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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Magnesium ; Plasma level ; pharmacokinetics ; bioavailability ; circadian fluctuation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Magnesium plasma concentrations were measured in healthy probands before and after administration of trimagnesium dicitrate by the oral and intravenous routes. There was a notable circadian fluctuation of the plasma concentration with a peak in the evening hours. After oral administration of 12 and 24 mmol magnesium, a long-lasting, statistically significant increase in plasma magnesium concentration measured as the increase in area under the curve (AUC) between 0 and 12 h, of 3.1% and 4.6%, respectively, was found. After intravenous administration of 4 and 8 mmol magnesium, AUCs increased by 9.5% and 16.1%, respectively. The decline in the plasma magnesium concentration after i.v. administration was compatible with a three-compartment model with a terminal half-time of about 8 h. Although no absolute value of the oral bioavailability of trimagnesium dicitrate could be determined from the data, our results may be important in helping to elucidate the influence of magnesium preparations on the plasma magnesium concentration. By comparing the effects of different preparations, it should be possible to estimate the relative oral bioavailability and the bioequivalence of these preparations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Magnesium ; Plasma level; pharmacokinetics ; bioavailability ; circadian fluctuation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Magnesium plasma concentrations were measured in healthy probands before and after administration of trimagnesium dicitrate by the oral and intravenous routes. There was a notable circadian fluctuation of the plasma concentration with a peak in the evening hours. After oral administration of 12 and 24 mmol magnesium, a long-lasting, statistically significant increase in plasma magnesium concentration measured as the increase in area under the curve (AUC) between 0 and 12 h, of 3.1% and 4.6%, respectively, was found. After intravenous administration of 4 and 8 mmol magnesium, AUCs increased by 9.5% and 16.1%, respectively. The decline in the plasma magnesium concentration after i.v. administration was compatible with a three-compartment model with a terminal half-time of about 8 h. Although no absolute value of the oral bioavailability of trimagnesium dicitrate could be determined from the data, our results may be important in helping to elucidate the influence of magnesium preparations on the plasma magnesium concentration. By comparing the effects of different preparations, it should be possible to estimate the relative oral bioavailability and the bioequivalence of these preparations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Diffuse liver disease ; MRI ; CT ; Ultrasound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-nine patients with diffuse liver disease were examined by ultrasound, CT and MRI. MRI was performed using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences as well as fast gradient-echo-sequences. The paramagnetic contrast agent Gd-DTPA was applied intravenously (0.1 mmol/kg). in patients with hepatitis, MRI could be used in guiding liver biopsies as inflammatory changes were clearly delineated. CT and ultrasound were superior to MRI in the detection of focal or diffuse fatty degeneration. On the other hand MRI was more helpful in differentiating fatty changes and neoplasm. In liver cirrhosis, fibrotic changes were most clearly demonstrated by MRI. In patients suffering from hemochromatosis MRI offers advantages over CT and ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow up due to the paramagnetic properties of iron, resulting in a reduction in signal intensity. In patients with Wilson's disease a characteristic pattern of parenchymal changes was seen. Administration of Gd- DTPA contributes additional information about perfusion conditions in the liver parenchyma, however this information was not of diagnostic relevance in the cases we studied.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: 3D-MRI ; ray-tracing ; head nad neck ; 3D-reconstruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Three-dimensional MR imaging technique is not a new concept, however, there is very little experience concerning clinical trials. Especially in head and neck lesions, the accuracu of this new imaging method has not yet been tested. A pilot study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of demonstrating the head and neck lesions and topographical structures implemented in a three-dimensional reconstruction of the entire head. The 3D reconstruction mode is based on the ray-tracting model. The application of the contrast medium Gd-DTPA proved to be helpful. Three-dimensional reconstruction revealed clear topographic details of the lesions, including the spread of infiltration and destruction of soft tissue. Additionally, the simultaneous view of multiple slices in different orientations is an ideal method for evalauting the spread of the lesion and to visualize the relation between lesion and surrounding tissue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1468-2982
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In order to evaluate the prophylactic effect of oral magnesium, 81 patients aged 18–65 years with migraine according to the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria (mean attack frequency 3.6 per month) were examined. After a prospective baseline period of 4 weeks they received oral 600 mg (24 mmol) magnesium (trimagnesium dicitrate) daily for 12 weeks or placebo. In weeks 9–12 the attack frequency was reduced by 41.6% in the magnesium group and by 15.8% in the placebo group compared to the baseline (p 〈0.05). The number of days with migraine and the drug consumption for symptomatic treatment per patient also decreased significantly in the magnesium group. Duration and intensity of the attacks and the drug consumption per attack also tended to decrease compared to placebo but failed to be significant. Adverse events were diarrhea (18.6%) and gastric irritation (4.7%). High-dose oral magnesium appears to be effective in migraine prophylaxis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pediatric airway obstruction due to anomalies of the course of the innominate artery may produce respiratory distress. MR imaging of the trachea was performed after bronchoscopy on forty-one children with congenital tracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy only allows the evaluation of the lumen of the trachea, and the degree and location of collapse, and it may be difficult to determine the etiology of the tracheal narrowing. In eighteen out of the forty-one patients MR imaging showed a compression of the trachea by the innominate artery. The MR imaging diagnoses were subsequently compared for accuracy with the diagnoses determined by direct surgical observations. MR imaging of the trachea, the surrounding tissue and vessels allows the evaluation of the cause of tracheal compression and the degree and location of collapse. For evaluation of the cause of airway obstruction, MRI is an ideal method depicting detailed anatomic structure without employing ionizing radiation or intravenous contrast medium.
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