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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Pericyte ; diabetes ; acellular capillaries ; skeletal muscle ; diabetic retinopathy ; capillary basement membrane width
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ultrastractural morphometry was used to quantify capillary basement membrane width, pericyte coverage of capillaries, pericyte degeneration, and the extent of acellular capillaries in skeletal muscle obtained at autopsy from neck, thigh, calf and foot of five male and four female diabetic subjects and an equal number of sex- and age-matched nondiabetic subjects. Within diabetic or nondiabetic subjects, the trend for all four parameters to increase in frequency or magnitude in the order neck 〈 thigh 〈 calf was highly significant; the only statistically significant difference between calf and foot muscles for any of the four parameters was capillary basement membrane width for nondiabetic subjects, which was significantly thinner in foot than in calf muscle (t=2.45;p〈0.05). Pericyte coverage of capillaries did not differ between diabetic and nondiabetic subjects for each muscle examined; however, capillary basement membrane width, the frequency of pericyte debris and acellular capillaries were increased significantly in the lower extremity muscles of diabetic compared to nondiabetic subjects, and the magnitude of the difference between these two groups increased in the order thigh 〈 calf 〈 foot. The observations that pericyte degeneration and acellular capillaries are present in skeletal muscle as well as in retinal microvessels suggest that common pathophysiological mechanisms may contribute to vascular disease in these two very different tissues. The additional finding that relative differences between diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, in the frequency and magnitude of these changes, increase in the order neck 〈 calf 〈 foot is consistent with the marked increase in peripheral vascular disease and gangrene in the lower extremities of diabetic patients.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 18 (1980), S. 179-185 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusions 1) The statistical methods utilized by UGDP investigators were inappropriate to the biopharmacological nature of the questions addressed and the conclusions drawn from the study. 2) The anomalous sex ratio of cardiovascular deaths in PLBO subjects constitutes a spurious result which renders suspect all UGDP conclusions based on comparison with that group. Again, one must ask, “How and why did these problems happen and how can they be avoided in the future?” Our findings indicate the answer to the second part of the question; only UGDP investigators themselves can answer the first.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Nicotinamide ; streptozotocin ; albumin permeation ; glomerular filtration rate ; blood flow ; urinary protein excretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Rats injected i. p. with a single dose of nicotinamide (250 mg/kg) 15 min prior to i.v. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) develop a very mild form of diabetes characterized by slight elevations of plasma glucose, increased levels of HbA1, and reduced insulin secretion in response to an i.v. glucose tolerance test. These rats gain weight normally and they are not hyperphagic, glycosuric, or polyuric. The effects of this very mild form of diabetes vs overt streptozotocin diabetes of three months duration on regional vascular 131I-albumin clearance, blood flow (assessed by 15 μm 85Sr-microspheres), and renal filtration function were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma glucose levels of rats with mild diabetes were 7.4±0.9 (mean±SD) (mmol/l) vs 6.5±0.6 for control rats and 31.3±6.0 for overtly diabetic rats. HbA1 levels were increased 1.4 fold in mildly diabetic and 2.3 fold in overtly diabetic rats. Vascular clearance of 131I-albumin was markedly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, retina, and choroid), sciatic nerve, aorta, new (subcutaneous) granulation tissue, and kidney of both diabetic groups, although increases in overtly diabetic rats exceeded those in the mildly diabetic group (2.2–4.6 times control animals vs 1.6–3.3 times, respectively). Likewise, both overt and very mild diabetes markedly increased glomerular filtration rate (∼1.8 times and 1.2 times control animals, respectively), urinary excretion of endogenous albumin (∼9 times and 4 times) and IgG (∼15 times and 4 times), as well as regional blood flow in the anterior uvea, choroid, and sciatic nerve. Increases in tissue sorbitol levels were much larger in overtly diabetic rats (generally 10–20 times control animals) than in mildly diabetic rats (1.5–3 times controls). myo-Inositol levels were significantly decreased only in lens and sciatic nerve of overtly diabetic rats. These observations indicate that even very mild diabetes is associated with vascular functional changes which develop more slowly than in overtly diabetic rats, but are disproportionately large (in view of the minimal increases in glycaemia and tissue polyol levels) compared to those in overtly diabetic rats.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Islet transplants ; diabetes ; vascular permeability ; collagen crosslinks ; nonenzymatic glycosylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of islet transplantation on diabetes-induced increases in vascular permeability and collagen solubility were examined in new granulation tissue vessels and collagen formed after induction of streptozotocin diabetes in male Lewis rats. Albumin permeation was increased by 50% (p〈0.001) and collagen solubility was decreased by 50% (p〈0.001) in granulation tissue from untreated diabetic animals as compared with controls. The islet transplants reversed diabetes-induced vascular permeability increases in tissues formed prior to islet transplantation (tissue to blood isotope ratio =2.1±0.1 - SD for controls, 3.2±0.2 for diabetic rats and 2.0±0.2 for diabetic rats given islets) and prevented permeability increases in new tissues formed following transplantation (tissue to blood isotope ratio =2.1±0.1 for controls, 3.3±0.8 for diabetic rats and 1.9±0.2 for diabetic rats given islets). In contrast, while islet transplants prevented diabetes-induced decreased collagen solubility in tissues formed after transplantation (controls = 24%, diabetic rats =12%, and diabetic rats given islets =24%), collagen solubility in tissues formed prior to islet transplantation was virtually unaffected. These findings indicate that collagen changes induced by the diabetic milieu are not nearly as readily reversed by normalization of the diabetic milieu as (diabetes-induced) alterations in vascular functional integrity.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; glomerulosclerosis ; light microscopy ; University Group Diabetes Program ; hyperglycaemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Kidney tissue of acceptable quality was available from autopsies of 55 patients who had been followed prospectively for 3 to 15 years as participants in the University Group Diabetes Program, a study of vascular disease in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Slides were prepared for light microscopic reading by uniform histologic techniques, and then were randomly intermixed and coded with tissues identically prepared from matched nondiabetic subjects (morphologic controls). After independent review by three morphologists, the results were tabulated and assigned to one of four diagnostic groups: 1) typical diabetic nodular glomerulosclerosis; 2) mesangial changes suggestive of diabetes (diffuse lesion); 3) non-diabetic renal disease; 4) normal for age. Of the diabetic cases 31% (17 of 55) were found to show nodular glomerulosclerosis, and another 47% (26 of 55) showed suggestive changes; none of the morphologic control slides was read as showing nodular glomerulosclerosis, but some were judged to show suggestive mesangial (diffuse) changes. Although only 4 of the 17 diabetic patients with nodules had died of uraemia, many had hypertension, which may have contributed to their deaths from vascular disease. The patients with nodular glomerular changes also showed, on the average, the highest blood glucose levels during life. Type 2 diabetes in later life appears to be associated with a high risk for typical tissue changes of diabetic kidney damage, which may contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality and may be present before azotaemia and qualitative proteinuria have been recognized.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 206 (1965), S. 364-367 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE addition of epinephrine to isolated skeletal or X cardiac muscle preparations is followed by a complex series of events affecting both metabolism and mechanical performance. The primary event is thought to be a combination of the drug with a specific tissue receptor site1. Subsequent effects ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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