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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Repaglinide ; Glibenclamide ; Diabetes mellitus ; oral hypoglycaemic agent ; Phase II study ; metabolic control ; non-insulin-dependent diabetes ; adverse effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have evaluated the effects of repaglinide, a new non-sulphonylurea oral hypoglycaemic agent that has a stimulatory effect on insulin secretion. Forty-four patients with NIDDM, already treated with a sulphonylurea, took part in an open, randomised, group comparison study of 12 weeks duration, during which they received either repaglinide or glibenclamide twice daily. While glibenclamide had a greater effect on fasting blood glucose (10.4 to 8.6 mmol·l−1), repaglinide significantly lowered postprandial blood glucose (13.8 to 12.2 mmol· l−1). Glycosylated haemoglobin remained unchanged in both groups, and serum fructosamine showed a tendency to fall. With both treatments total cholesterol was significantly decreased after 12 weeks, while HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides did not change. Fasting plasma insulin in the repaglinide group decreased from 80 (median value) to 67 pmol·l−1; it did not change in the glibenclamide group. Two patients in the repaglinide group did not complete the study, one for personal reasons, and one because of a rise in blood glucose. No abnormal findings attributable to repaglinide were observed in clinical and laboratory examinations, and no hypoglycaemic symptoms caused by it were observed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Diabetes mellitus, rat, advanced glycation end-products, aminoguanidine, vascular permeability, albuminuria.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Advanced glycation end-product-formation is thought to play a role in the development of diabetic angiopathy. By altering the structure of different extracellular matrix components advanced glycation end-products might affect vascular and glomerular permeability. In this study we investigated the effect of treatment with an inhibitor of advanced glycation end-product-formation, aminoguanidine, on vascular permeability and the development of albuminuria in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar Rp rats were randomized into a control group, a diabetic group, and an aminoguanidine-treated diabetic group. After 8 weeks, 24-h urine collections were taken and rats were implanted with an arterial and a venous catheter. Mean arterial blood pressure was determined by intra-arterial measurement. Regional albumin clearances were assessed in the eye, ileum, lung, skeletal muscle and skin using an isotope technique. Mean arterial pressure in the diabetic group was significantly lower in the control and aminoguanidine-treated groups (p 〈0.02). Regional albumin clearances were significantly increased in all tissues of diabetic rats compared to control rats (p 〈0.05). Aminoguanidine treatment of diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease of regional albumin clearance in all tissues except the lung (p 〈0.05, lung p =0.07). The development of albuminuria in diabetic rats however, was not affected by aminoguanidine. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 10–14]
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus ; rat ; advanced glycation end-products ; aminoguanidine ; vascular permeability ; albuminuria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Advanced glycation end-product-formation is thought to play a role in the development of diabetic angiopathy. By altering the structure of different extracellular matrix components advanced glycation end-products might affect vascular and glomerular permeability. In this study we investigated the effect of treatment with an inhibitor of advanced glycation end-product-formation, aminoguanidine, on vascular permeability and the development of albuminuria in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar Rp rats were randomized into a control group, a diabetic group, and an aminoguanidine-treated diabetic group. After 8 weeks, 24-h urine collections were taken and rats were implanted with an arterial and a venous catheter. Mean arterial blood pressure was determined by intra-arterial measurement. Regional albumin clearances were assessed in the eye, ileum, lung, skeletal muscle and skin using an isotope technique. Mean arterial pressure in the diabetic group was significantly lower in the control and aminoguanidine-treated groups (p〈0.02). Regional albumin clearances were significantly increased in all tissues of diabetic rats compared to control rats (p〈0.05). Aminoguanidine treatment of diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease of regional albumin clearance in all tissues except the lung (p〈0.05, lung p=0.07). The development of albuminuria in diabetic rats however, was not affected by aminoguanidine.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Vasodilation ; Coronary blood flow ; Myocardial O2-consumption ; Regional myocardial wall function ; Dihydropyridine derivative ; Pig
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cardiovascular effects of intravenous (1.5–10 nmol · kg−1) and intracoronary (50 nmol) administration of felodipine, 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methoxycarbonylpyridine, were studied in anaesthetized pigs. Following intravenous administration dose-dependent decreases were observed in left ventricular systolic blood pressure (up to 30%) and in the resistances of the systemic (up to 40%) and coronary vascular beds (up to 45%), whereas heart rate, cardiac output, myocardial contractility (regional and global), and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were minimally affected. Myocardial blood flow increased independently of the dose (20%), while the coronary venous O2-content more than doubled. The concomitant decrease in myocardial O2-consumption (up to 30%) was dose-dependent in the range from 1.5–6.75 nmol·kg−1. Intracoronary administration of 50 nmol had only minor effects on global and regional myocardial performance but produced a doubling of the coronary blood flow which was accompanied by a 70% decrease in myocardial O2-extraction. O2-consumption decreased considerably more (35%) than after intravenous administration in spite of the minimal decrease in O2-demand (7%). We conclude that felodipine dilates both systemic and coronary blood vessels. Although the reduction in myocardial O2-consumption is primarily caused by the reduction in afterload, a direct effect on myocardial metabolism can also be involved.
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