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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Examination of the intracellular and extracellular virus yields from individual FL and primary human amnion cells of uniform size, infected at a high multiplicity and incubated for specified time intervals, showed that the time of the onset of the appearance of mature infectious virus and the amount of accumulated infectious virus were variable from cell to cell. The duration of the major accumulation of mature virus by individual cells was found to be from 4 to 6 hours. The cells in the FL population, infected with Type 1 poliovirus, fell into two classes in regard to the accumulation and release of virus. The “early releasers” released some virus during the period of accumulation, yet they continued to accumulate additional virus which they subsequently released. The “late releasers”, represented by the majority of the cells, released virus at some time after accumulation had ceased. All cells in the primary human amnion cultures, infected with Coxsackie A-9 virus studied fell into the “late releasing” class.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 diabetes ; HLA-A2 ; age association ; Pima Indians ; diabetes ; genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In Pima Indians with Type 2 (insulin independent) diabetes mellitus, HLA-A2 allele frequencies were inversely associated with age, (0.72, 0.59, and 0.52 in those less than 35, 35 to 54, and 55 years old and over, respectively). This suggests that there may be a gene closely linked with the HLA-A locus which plays a role in the expression of diabetes in the Pimas by contributing to an earlier age of onset. HLA-A2 was found in 65% of 69 non-diabetic and 81% of 191 diabetic subjects (relative risk = 2.2).
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  • 3
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    Springer
    Cancer immunology immunotherapy 8 (1980), S. 3-7 
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper reviews the evidence linking prostaglandin E (PGE) with the growth of neoplastic tissue. PGE 2 is present in high concentrations in many natural and experimentally produced cancers. The immunosuppressive effect of some tumors in mice is due at least in part to a prostaglandin mechanism. The growth of these same tumors can be slowed and in some cases the tumor eliminated by administration of PG synthetase inhibitors. It is not yet clear whether the antitumor properties of these PG synthetase inhibitors are due to their releasing the hostimmune system from the chronic prostaglandin-mediated suppression of the tumor, resulting in an effective immune response to the tumor, or whether another mechanism is responsible. In humans overproduction of PGE 2 by macrophages is partly responsible for the depressed PHA response in patients with Hodgkin's disease.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study involved histometry of the healed tissues around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants in beagle dogs. In a split-mouth design, 19 submerged and 19 nonsubmerged commercially pure titanium implants, titanium plasma-sprayed in the bone anchoring part and smooth in the transmucosal portion were placed in the mandibles of 6 dogs. Oral hygiene was performed 3 times weekly. After 3 months of healing, transmucosal abutments were inserted in the submerged implants. Six weeks after second stage surgery, the dogs were sacrificed and specimens obtained and processed for histology and histometry. Using a light microscope and a digitizing pad, the distance from implant top to mucosa border (DIM), the extent of epithelial downgrowth (ED), the attachment level (AL). the length of connective tissue contact (CTC) and the distance of the first coronal alveolar bone contact from the implant top (DIB) were measured at the mesial and distal aspects. Means+standard deviations for submerged and nonsubmerged implants were calculated, with the dog being the unit of measure. No statistically significant differences between submerged and nonsubmerged implants here found for DIM, CTC and DIB. However, significant differences were observed for ED and AL. This study in beagle dogs indicates that the apical extension of the peri-implant epithelium is significantly greater and the attachment level significantly lower adjacent to submerged implants with second-stage transmucosal abutments than in nonsubmerged, one-stage implants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: There is increasing interest in how pathways of tissue destruction around dental implants are similar as for teeth and how these pathways can be modulated to slow loss of supporting bone. The purposes of this study were to develop a short-term animal model to study the effect of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, on slowing the rate of induced peri-implant bone resorption. A total of 20 cylindrical titanium implants were placed in 2 beagle dogs using a low-trauma surgical technique. During