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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Blood samples from 1109 individuals, residents of two villages in The Gambia, West Africa, have been examined for red cell G6PD. Using both starch gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometric assay, preliminary phenotypes were assigned to the 519 males and 590 females. The G6PD genotypes were established by reference to the family trees of the two village populations. In addition to the G6PD alleles B+, A+ and A-, a fourth allele, representing a new variant of human G6PD was discovered. A significant difference in the frequency of G6PD deficiency was discovered between the two villages, despite their being of the same tribal origin and only five miles apart.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Serum samples from 857 inhabitants of the village of Keneba, The Gambia, West Africa, were examined by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In 203 cases no haptoglobin could be detected, whilst in the remaining 654 samples the three common haptoglobin phenotypes were found with gene frequencies of 0.651 (Hp1) and 0.349 (Hp2). The D1 transferrin variant gene was found with a frequency of 0.025. In the serum Gc system the fast variant Gc-Ab was detected, the gene frequencies being: Gc1, 0.943; Gc2, 0.044; and GcAb, 0.013.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A total of 701 individuals from a village in The Gambia, West Africa were tested for serum α1 - antitrypsin phenotypes by isoelectric focusing in thinlayer polyacrylamide gels (pH 4-5). A new variant allele, Pi GAM , was discovered at a polymorphic frequency (0.0642), and the inheritance of the variant phenotype was confirmed by family studies. The variant was not found to be associated with any decrease in serum α1 - concentration. The only other allele found within this population was the common allele Pi M (0.9358).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three monoclonal antibodies, LM5, F2 and F39 raised to chicken fast skeletal muscle myosin, specific for myosin heavy chain (MHC) subunit, were used to study the composition and distribution of this protein in some vertebrate skeletal muscles. These antibodies in immunohistochemical investigations did not react with the majority of the type I fibres in most muscles. Antibodies LM5 and F39 stained all the type II fibres in all the adult chicken skeletal muscles studied. Antibody F2 also stained all the type II fibres in most chicken skeletal muscles tested except in gastrocnemius in which a proportion of both the type IIA and IIB fibres either did not stain or stained only weakly. Antibody F2 unlike LM5 and F39 stained most of the type IIIB fibres in anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) and IB fibres in red strip of chicken Pectoralis muscle. Antibodies LM5 and F2 in the rat diaphragm reacted with all the type IIA and IIB fibres, while antibody F39 stained only the type IIB fibres darkly with most IIA fibres being either not stained or only weakly stained. In the rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, antibody LM5 stained all the IIA and IIB fibres. Antibody F2 in these muscles stained all the type IIA fibres but only a proportion of the IIB fibres. The remaining IIB fibres were either unstained or only weakly positive. Antibody F39 in rat EDL and TA muscles did not only distinguish subgroups of IIB fibres (dark, intermediate and negative or very weak) but also of the IIA fibres. These three antibodies used together therefore detected a great deal of heterogeneity in the myosin heavy chain composition and muscle fibre types of several skeletal muscles.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A total of 637 individuals from the rural village of Keneba in The Gambia, West Africa, have been typed for red cell PGM using isoelectric focusing (pH 5–7) in polyacrylamide gels. Eight different phenotypes have been detected. The frequency of the four alleles at the PGM1 locus was found to be PGM 1 1+ 0.795, PGM 1 1- 0.053, PGM 1 2+ 0.133, and PGM 1 2- 0.019. A study of the PGM phenotypes in 89 families confirmed the simple Mendelian codominant inheritance of the four alleles. Comparative population data suggest that red cell PGM typing by isoelectric focusing might prove to be a useful genetic marker in anthropological studies.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary During the course of a large survey of red cell G6PD genotypes in The Gambia, a slow electrophoretic variant with reduced enzyme activity was found to occur at a high frequency. This variant, G6PD Gambia, was found in the following genotypic combinations: males; G6PDGam, females; G6PDA+/Gam, G6PDB+/Gam, and G6PDA-/Gam. From the electrophoretic mobility and kinetic characteristics it was concluded that G6PD Gambia was a hitherto unreported variant of G6PD. The frequency of the G6PDGam gene amongst the 1109 individuals examined was 0.024.