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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Background. In the Danish Town Hall Study" it has previously been shown that the sick building syndrome is a widespread phenomenon. This has given rise to speculations as to whether biologically active components in dust or whether absorbed organic gases and vapours in the indoor climate may be partly responsible for the sick building syndrome. Therefore, we wished to study whether qualitative conditions in dust, of a physical, chemical, and biological nature, are related to the prevalence of symptoms of the sick building syndrome. Material and methods. The study included 12 town halls in the Copenhagen area. A total of 870 persons participated, 584 women and 286 men. All the participants filled out a questionnaire regarding health and working conditions, and dust samples were collected with a special vacuum cleaner in the working environment of the participants, after which the contents of inorganic and organic particles as well as of human source fragments the (hair, nails, skin) and various fibres were determined. Results. There was a significant correlation (P〈0.05) between the prevalence of gram-negative bacteria in the indoor climate dust, and general symptoms (fatigue, heavy-headedness, headache, dizziness, concentration problems) (corr.coeff.=0.73), as well as symptoms from the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (corr.coeff.=0.76). Also, there was a significant relation between the prevalence of particles in the dust and the prevalence of symptoms from the mucous membranes (corr.coeff.=0.81). There was a strong and significant correlation between the total amount of volatile organic components (TVOC) and lack of concentration (corr.coeff. =0.85) and feeling heavy-headed (corr.coeff.=0.72). Macromolecular dust (potentially allergenetic material) was significantly correlated to the prevalence of headache and general malaise/dizziness (corr.coeff.=0.66), while the ability of the dust to liberate histamine was significantly related to the prevalence of general malaise, dizziness (corr.coeff.=0.65) and lack of concentration (corr.coeff. =0.58). Further analyses including a number of potential confounders did not change the results of the above analyses. Conclusion. The results of this study support the hypothesis that qualitative properties of dust are important to the sick building syndrome. The study was based on relatively few buildings, but nevertheless strong correlations were found. In perspective, epidemiological intervention studies should be carried out to investigate whether minimizing the amount of both dust and bacteria in the indoor climate affect the prevalence of sick building syndrome.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from five different waterborne paints was measured in small climatic chambers under standard conditions over a one-year period. The aims of the study were to evaluate the time emission profiles and to develop methods for comparison of different paints. The paints were applied to tin-plated steel sheets. VOCs were sampled on Tenax TA and analysed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography. The chamber concentrations increased rapidly during the first few hours and then decreased as the emission rates dropped. A model expression including an exponentially decreasing emission rate of the paint film, the air exchange rate, and a normalization of the film thickness was fitted to the concentration versus time data. The time required to reach a given emission rate was estimated and found suitable for comparison of the emission of VOCs from the paints. It was found that data sampled within three weeks or less may be sufficient to predict the emission of VOCs up to one year. Reduction of long-term emissions may be achieved most efficiently by (1) substituting a more -volatile VOC whose emission is controlled by evaporation for a less volatile VOC characterized by diffusion-controlled emission and (2) reducing the paint film thickness rather than reducing the initial VOC content of the paint.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 7 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Measured emissions from building materials (Part I, Nielsen et al., 1996), were evaluated for their sensory effects, odour and irritation, as well as for health effects. The procedures adopted are general. First, if established indoor air standards or guidelines are available, they are to be preferred for the evaluations. Second, if they are not available, odour and irritation thresholds are used. The occupational exposure limits may be used for the evaluation of health effects if applying an additional safety factor between 4 and 40. The actual value depends on the critical effect, but a safety factor of 40 is proposed as a first approximation. Other values must be justified. Third, if occupational exposure limits are not available, two different procedures provide a tentative standard or guideline on the basis of published literature, which of necessity must therefore be collected and evaluated. One procedure estimates the standard from an effect in animals and applies a number of safety factors (each often equal to 10), corresponding to a series of worst-case assumptions. The other procedure evaluates the critical effect and uses fewer specific safety factors to predict the human no-observed-effect level (NOEL). The political safety factor is then determined, i.e. how far below the NOEL the standard or guideline level should be set. The last-mentioned procedure gives a logical concordant system, explaining why different standards or guidelines may be set for outdoor, indoor and occupational exposures, and why exposures exceeding a standard or a guideline need not cause health effects.