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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Recurrent brief anxiety ; Recurrent brief depression ; Panic disorder ; Phobia ; Comorbidity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the epidemiological Zurich cohort study a syndrome of ‘Recurrent Brief Anxiety’ (RBA) was identified and operationalized. It had a 1-year prevalence rate of 2.7, males seemed to prevail slightly. RBA was highly associated with ‘Recurrent Brief Depression’ (RBD) and panic, and to a minor extent with agoraphobia and dysthymia. The family history was positive for depression and anxiety (panic, generalized anxiety disorder). In studies of panic, one should look for the frequently associated syndromes of RBA and RBD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Seasonal depression ; Epidemiology ; Specific symptoms ; Course ; Retrospective reliability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a longitudinal cohort study of young adults from the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland (Zurich Study), seasonal patterns of several psychiatric and psychosomatic syndromes were investigated in two interviews over a period of three years. At an age of 27–28 years, 23% of the depressives, 15% of the neurasthenic subjects, and 14% of the subjects with backache reported an increased susceptibility in autumn and/or winter. With respect to the course we found that 10.4% of the subjects of the longitudinal sample (n=417) suffered from seasonal depression (including individuals with subsyndromal seasonal difficulties) overtwo consecutive years. Specific symptoms, such as hypersomnia, increase of appetite or weight gain, were not found to be consistently associated with seasonal depression. A comparison of actual and retrospective reports on seasonal depression resulted in a very low reliability. In view of these results the seasonal subtype of depression should be diagnosed with caution, except when the diagnosis is based on longitudinal observations and/or external sources of information (e.g. family members, partner).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Insomnia ; Epidemiology ; Anxiety ; Depression ; Course ; Follow-up
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The association of three subtypes of insomnia with psychic and functional syndromes, and the course of insomnia over 7 years were examined in a Swiss cohort of young adults interviewed three times. Specific associations were found between repeated brief insomnia (RBI) and recurrent brief depression (RBD). Continued insomnia (CI) was associated with major depression. All three subtypes of insomnia were associated with anxiety disorders; 52% of insomniacs were free of concurrent anxiety and depression. Insomnia — especially RBI and CI — was also associated with a number of functional complaints, but not with the consumption of alcohol, medicine, or illegal drugs. Insomniacs with RBI and occasional insomnia (OI) experienced more life events and interpersonal conflicts than controls. These findings support the subdivision of insomnia into different subtypes. The longitudinal analysis showed that insomnia tends to reoccur. For subjects with insomnia either at age 21 or 23 years, there was a higher risk of further insomnia at follow-ups. The specific subtype of insomnia at the first occurrence was not predictive for the outcome: all subtypes of insomnia enhance the risk of relapses in a similar way. Insomnia at age 21 is no precursor of the first onset of a depressive or anxiety disorder within a 2-year follow-up. With respect to the course of insomnia over 7 years, the subtypes did not differentiate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Sozial- und Präventivmedizin 44 (1999), S. 191-191 
    ISSN: 1420-911X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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