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Hordeum vulgare ; Disease resistance ; Genetic mapping ; RFLP ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Spot form of net blotch (SFNB) (Pyrenophora teres f maculata) is an economically damaging foliar disease of barley in many of the world’s cereal growing areas. The development of SFNB-resistant cultivars may be accelerated through the use of molecular markers. A screen for SFNB resistance in 96 lines identified four new sources of resistance, including a feed variety, ‘Galleon’, for which a fully mapped doubled haploid population was available. Segregation data indicated SFNB resistance was conferred by a single gene in the ‘Galleon’בHaruna Nijo’ cross, positioned on the long arm of chromosome 7H. This gene is designated Rpt4 and is flanked by the RFLP loci Xpsr117(D) and Xcdo673 at distances of 6.9 cM and 25.9 cM, respectively. The marker Xpsr117(D) was validated using another population segregating for Rpt4, correctly predicting SFNB resistance with more than 90% accuracy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC) is a naturally-occurring viral infection of the laboratory rat. On the first passage, ATCC strain 8190 of PRC replicated in L-2 cells. Using the tenth passage of PRC in L-2 cells, the characteristics of the virus were compared with previous studies of sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) replicated in L-2 cells. Based on light and immunofluorescence microscopic examination of control and inoculated cell cultures, PRC-associated CPE was frequently confined primarily to individual cells, and there were relatively few syncytial giant cells. Maximum titers were recovered at 36h post inoculation (pi). Infectious virus was demonstrated at pH values ranging from 6.0 to 9.0 and a pH of 7.5 was determined to produce the highest titers of PRC. The optimum temperature for viral replication was 33°C. Up to 15 passages of PRC in L-929 cells failed to produce detectable virus. However, after adaptation in L-2 cells (20th passage), PRC replicated to high titers in L-929 cells. Previously, in vitro studies of rat coronaviruses have been hampered by the lack of an identified continuous cell line to replicate these viruses in the laboratory. L-2 cells represent a readily-available continuous cell line that can support the replication of relatively high titers of PRC.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC) are two recognized viral strains which cause spontaneous disease in the laboratory rat. Currently there is no recognized practical procedure which will accurately differentiate infections with these strains. Using SDAV- and PRC-infected L-2 cells as the source of antigen, and sera from rats collected post inoculation with either of these viral strains, the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was used to determine whether antibody titers could be used to differentiate infections from the homologous and heterologous virus. There was no detectable difference in the sensitivity or specificity of these systems in detecting antibody to the homologous or heterologous virus. Thus there was no evidence that SDAV- and PRC-infected cells would serve to differentiate antibody to the homologous virus using the IFA technique. In addition, antibody titers were similar when mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-infected cells were used as the source of antigen for the IFA technique. However, using MHV or SDAV-infected cells as the source of antigen, there was a significant difference in antibody titers to the homologous virus detected using the immunoenzyme technique.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Restriction fragment length polymorphism ; CCN ; Genetic mapping ; Triticum aestivum ; Heterodera avenae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cereal cyst nematode (CCN) (Heterodera avenae Woll.) is an economically damaging pest of wheat in many of the worlds cereal growing areas. The development of CCN-resistant cultivars may be accelerated by the use of molecular markers. The Cre gene of the wheat line “AUS 10894” confers resistance to CCN. Using a pair of near-isogenic lines (NILs) that should differ only in a small chromosome segment containing the Cre locus, we screened 58 group-2 probes and found two (Tag605 and CDO588) that detect polymorphism between the NILs. Nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines confirmed that the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers identified were derived from the long arm of wheat chromosome 2. Crosses between “AUS 10894” and “Spear” and the NIL “AP” and its recurrent parent “Prins” were used to produce F2 populations that gave the expected 3∶1 segregation ratio for the resistance gene. Linkage analysis identified two RFLP markers flanking the resistance gene. Xglk605 and Xcdo588 mapped 7.3 cM (LOD=6.0) and 8.4 cM (LOD=6.7), respectively, from the Cre locus.
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