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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Since there are major differences between the airway epithelium of man and that of common laboratory species, the tracheobronchial epithelium of the bonnet macaque was characterized to evaluate its usefulness as a model for study of human conducting airways. This study compared the light microscopic, scanning electron microscopic, and ultrastructural appearance of epithelium from the posterior membranous and anterior cartilaginous trachea and mainstem bronchus. Population densities, epithelial volumetric densities, and frequency distributions of cross-sectional areas of nuclei were determined for cell types present on electron micrographs. Four epithelial cell types were distinguished by ultrastructural criteria. Basal cells were 31% of the population and were similar to those described in other species. Ciliated cells were also similar to those of other species and composed 41% of the population; their nuclei were larger than those of other cell types. Mucous goblet cells had large numbers of secretory granules with electron-dense cores and a lucent periphery. They were only 8% of the population by nuclear count but composed 20% of the epithelial volume. The fourth cell type had multiple small vesicles containing small amounts of granular material and was termed a “small mucous granule cell.” Small mucous granule cells (16% of the population) were present in greater numbers than mucous goblet cells but were a smaller proportion of the epithelial volume (8%). While population densities of cell types determined from transmission electron micrographs did not vary between sample sites, scanning electron microscopy demonstrated longitudinal streaks of secretory cells in the posterior trachea suggesting that regional differences in epithelial organization exist. We conclude that the macaque extrapulmonary airway epithelium differs from published descriptions of laboratory rodents in both cell types present and relative abundance of those cell types. Although detailed quantitative studies of human extrapulmonary airways are not available, the primate airways resemble those of man in both the types of cells present and the complexity of pseudostratification.
    Additional Material: 20 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins - DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (gaINAc), BSAI (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), UEA I (Ulex europeus) - for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2 -fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in lumminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. Inp proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of 〈 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells containde weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.
    Additional Material: 24 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the present study was to characterize ultrastructurally the nonolfactory nasal epithelium of a nonhuman primate, the bonnet monkey. Nasal cavities from eight subadult bonnet monkeys were processed for light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nonolfactory epithelium covered the majority of the nasal cavity and consisted of squamous (SE), transitional (TE), and respiratory epithelium (RE). Stratified SE covered septal and lateral walls of the nasal vestibule, while ciliated pseudostratified RE covered most of the remaining nasal cavity. Stratified, nonciliated TE was present betwen SE and RE in the anterior nasal cavity. This epithelium was distinct from the other epithelial populations in abundance and types of cells present. TE was composed of lumenal nonciliated cuboidal cells, goblet cells, small mucous granule (SMG) cells, and basal cells, while RE contained ciliated cells, goblet cells, SMG cells, basal cells, and cells with intracytoplasmic lumina lined by cilia and microvilli. TE and RE contained similar numbers of total epithelial cells and basal cells per millimeter of basal lamina. TE was composed of more SMG cells but fewer goblet cells compared to RE. We conclude that nonolfactory nasal epithelium in the bonnet monkey is complex with distinct regional epithelial populations which must be recognized before pathologic changes within this tissue can be assessed adequately.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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