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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Nitric oxide ; Nitrergic nerves ; Arteriovenous anastomoses ; Epithelioid cells ; Man ; Rat (Wistar) ; Rabbit ; Dog
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nitrergic innervation and nitrergic epithelioid cells were studied in arteriovenous anastomoses of the tongue, ear, eye, and glomus organ of the finger in different species (rat, rabbit, dog, and man), by means of immunohistochemistry for nitric oxide synthase and enzyme histochemistry utilizing the catalytic activity of this enzyme (the NADPH-diaphorase reaction). Nitrergic perivascular fibers of the tongue were concentrated along the arterial tree and were maximal at the arteriovenous anastomoses in all species. Generally, fewer fibers were located around comparable segments of the episcleral eye vasculature. Only a few nitrergic fibers were found in the canine and rabbit ear, and in the glomus organ of the human finger; however, epithelioid cells in the tunica media of arteriovenous anastomoses of these organs were NADPH-diaphorase-positive and were moderately immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase. In the epithelioid cells, the reaction product of the NADPH-diaphorase could also be demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. The epithelioid cells were negative for the panneural and neuroendocrine marker PGP 9.5 confirming the myocytotic nature of these nitrergic cells. Thus, nitric oxide might play a role in mediating the vessel tone of arteriovenous anastomoses via nitrergic nerves or epithelioid cells.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Nitric oxide – Nitrergic nerves – Arterio-venous anastomoses – Epithelioid cells – Man – Rat (Wistar) – Rabbit – Dog
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Nitrergic innervation and nitrergic epithelioid cells were studied in arteriovenous anastomoses of the tongue, ear, eye, and glomus organ of the finger in different species (rat, rabbit, dog, and man), by means of immunohistochemistry for nitric oxide synthase and enzyme histochemistry utilizing the catalytic activity of this enzyme (the NADPH-diaphorase reaction). Nitrergic perivascular fibers of the tongue were concentrated along the arterial tree and were maximal at the arteriovenous anastomoses in all species. Generally, fewer fibers were located around comparable segments of the episcleral eye vasculature. Only a few nitrergic fibers were found in the canine and rabbit ear, and in the glomus organ of the human finger; however, epithelioid cells in the tunica media of arteriovenous anastomoses of these organs were NADPH-diaphorase-positive and were moderately immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase. In the epithelioid cells, the reaction product of the NADPH-diaphorase could also be demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. The epithelioid cells were negative for the pan-neural and neuroendocrine marker PGP 9.5 confirming the myocytotic nature of these nitrergic cells. Thus, nitric oxide might play a role in mediating the vessel tone of arteriovenous anastomoses via nitrergic nerves or epithelioid cells.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Nucleus ambiguus ; Enteric nervous system ; Motor endplate ; Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) ; Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ; Coinnervation ; Anterograde tracing ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We investigated the origin of galanin-positive nerve fibers on motor endplates in rat esophagus using anterograde 1,1′-dioleyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methane sulfonate (DiI) tracing from the nucleus ambiguus combined with galanin immunocytochemistry and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunocytochemistry. To demonstrate spatial relationships of galanin-positive nerve fibers to vagal and enteric nerve fibers on motor endplates, we combined galanin immunocytochemistry with calcitonin gene-related peptide immunostaining for labeling of vagal terminals, and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry for demonstration of enteric nerve fibers. Within fine varicose nerve fibers, galanin was colocalized with vasoactive intestinal peptide and NADPH-diaphorase to a high degree and turned out to be completely separated from calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive or anterogradely DiI-labeled vagal motor terminals. These results indicate that the enteric nervous system is the most important and possibly the only source of galanin-positive nerve terminals on motor endplates in rat esophagus. Galanin may be, in addition to nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide, a mediator of the enteric coinnervation of striated muscle in this organ.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Wird ein Pulvergemisch zweier starrer Komponenten, welche einer Vereinigung nach dem Schema A + B → AB befähigt sind, bei allmählich ansteigender Temperatur erhitzt, so wird die Reaktion dadurch eingeleitet, daß die Komponente mit den leichter beweglichen Gitterbausteinen (das Sorptiv) auf die Oberfläche der Komponente mit den schwerer beweglichen Gitterbausteinen (das Sorbens) diffundiert und die Körner der letzteren Komponente vollständig einhüllt. Dies wird mit Hilfe einer Indizierung mit radioaktiven Isotopen an dem Vorgang ZnO + Al2O3 → Zn(AlO2)2 gezeigt und mit Hilfe ferromagnetischer Methoden an dem Vorgang xCu + yNi → CuxNiy (Mischkristalle).
