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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 128 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study set out to determine tbe prevalence and predictors of warts in Britisb schoolchildren by analysing medical examination data from a national birth cohort study of 9263 Britisb children born 3–9 Marcb 1958.The prevalence of visible warts, according to a medical officer, at the age of 11 was 3.9% (95% confidence intervals 3.5–4.3) and 4.9% (95% confidence intervals 4.5–5.4) at 16. Of the 364 children noted to have warts at the age of 11, 337 (93%) no longer had warts at 16. Residence in tbe soutb of Britain, having a father with a non-manual occupation, being an only child, and belonging to an ethnic group other than white European were all associated with a decreased risk of visible warts. Region of residence was the strongest predictor of wart prevalence. There were no sex differences in wart prevalence. Warts represent a common source of morbidity in Britisb scboolcbildren. Euture studies sbould take into account age, regional factors, social class, family size and etbnic group wben comparing wart sufferers with other subjects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 119 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Hand eczema is a major cause of morbidity and lost earnings. Many interventions ranging from topical steroids to oral ciclosporin are used, but their evidence base and the best methods to assess their efficacy are uncertain.Objectives  As part of a long-term project to improve standards of design and reporting in hand eczema trials, we sought to describe the prevalent study designs and comment on the quality of reporting of such studies.Methods and data sources  Electronic databases (Cochrane, Medline, Embase, Pascal, Jicst-Eplus, Amed) were searched from January 1977 to April 2003 using all possible variants of the terms hand and eczema/dermatitis. In addition, four general medical and 17 specialist dermatology journals were hand-searched by pairs of researchers for all possible therapeutic studies.Study selection  Studies were eligible for inclusion if they dealt with hand eczema as diagnosed by a physician irrespective of the aetiology, and if they described the results of a study of a therapeutic intervention in humans. Single case reports and reviews were excluded, but case series and nonrandomized studies were considered alongside randomized studies.Data selection  For each study, two researchers independently assessed the type of study, outcome measures, enrolment criteria, randomization, masking of interventions and how losses to follow-up were dealt with.Main outcome measures  Proportion of studies according to type of intervention and study type. Proportion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that adequately reported eligibility criteria, randomization generation and concealment, masking and intention-to-treat analysis.Results  A total of 90 studies reported in 87 papers dealt with 11 different classes of interventions. Around 80% of the studies dealt with just four interventions: ultraviolet light, topical steroids, radiation and systemic immunosuppressives. Of the 90 studies, 44 were case series, 15 were nonrandomized controlled trials, and the remaining 31 were RCTs. Of the 31 RCTs, 16 were parallel (one with cross-over design) and 15 self-controlled. Only 11 of the RCTs adequately reported eligibility criteria. The randomization method was described in 10, and there was adequate concealment of allocation in eight. Masking the treatment allocation from both the study assessors and patients was done in 11 RCTs, and intention-to-treat analysis was reported in four. Only 13 RCTs were 4 months or longer in duration. No study reported a rationale for the sample size, and in only one study had the outcome variable been validated.Conclusions  Most ‘trials’ in hand eczema are not RCTs. Internally controlled (left/right) studies were common. Based on the poor overall quality of reporting, most RCTs of hand eczema trials are not adequate to guide clinical practice. Future trials of hand eczema should be randomized, using a parallel group or self-controlled design. Research is needed to develop validated and clinically relevant outcome measures. Most of the remaining issues relating to poor quality of existing evidence can be relatively easily dealt with by following the CONSORT guidelines.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 148 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 147 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science, Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 146 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Acne vulgaris is a distressing condition that affects the majority of adolescents, but its impact on mental health in this age group is poorly understood. Objectives To determine the prevalence of acne, knowledge about acne and rates of help-seeking behaviour in English teenagers. It was hypothesized that presence of acne would be associated with higher rates of emotional and behavioural difficulties. Methods Three hundred and seventeen pupils (80% response rate) aged 14–16 years participated from a comprehensive school in Nottingham. An age-appropriate, validated measure of emotional well-being, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and an Acne Management Questionnaire were used to assess participants' psychological health, level of acne knowledge and help-seeking behaviour. Acne severity was by graded by visual facial examination using an adaptation of the Leeds Acne Grading Technique. Results There was a prevalence of acne in 50% of the study sample, with 11% of participants having moderate to severe acne (〉 20 inflammatory lesions). Participants with definite acne (12+ lesions) (P 〈 0·01) and girls (P 〈 0·05) had higher levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties. Participants with acne were nearly twice as likely as those without acne to score in the abnormal/borderline range of the SDQ (32% vs. 20%; odds ratio 1·86, 95% confidence interval 1·03–3·34). Knowledge about the causes of acne was low (mean 45%), and was unrelated to acne status. Fewer than a third of participants with definite acne had sought help from a doctor. Conclusions Acne is a common disorder in English adolescents and appears to have a considerable impact on emotional health in this age group. Low levels of acne knowledge and poor acne management are concerns that could be amenable to a school-based education programme.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 142 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Topical corticosteroids are widely prescribed by dermatologists caring for patients with atopic eczema. Patients’ fears about using topical corticosteroids may have important implications for compliance with treatment. We carried out a questionnaire-based study of 200 dermatology outpatients with atopic eczema (age range 4 months−67·8 years) to assess the prevalence and source of topical corticosteroid phobia. We also questioned patients on their knowledge of the potencies of different topical corticosteroids. Overall, 72·5% of people worried about using topical corticosteroids on their own or their child’s skin. Twenty-four per cent of people admitted to having been non-compliant with topical corticosteroid treatment because of these worries. The most frequent cause for concern was the perceived risk of skin thinning (34·5%). In addition, 9·5% of patients worried about systemic absorption leading to effects on growth and development. The most commonly used topical corticosteroid was hydrocortisone, yet 31% of patients who used this preparation classified it as either strong, very strong or did not know the potency. Only 62·5% of the 48 patients who had used both Dermovate® (Glaxo) and hydrocortisone in the past were able to correctly grade Dermovate® as being more potent than hydrocortisone. The most common source of patient information regarding topical corticosteroid safety was the general practitioner. Although skin thinning and systemic effects can develop very occasionally in people using topical corticosteroids, the concern expressed by people using them seems out of proportion in relation to the evidence of harm. This study highlights the need for provision of better information and education to patients and possibly general practitioners regarding the safety, potency and appropriate use of topical corticosteroids.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 141 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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