the 3-month healing period without functional loading of the implants, daily oral hygiene was performed to maintain a Gingival Index of 0 to 0.5. At completion of the healing period, a baseline evaluation was performed which included the uptake of the bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical (BSRU)99mtechnetium-tin-diphosphonate (99mTc-Sn-MDP) in peri-implant bone and standardized radiographs. Peri-implantitis was induced with 4-O silk ligatures, cessation of oral hygiene and soft diet. One beagle was given 0.02 mgikg of flurbiprofen by mouth; the other received a placebo. BSRU and radiographic height of bone were remeasured to calculate the rate of bone loss during the 60-day treatment period. The percent rate of bone loss during the study period was calculated from the radiographs using a computer-assisted method. The radiopharmaceutical uptake for the flurbiprofen-treated implants remained unchanged. However, BSRU for placebo-treated implants was significantly increased from baseline. Radiographic measurements of bone height revealed that the mean rate of bone loss around implants in the flurbiprofen-treated dog (0.066±0.351%/month) was significantly lower than the rate around implants in the placebo-treated dogs (5.729±0.384%/month) over the 60-day treatment period. These data indicate that peri-implant bone loss can be rapidly induced and measured in the beagle and that flurbiprofen. administered orally, can significantly decrease the rate of induced peri-implant bone loss.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Several parameters have been described to determine success or failure in long-term evaluations of dental implants. One of these parameters is the observation of changes in peri-implant bone levels. Studies on submerged implants have analyzed the bone level changes in the pre- and post-loading phases. No such data exist for intentionally nonsubmerged implants. The purposes of this study were: (1) to test the applicability and reproducibillity of a simple computer-assisted method in the evaluation of changes in peri-implant bone levels;(2) to establish a baseline for the longterm radiographic follow-up; and (3) to evaluate changes in crestal bone levels adjacent to nonsubmerged IT1 implants between the 1-year and 2-year examination. Standardized periapical radiographs were obtained from 80 implants at the l-year and 2-year follow-up examinations after their placement. The implants were located in different jaw areas of 55 patients and supported single crowns or short-span fixed partial dentures. For each implant, the distance from implant shoulder to first crestal bone contact (DIB) was measured at the proximal surfaces with a digitizer/computer assembly. Statistically significant greater mean DIB were found at the l-year (baseline) evaluation for: (I) maxillary sites overall (4.10 x 1.02 mm (SD)) compared with mandibular sites overall (3.61 ± 1.03 mm);(2) maxillary anterior sites (4.08 ± 0.97 mm) compared with mandibular posterior sites (3.60 ± 1.05 mm); and (3) maxillary posterior sites (4.13 ± 1.12 mm) compared with mandibular posterior sites. No statistically significant changes in DIB occurred in any of the jaw locations between the l-year and 2-year evaluations. These results indicate similar changes in peri-implant bone levels for non-submerged implants over a 2-year period 1 as reported for submerged fixtures.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of systemic tetracycline on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption was studied in beagle dogs. Seventeen dogs were divided into three groups receiving either no treatment, 250 mg tetracycline HO, or 500 mg tetracycline HC1 daily. The severity of gingival inflammation and activity of alveolar bone resorption during a 6-month pretreatment period was compared to a 24-month treatment period for each individual tooth studied. In the first 12 months of treatment there was a significant decrease in the severity of gingival inflammation and the activity of alveolar bone loss in the tetracycline treated dogs. By 24 months of treatment increased gingival inflammation and rate of bone loss was evident in the treated dogs. In the untreated control dogs there was a statistically significant association between the severity of gingival inflammation and activity of alveolar bone resorption about the teeth studied. In the tetracycline treated dogs, no such association existed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nisin, an antimicrobial peptide, on the development of plaque and gingivitis in beagle dogs when compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine and a placebo. 