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Keywords: Iodine prophylaxis ; iodized salt ; iodine excretion ; hyroid volume ; Jod ; Jodsalz ; Jodausscheidung ; Schilddrüsenvolumen ; Jodprophylaxe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Rahmen einer Gesundheitskampagne zu Jodmangel und Jodprophylaxe an fünf süddeutschen Universitäten wurde 1992 das Schilddrüsenvolumen und die renale Jodausscheidung bei 472 Männern und 568 Frauen (mittleres Alter 27,7 Jahre) bestimmt. Ziel war es den Einfluß des Ernährungswissens und der durchgeführten Jodprophylaxe auf den Jodversorgungsstatus der Studienteilnehmer in einem Jodmangelgebiet zu untersuchen. Das mittlere Schilddrüsenvolumen betrug 19,7±8,3 ml (x±SD) bei den Männern und 15,8±7,1 ml bei den Frauen. 19,9 % der Männer und 25,5 % der Frauen wiesen Schilddrüsenvolumina über der geschlechtspezifischen Norm auf. Die mittlere Jodausscheidung entsprach dem WHO-definierten Jodmangel Grad I (70,7±42 µg (J/g Kreatinin). 80,8 % bzw. 43,2 % des Gesamtkollektivs gaben an, Jodsalz zu verwenden bzw. Seefisch zu essen, um ihren Jodbedarf zu decken. Die korrespondierende Jodausscheidung der weiblichen Jodsalzverwender und Seefischesser war signifikant erhöht (83,9±47,6 vs. 61,4±31,3 µg J/g Kreatinin, p〈0,05). Das Schilddrüsenvolumen unterschied sich zwischen diesen Gruppen jedoch nicht. Der Aufenthaltsort der letzten 10 Jahre hatte keinen signifikanten Einfluß auf das Schilddrüsenvolumen. Die Häufigkeit von Schilddrüsenvolumina über der geschlechtsspezifischen Norm stieg mit dem Alter. Auch in diesem überdurchschnittlich gebildeten und jungen (81,8 % Studenten) Kollektiv war die Jodversorgung, gemessen am Schilddrüsenvolumen und an der Jodausscheidung, und das Wissen über Jod und Ernähung schlecht. Die derzeit durchgeführte individuelle Jodprophylaxe führt nicht zu einer ausreichenden Jodversorgung. Der Einsatz von jodiertem Speisesalz in Haushalten und Kantinen, und auch für die industrielle Herstellung von Lebensmitteln muß erhöht werden.
    Notes: Summary Thyroid volume, urinary iodine excretion as well as personal nutritional knowledge and individual iodine prophylaxis were determined during a health education program on iodine deficiency and prophylaxis in 1992. Participants were 472 male and 568 female (mean age 27.7 years) students and employees of five universities in the southern part of Germany. The study aimed to clarify the relationship between personal knowledge on iodine, individual iodine prophylaxis and parameters of iodine deficiency (thyroid volume, iodine excretion) in a well known iodine deficient area. Mean thyroid volume (mean±SD) was 19.7±8.3 ml in males and 15.8±7.1 ml in females. 25.5 % of females and 19.9 % of males showed thyroid volume above the upper normal values. Total mean urinary iodine excretion was 70.7±42 µg I/g creatinine reflecting WHO-grade-I iodine deficiency. 80.8 % of total subjects used iodized salt and 43.2 % stated to consume salt-water fish to meet their iodine requirement. The female non-users had significantly lower iodine excretion (no iodized salt, no salt-water fish: 61.4±31.3 vs. +iodized salt, +salt-water fish: 83.9±47.6 µg I/g creatinine; p〈0.05), however, thyroid volume was identical in these groups. The area of residence over the last 10 years did not significantly influence the thyroid volume. The goiter incidence increased with age. Although our study population was highly educated (81.8 % students) and the subjects were provided with educational brochures immediately prior to the study, knowledge about iodine content of food was poor. We conclude that despite a high degree of voluntary iodine prophylaxis and educational programs the iodine intake is insufficient. The use of iodized salt in households, cafeterias, and also in food manufacturing must be increased for sufficient iodine prophylaxis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study, we wished to clarify the distribution and co-localization of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in nerve cells, nerve fibres and parenchymal cells in exocrine and endocrine pancreas, and to assess the influence of fixation on the staining pattern obtained. For this purpose, we applied nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry and NADPH-d histochemistry to rat and human pancreas under different fixation conditions. Antibodies to neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were similarly applied. We found complete co-localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-d in ganglion cells, and in nerve fibres around acini, excretory ducts, blood vessels and in islets of Langerhans of rat and human pancreas. Immunoreactivity for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was co-localized with NADPH-d in endothelial cells. However, in NADPH-d reactive islet and ductal epithelial cells we could detect neither brain nor endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity with any fixation protocol applied. There were marked differences in NADPH-d staining of both neurons and parenchymal cells under different fixation conditions. These results indicate the existence of different types of NADPH-d, which are associated or not associated with nitric oxide synthase(s), and which are differently influenced by various fixation procedures in rat and human pancreas.