activity and their association with circulating adiponectin levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Basal and rosiglitazone-induced promoter activity of different SNP combinations (haplotypes) was analyzed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using luciferase reporter gene assays and DNA binding studies comparing all possible APM1 haplotypes. This functional approach was complemented with analysis of epidemiological population-based data of 1,692 participants of the MONICA/KORA S123 cohort and 696 participants from the KORA S4 cohort for SNP and haplotype association with circulating adiponectin levels. RESULTS-Major to minor allele replacements of the three SNPs revealed significant effects on promoter activity in luciferase assays. Particularly, a minor variant in rs16861194 resulted in reduced basal and rosiglitazone-induced promoter activity and hypoadiponectinemia in the epidemiological datasets. The haplotype with the minor allele in all three SNPs showed a complete loss of promoter activity, and no subject carried this haplotype in either of the epidemiological samples (combined P value for statistically significant difference from a random sample was 0.006). CONCLUSIONS-Our results clearly demonstrate that promoter variants associated with hypoadiponectinemia in humans substantially affect adiponectin promoter activity in adipocytes. Our combination of functional experiments with epidemiological data overcomes the drawback of each approach alone. Diabetes 58-984-991, 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19074982
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  • 10
    Keywords: COPY NUMBER, Copy number polymorphism, DELETION, DISEASE, DISEASES, DISTRIBUTIONS, ENZYME-ACTIVITY,
    Abstract: Objectives: Deletion polymorphisms of Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M I and T I are considered risk factors for various diseases. However, most previous studies only distinguished "null" and "non-null" genotypes. Our aim was to develop a reliable. high-throughput GSTM1/T1 genotyping method able to determine allele copy numbers. Design and methods: We developed a multiplex real time PCR method to distinguish between heterozygous (1/0) and homozygous (1/1) GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. The principle of relative quantification was applied and an expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm was developed to assign one of 3 possible genotypes: 1/1, 1/0 or 0/0 for each of the two genes. Results: 1320 Caucasians were genotyped using the newly developed method. The observed genotype distributions did not deviate from the expected and were in Hardly-Weinberg equilibrium. GSTM1 duplication was detected in one sample. Conclusion: This new semiquantitative genotyping method is a sensitive and promising tool for large-scale molecular epidemiological and clinical studies. (C) 2008 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19161997
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