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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Background. In the Danish Town Hall Study" it has previously been shown that the sick building syndrome is a widespread phenomenon. This has given rise to speculations as to whether biologically active components in dust or whether absorbed organic gases and vapours in the indoor climate may be partly responsible for the sick building syndrome. Therefore, we wished to study whether qualitative conditions in dust, of a physical, chemical, and biological nature, are related to the prevalence of symptoms of the sick building syndrome. Material and methods. The study included 12 town halls in the Copenhagen area. A total of 870 persons participated, 584 women and 286 men. All the participants filled out a questionnaire regarding health and working conditions, and dust samples were collected with a special vacuum cleaner in the working environment of the participants, after which the contents of inorganic and organic particles as well as of human source fragments the (hair, nails, skin) and various fibres were determined. Results. There was a significant correlation (P〈0.05) between the prevalence of gram-negative bacteria in the indoor climate dust, and general symptoms (fatigue, heavy-headedness, headache, dizziness, concentration problems) (corr.coeff.=0.73), as well as symptoms from the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (corr.coeff.=0.76). Also, there was a significant relation between the prevalence of particles in the dust and the prevalence of symptoms from the mucous membranes (corr.coeff.=0.81). There was a strong and significant correlation between the total amount of volatile organic components (TVOC) and lack of concentration (corr.coeff. =0.85) and feeling heavy-headed (corr.coeff.=0.72). Macromolecular dust (potentially allergenetic material) was significantly correlated to the prevalence of headache and general malaise/dizziness (corr.coeff.=0.66), while the ability of the dust to liberate histamine was significantly related to the prevalence of general malaise, dizziness (corr.coeff.=0.65) and lack of concentration (corr.coeff. =0.58). Further analyses including a number of potential confounders did not change the results of the above analyses. Conclusion. The results of this study support the hypothesis that qualitative properties of dust are important to the sick building syndrome. The study was based on relatively few buildings, but nevertheless strong correlations were found. In perspective, epidemiological intervention studies should be carried out to investigate whether minimizing the amount of both dust and bacteria in the indoor climate affect the prevalence of sick building syndrome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Floor dust from nine city hall office buildings was separated into fiber and particulate fractions and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOC (TVOC) by thermal desorption/high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Components were identified by HRGC/mass spectroscopy (MS). Principal component analysis was applied to VOC emission profiles revealing similarities between buildings and correlations between profiles and SBS symptoms of mucous membrane irritation and “concentration difficulty”. While the dominant pattern in emission profiles was not correlated with SBS irritation complaints, partial least squares analysis in latent variables (PLS analysis) identified VOCs for which peak areas were correlated with SBS irritation complaints and the CNS Complaint, “concentration difficulty”
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 7 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured indoors may exceed their odor thresholds, but are usually far below TLV estimates. Even applying additivity to eye and airway irritation effects, it is difficult to rationalize increased sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms by exposure to generally chemically inert VOCs in the indoor environment.Several studies suggest that chemical reactions in indoor air are linked with SBS symptoms and the examination of these reactions may be necessary in order to understand the role of VOCs as causative agents of SBS symptoms.The usual evaluation of odor annoyance of VOCs based on odor thresholds should be modified, taking into account the large variation of individual human odor thresholds for single substances, and specific additivity phenomena even at subthreshold levels of VOCs.The conclusion of this review is that chemical reactions between oxidizable VOCs and oxidants, such as ozone and possibly nitrogen oxides, can form irritants which may be responsible for the reported symptoms. Compounds adsorbed to particles may also contribute to SBS symptoms. The individual effects of indoor pollutants may act in concert with temperature and relative humidity. New analytical methods are required to measure the oxidative and reactive species or specific markers thereof in indoor air.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 12 linoleum samples were measured by use of the “Field and Laboratory Emission Cell” (FLEC) with sampling on Tenax TA followed by thermal desorbtion and GC/FID or GC/MS analysis. Major VOCs were alkanals, alkenals and fatty acids. The emissions were measured after 24 h in FLEC and again after one month's storage in a well ventilated room. The emission profiles of hexanal, nonanal and propanoic acid were modeled for four linoleum samples using a new exponential diffusion model. The time required to reach 50% of the odor threshold concentrations in a standard room was from 113 to 2296 hours. The applicability of the diffusion model for modeling long-term emission needs to be further evaluated considering possible continuous oxidative emission.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    The @journal of organic chemistry 30 (1965), S. 3772-3775 
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: One hundred and eighty eight Volatile organic compound (VOCs) were identified from dust emission, dust headspace, and in air sampling in a residence by sampling on Tenax TA followed by thermal desorption and HRGC/MS. Of these, 83 compounds were found in dust headspace. Aliphatic aldehydes (C4-8 and octane were major contributors to headspace gas chromatograms while the total ion current response for desorbed VOCs (120° C) was dominated by n-alkanes (C7-16), n- and branched alkanals (C4-10 and alkanoic acids (C2-14). Many of the identified VOCs could be products of microbial or human metabolism. Dust volatiles resulting from desorption were compared w dust headspace VOC analyses and found to be comparable considering the temperature difference. A method for determination of total VOC (TVOC-dust) emission at 120°C, was developed. Variation in desorption TVOC analyses was mainly due to sample heterogeneity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 13 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 10 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) mouse bioassay, which quantifies airway irritation from reduction in the respiratory rate, was used to find evidence for the formation of highly irritating substances in reactions of ozone with terpenes (common indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs)). No-observed-effect-levels (NOELs) and concentration-effect relationships were established for ozone, (+)-α-pinene and R-(+)-limonene, isoprene, and some of their major reaction products. Reaction mixtures of excess terpene and ozone considerably below their NOEL concentrations resulted in significant upper airway irritation. The reduction of the respiratory rate was from 30% to about 50%, lowest for the α-pinene and highest for the isoprene mixture. Chemical analysis of reaction mixtures by conventional methods showed that readily identified stable products and residual reactants at the concentrations found could not account for the observed reductions of the respiratory rate, assuming additivity of the reaction products. The results suggest that, in addition to known irritants (formaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, methyl vinylketone), one or more strong airway irritant(s) of unknown structure(s) were formed. Future indoor air quality (IAQ) guidelines for unsaturated VOCs (e.g., terpenes) and their emission from building products may require the consideration of reactions with oxidants, like ozone. Similarly, effects of ozone-emitting equipment should be re-evaluated. /〉
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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