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Keywords: Striated muscle Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Myogenesis Transdifferentiation Neurotrophic factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. TrkB expression was investigated immunocytochemically in the developing musculature of mouse esophagus using conventional and confocal laser scanning microscopy. To demonstrate spatial relationships of TrkB immunoreactive cells to striated and smooth muscle fibers we combined TrkB immunocytochemistry with fluorochrome-tagged α-bungarotoxin for labeling of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and α-smooth muscle actin for labeling of smooth muscle cells. At developmental stages E15 to P7, TrkB immunoreactive cells transiently occurred in a transformation zone where striated intermingled with smooth muscle fibers. This transformation zone started in the rostral esophagus at E15, moved caudally, and disappeared between P7 and P10 in the caudal esophagus. The first TrkB-immunoreactive cells appeared in the outer muscle layer at E15. No TrkB-positive cells exhibited acetylcholine receptor clusters or were positive for α-smooth muscle actin. A few showed slight α-bungarotoxin staining over their entire surface. Taken together, the appearance of TrkB-expressing cells in the transformation zone suggest a role in muscle transdifferentiation. Alternatively, these results, together with recent in vitro data, suggest that TrkB is expressed in a subpopulation of myoblasts in which acetylcholine receptor clustering may be inhibited through a TrkB-mediated pathway.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Esophagus ; Nitric oxide ; Vasoactive intestinal peptide ; Vagus ; Enteric nervous system ; Confocal imaging ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Enteric co-innervation of motor endplates in the rat esophagus was studied with confocal laser scanning and electron microscopy. Enteric fibers were demonstrated with immunocytochemistry for nitric oxide synthase, vasoactive intestinal peptide or NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Vagal motor terminals were identified with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunocytochemistry. Teloglia was stained with immuno- cytochemistry for S100, and TRITC-tagged α-bungarotoxin was used to delineate endplate areas in immmunofluorescence preparations. Both confocal imaging and electron microscopy revealed intimate relationships between enteric and vagal terminals on the one hand, and enteric terminals and the sarcolemma on the other. In addition, electron microscopy could point out direct apposition of a significant proportion of enteric varicosities to vagal motor terminals without intervening teloglial processes. These morphological data are compatible with pre- and postsynaptic modulatory effects of enteric neurons on vagal neuromuscular transmission in striated esophageal muscle.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Esophagus ; Motor innervation ; NADPH-diaphorase ; Enteric nervous system ; Nucleus ambiguus ; Anterograde tracing ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry was combined with demonstration of acetylcholinesterase and immunocytochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide to study esophageal innervation in the rat. Most of the myenteric neurons stained positively for NADPH-diaphorase, as did numerous varicose nerve fibers in the myenteric plexus, among striated muscle fibers, around arterial blood vessels, and in the muscularis mucosae. A majority of motor endplates (as demonstrated by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunocytochemistry) were associated with fine varicose NADPH-diaphorase-positive nerve fibers. Analysis of brainstem nuclei, sensory vagal, spinal, and sympathetic ganglia in normal and neonatally capsaicin-treated rats, and comparison with anterogradely labeled vagal branchiomotor, preganglionic and sensory fibers led to the conclusion that NADPH-diaphorase-positive fibers on motor endplates originate in esophageal myenteric neurons. No association of NADPH-diaphorasepositive nerve fibers with motor endplates was found in other organs containing striated muscle. These results suggest extensive, presumably nitrergic, co-innervation of esophageal striated muscle fibers by enteric neurons. Thus, control of peristalsis in the esophagus of the rat may be more complex than hitherto assumed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Esophagus – Motor innervation – NADPH-diaphorase – Enteric nervous system – Nucleus ambiguus – Anterograde tracing – Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry was combined with demonstration of acetylcholinesterase and immunocytochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide to study esophageal innervation in the rat. Most of the myenteric neurons stained positively for NADPH-diaphorase, as did numerous varicose nerve fibers in the myenteric plexus, among striated muscle fibers, around arterial blood vessels, and in the muscularis mucosae. A majority of motor endplates (as demonstrated by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunocytochemistry) were associated with fine varicose NADPH-diaphorase-positive nerve fibers. Analysis of brainstem nuclei, sensory vagal, spinal, and sympathetic ganglia in normal and neonatally capsaicin-treated rats, and comparison with anterogradely labeled vagal branchiomotor, preganglionic and sensory fibers led to the conclusion that NADPH-diaphorase-positive fibers on motor endplates originate in esophageal myenteric neurons. No association of NADPH-diaphorase-positive nerve fibers with motor endplates was found in other organs containing striated muscle. These results suggest extensive, presumably nitrergic, co-innervation of esophageal striated muscle fibers by enteric neurons. Thus, control of peristalsis in the esophagus of the rat may be more complex than hitherto assumed.
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