16 female beagle dogs 1 year of age were brought to optimum gingival health by scaling, root planing and polishing. At the conclusion of the pretreatment phase, the dogs were divided into 4 groups for the application of the test agents and were placed on a plaque promoting diet of Purina Dog Chow softened with water. Test agents included 100 μg/ml nisin and 300 μg/ml nisin formulated in a vehicle containing 1 mM NaEDTA; negative control comprised of exactly the same formulation but omitting nisin; and 0.12% chlorhexidine as Peridex®. Throughout the treatment period, formulations were applied 2 × daily to premolar teeth in each quadrant for 1 min using a Monojet syringe. The development of plaque and gingivitis was monitored at 15, 27, 39, 53, 74 and 88 days during the treatment phase using standard measurements of gingival index, plaque index, stain index and bleeding to probing. Throughout the treatment phase, plaque accumulation increased in all groups, but the rate of plaque build-up was less in groups treated with either nisin or chlorhexidine formulations compared with the placebo treated group. The gingival index of dogs in all groups increased throughout the study period. However, from day 27 onward, the groups receiving nisin had lower gingival index scores than did the placebo group. At day 39 and onward, the chlorhexidine group had significantly lower gingival index scores than the placebo group. All groups demonstrated an increased in % Weeding sites. However, from day 27 onward, the 300, μg/ml nisin group and from day 39 the 100 μg/ml group, had significantly fewer % bleeding sites than the placebo group. An evaluation of the staining intensity index revealed that staining for the chlorhexidine-treated group was significantly greater than that of placebo and nisin at days 27, 74 and 88. In conclusion, nisin is an antimicrobial agent and is effective in the reduction of plaque build-up and gingivitis in the beagle dogs.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Our research group has recently reported that exogenously applied histatins can inhibit plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation in a preclinical canine model (Paquette et al. 1997).Objectives: The aims of the present double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial were to evaluate the safety and toxicity of three histatin (P-113) concentrations in gel formulations, and to assess potential clinical benefit on the development of gingivitis (partial mouth design).Material and methods: One hundred and six healthy subjects were recruited and brought to optimal gingival health (GI 〈 0.5) prior to treatment initiation. At baseline, eligible subjects were randomized for one of the following treatments: (1) placebo; (2) 0.0625% P-113; (3) 0.125% P-113; and (4) 0.375% P-113. Patients self-applied gels twice daily for 29 days to the maxillary right quadrant with the use of customized stents. In addition, patients deferred all oral hygiene procedures within this quadrant for the duration of the treatment period. Safety was assessed in terms of physical and oral examinations, clinical laboratory testing and recording of adverse events. Clinical indices were measured weekly and included gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and %BOP.Results:  All study formulations were well tolerated by patients, and no differences in adverse event occurrences were noted among treatment groups, including taste alteration or staining. For the intent-to-treat population, significantly smaller %BOP changes were noted in subjects treated with 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.375% P-113 gels (17.4, 18.18 and 17.9%, respectively) versus placebo (28.0%) (p 〈 0.05) at day 29. When groups were compared in terms of per cent responders (change in %BOP 〈 15 or 〈 20%), P-113 treatment groups exhibited a higher frequency of response, especially for the 0.0625 and 0.125% P-113 formulations (p 〈 0.05). Although no statistically significant intergroup differences were noted for changes in GI or PI among all subjects (intent-to-treat population), significantly smaller changes in PI at day 22 were observed among compliant individuals (defined as subjects using 〉 60% of the target gel mass) administering P-113 gels as compared with compliant placebo subjects (p 〈 0.05).Conclusions: These data indicate safety and tolerance of P-113 gels for topical oral use in human subjects. These data also suggest that P-113 gels administered twice daily may reduce experimental gingivitis as measured with bleeding on probing in humans.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-9949
    Keywords: Rheumatoid Factors ; ELISA ; Radioimmunoassay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary IgM, IgA, and IgG Rheumatoid Factors (RF) were measured by ELISA assay in serum from 26 patients with definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 11 normal controls. IgM-RF was assayed by ELISA, radioimmunoassay,and also by the standard latex fixation test in all sera from RA patients. In patients with RA quantitative amounts of IgM, IgA, and IgG-RF as estimated by ELISA were highly correlated. Significant correlations were found between a physician's rating of disease activity and IgG-RF (r=0.44; p〈.02) and IgA-RF (r=0.38; p=.06 but not for IgM-RF as measured in any of the three assays.
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