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The impact on air quality of the emission of pollutants from freshly conditioned sealant and waterborne paint, and a new carpet was investigated by means of a closed emission system and a high loading factor, i.e. “maximized” test conditions. VOCs were measured. Speciated TVOC values obtained by summation of single VOCs and TVOC (cyclohexane equivalents) values determined by IR spectroscopy were of the same order of magnitude for the carpet and for the sealant. Biological evaluation of the effects of the VOCs was undertaken from the concentrations and the odour and irritation thresholds of each substance. The overall agreements and the mutual supplementation of the results from the TVOC and biological evaluations were apparent, suggesting that both approaches should be part of the evaluation of emissions from building materials. Also the mouse bioassay (ASTM, 1984) was used for evaluation of the irritants emitted. Chemical emission testing and the use of established lists of irritation thresholds appear to be more cost-effective, due to the low sensitivity of the bioassay. This approach was demonstrated with 2-butanone oxime (emitted from the sealant). The same type of approach may be used in relation to odour and hazard identification. However, human and animal tests are necessary in cases where biological data are lacking or where the chemical emission is unknown.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Indoor air 5 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A procedure is developed for assessing the health effects of the emissions from building products. The procedure is based on:〈list xml:id="l1" style="custom"〉•emission rates measured in environment test chambers•a fixed standard room with fixed standard conditions•a maximum acceptable concentration in the indoor air of each of the chemical compounds emitted, Iv a maximum permissible contribution to Iv from building products.The procedure has two elements: evaluation of the emitted compound alone and evaluation of the compound together with other compounds and indoor air factors. The evaluation includes odour and health effects of the compounds.The procedure has been applied to the emission test results for two building products: a rubber floor covering, and a water-borne acrylic watt paint.Maximum acceptable indoor air concentrations are listed fin-selected chemical compounds emitted by these two materials.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from nine toner powders and eleven types of processed paper from photocopying machines (6), laser (3) and matrix printers (21, and one carbonless copy fm has been measured. A total of 61 VOC from toner powders were identified by heating (185 °C) the powder for three minutes for thermal desorption and by gas chromatography followed by the use of low and high resolution EI and CI mass spectrometry. VOC from processed paper were analyzed by headspace sampling on Tenax TA from nylon bags. Thirty-one VOC with a wide range of volatility and persistency were identified from processed paper. The total VOC emission from the various types of paper differed substantially. Using the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC), the calculated initial emission rate of styrene was 5 μg m−2h−1 from a freshly processed paper The VOC emission from machines and the processed paper can be reduced by proper choice of o m e equipment. However, an evaluation should consider all potential pollutants.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 100 (1978), S. 7346-7352 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A test chamber has been developed in order to provide a small and simple emission testing facility capable of testing construction products in a climate where the important climatic parameters such as temperature, ventilation rate and air velocity can be varied independently around typical indoor values. The test chamber CLIMPAQ is made of panes of window glass. Other main surface materials are stainless steel and eloxated aluminium. The chamber has a volume of 50.9 litres and is designed to meet the requirements for quantifying air pollution. In this investigation human subjects acted as air pollution judges, and chemical characterization of the air pollution was carried out. Carpet, linoleum, wall paint and seal- ant were tested simultaneously in the CLIMPAQ and in four other chambers ranging from a full-scale chamber of 28 m3 to a field and laboratory emission cell of 3.5· 10−5m3. Product ranking is the same in all chambers for the sensory measurements. Emission rates based on sensory measurements differ for all products less than 100 % except for tests in a 3-litre chamber where emission rates were higher. Chemical measurements differ up to approximately 10 times for the same product in different chambers. Deviations appear to be the result of different environmental parameters in the various chambers. Low air concentrations or high specific ventilation rates seem to increase emissions, while differences in air velocities and sink properties may also be the cause of differences in emission rates.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 13 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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