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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0020-7381
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study deals with the modeling of air pollution in apartments from laboratory measurements of source strengths, using formaldehyde and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOCs) as model pollutants. The sources in two test apartments were grouped into two: building-related sources and occupant-related sources. The measured source strengths and ventilation rates were used for the prediction of concentrations expected in the apartments. These predictions were compared to measurements in the apartment over 12 months. The conclusions were that the model predictions based on emission rates measured in the laboratory can be used to predict the long-term concentration of the two model pollutants in the apartments. Considering the measured differences in ventilation between the apartments, an occupant emission rate of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg/h/kg body weight could be estimated. Based on previous suggested limits of acceptable exposures of humans to VOCs, an acceptable average emission rate of VOCs from building materials in general was estimated to be about 30 (μ/m2/h. The modeling showed that during the first 200 days, building materials dominated the emissions. After this, sources relating to the occupants dominated. On average about half of the VOC pollution originated from the building materials.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 5 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The odor of 13 linoleum samples was investigated by different methods. 1) Gas chromatography (GC) with sniffing was used to ensure that no significant odorant was overlooked. 2) Odor intensity evaluation of the linoleum samples was correlated with GC data from Part 1 of this study. Partial least squares regression yielded two factors capable of explaining 77% of the odor intensity variation. The most important classes of compounds were 2-alkenals and fatty acids. 3) Odor indexes of the individual VOCs were compared in order to evaluate their relative odor impact. 4) The odor of linoleum was simulated by a synthetic mixture compounded according to the GC data. It had an odor closely resembling that from certain varieties of linoleum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Floor dust from nine city hall office buildings was separated into fiber and particulate fractions and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOC (TVOC) by thermal desorption/high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Components were identified by HRGC/mass spectroscopy (MS). Principal component analysis was applied to VOC emission profiles revealing similarities between buildings and correlations between profiles and SBS symptoms of mucous membrane irritation and “concentration difficulty”. While the dominant pattern in emission profiles was not correlated with SBS irritation complaints, partial least squares analysis in latent variables (PLS analysis) identified VOCs for which peak areas were correlated with SBS irritation complaints and the CNS Complaint, “concentration difficulty”
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Time versus concentration data of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from four pre-conditioned building materials were measured in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) at three air exchange rates, 171, 342, 684 h−1, respectively, during a period of 240 hours. The materials were a carpet, a linoleum, a water-borne paint, and a sealant. Modeling of the time versus concentration data for two air exchange rates showed that the emission of VOCs from the carpet were best described with a diffusion model in which the diffusion coefficient depends on the concentration gradient for all data (exponential diffusion model), while a reduced data set eliminating initial events also could be described with a first order decay incorporating a sink effect. The paint emission data of the polar semi-VOC, Texanol, could be described with a first order decay model incorporating a sink effect for all three air exchange rates. The emission rate constant doubled by doubling the air exchange rate. The emission data for VOCs from the sealant were best described for all three air exchange rates by the exponential diffusion model. The best model correlation fit was obtained for hexane, but satisfactory results were also obtained for 2-ethylhexanol and dimethyloctanols. The decay results of linoleum did not allow for modeling leading to the conclusion that an internal concentration gradient had not yet been established under the experimental conditions
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether asthmatic reactions and changes in tear film quality could be provoked by exposing subjects to emissions from building materials in climate chambers. Twenty asthmatics and 5 healthy controls were exposed to (1) gypsum board hung with waterborne painted wallpaper; (2) rubber floor covering; (3) nylon carpet with rubber mat; (4) particle board coated with acid-curing paint; and (5) no test materials in climate chambers for 6 h. Participants recorded symptoms by filling in questionnaires, and clinical data were evaluated by lung function measurements at intervals of 30 min to 1h, and external eye examinations before and after exposure (appearance of foam at eyelid, semi-quantitative measurements of precorneal superficial lipid layer, break-up time and epithelial damage). There was agreement between a trained panel's evaluation of perceived air quality and the participants' opinion of indoor air quality. No correlation was found between lung function measurements and exposure to the materials. However, for all materials, statistically significant changes in tear film quality were observed to varying degrees. Lipophilic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may destabilize the lipid multilayer of the tear fluid, and this mechanism is suggested to be at least partly responsible for eye irritation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 7 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured indoors may exceed their odor thresholds, but are usually far below TLV estimates. Even applying additivity to eye and airway irritation effects, it is difficult to rationalize increased sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms by exposure to generally chemically inert VOCs in the indoor environment.Several studies suggest that chemical reactions in indoor air are linked with SBS symptoms and the examination of these reactions may be necessary in order to understand the role of VOCs as causative agents of SBS symptoms.The usual evaluation of odor annoyance of VOCs based on odor thresholds should be modified, taking into account the large variation of individual human odor thresholds for single substances, and specific additivity phenomena even at subthreshold levels of VOCs.The conclusion of this review is that chemical reactions between oxidizable VOCs and oxidants, such as ozone and possibly nitrogen oxides, can form irritants which may be responsible for the reported symptoms. Compounds adsorbed to particles may also contribute to SBS symptoms. The individual effects of indoor pollutants may act in concert with temperature and relative humidity. New analytical methods are required to measure the oxidative and reactive species or specific markers thereof in indoor air.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0020-7381
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 12 linoleum samples were measured by use of the “Field and Laboratory Emission Cell” (FLEC) with sampling on Tenax TA followed by thermal desorbtion and GC/FID or GC/MS analysis. Major VOCs were alkanals, alkenals and fatty acids. The emissions were measured after 24 h in FLEC and again after one month's storage in a well ventilated room. The emission profiles of hexanal, nonanal and propanoic acid were modeled for four linoleum samples using a new exponential diffusion model. The time required to reach 50% of the odor threshold concentrations in a standard room was from 113 to 2296 hours. The applicability of the diffusion model for modeling long-term emission needs to be further evaluated considering possible continuous oxidative emission.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Monitoring of human reactions to the emission of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from four commonly used building materials was carried out. The building materials were: a painted gypsum board, a rubber floor, a nylon carpet, and a particle board with an acid-curing paint. The exposures were performed in climate chambers. The air quality was quantified on the decipol scale by a trained panel, measurements of formaldehyde and VOC being performed simultaneously. The irritating potency of the materials was measured by a mouse bioassay. The VOC measurements showed several malodorants and irritants. Some abundant VOC identified in the head-space analyses were absent in the climate chamber air. The rubber floor and the nylon carpet exhibited a marked increase in decipols compatible with a number of odorous VOC identified in the air. A high formaldehyde concentration (minimum 743μg/m3) was measured for the particle board coated with an acid-curing paint. This was not reflected by a corresponding relatively high decipol value but a long-lasting irritating potency was observed in the mouse bioassay. TVOC sampled on Tenax and expressed in mass per volume as well as in molar concentration, and decipol evaluation both have limitations and should be used with caution as indicators of (perceived) indoor air quality. Eye irritation expressed by means of the eye index reflecting the tear film quality index (comprised of break-up time, foam formation, thickness of the precorneal lipid layer of the tear film, and epithelial damage) was found to be insensitive to formaldehyde and a VOC mixture but sensitive to TVOC concentrations of 1–2 mg/m3. Lipophilic VOC may be the cause of reduced tear film quality by destabilization of the lipid multilayer of the tear film.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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