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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Key words CT ; MRI ; Temporomandibular joint ; Temporal bone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Objective. During routine MR imaging of temporomandibular joints we have observed that an area of low signal is sometimes identified within the temporal bone overlying the glenoid fossa on proton-density sequences. This finding at times simulates a mass. CT in this situation has demonstrated marked pneumatization of the mastoid air cell extending to that portion of the temporal bone overlying the glenoid fossa. We undertook a clinical study to determine the frequency and appearance of such a finding. Design and patients. We reviewed the images of 12 patients who underwent both MR and CT examinations of their temporomandibular joints. The authors, by consensus, graded all 24 joints using a four-point scale for the presence and appearance of a low-signal area overlying the glenoid fossa on the MR images prior to seeing the corresponding CT images. We then compared our grading with the findings on CT to assess for the presence and extent of pneumatization of the temporal bone overlying the glenoid fossa. Results. Of the 24 joints reviewed there was identical extent of low signal on MR imaging and extent of pneumatization on CT in 22 of 24 joints. In two of the 24 joints assessed there was overestimation of pneumatization due to extensive sclerosis secondary to surgery. Conclusion. The findings of an area of low signal overlying the glenoid fossa on a T2-weighted scan of a nonoperative temporomandibular joint is often due to extensive temporal bone pneumatization of the mastoid air cells. Recognition of the nature of this finding will avoid mistaking it for a fibrous or osseous lesion. Patients with previous operative history may, however, require further investigation with CT.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    ISSN: 1440-0960
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A 53-year-old woman presented with an inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue associated with tense large bullae consistent with bullous pemphigoid, preceded by a prodrome of urticarial plaques. The histological findings showed a regenerating subepidermal blister with eosinophils and no acantholysis. Direct immunofluorescence study, however, showed positive staining for IgG and C3 throughout the epidermis consistent with pemphigus. The blistering eruption had no mucosal involvement and responded to low dose corticosteroids. Our patient may represent another presentation of a ‘paraneoplastic pemphigus spectrum’.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1440-0960
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A case of elastosis perforans serpiginosa in a patient who presented with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus secondary to pancreatic insufficiency in a background of common variable immunodeficiency and endocrinopathy, as evidenced by pernicious anaemia and growth hormone deficiency, is described. In acquired perforating dermatosis occurring in patients with diabetes or renal failure, there is a spectrum of changes that may show an overlap of histological features of the four classic perforating diseases. The biopsy changes of the patient described in the present study most closely resembled those of elastosis perforans serpiginosa.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-0960
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The clinical features and outcomes of 17 patients with Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 11 males and six females with an average age of 61.5 years. Ten patients with SJS (seven males, three females) and seven patients with TEN (four males, three females) were identified. Antibiotics, mainly β-lactams, were the most common cause of SJS/TEN in this series. The mean skin loss in TEN was 45.7% total body surface area in contrast to the lesser skin loss (〈10%) observed in three patients with SJS. Complications included septicaemia, pneumonia and multi-organ failure, mainly in the TEN group. Two patients died from TEN-related complications and one patient with SJS died from unrelated causes. Ocular involvement and skin pigmentary changes represented the most significant long-term sequelae.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-0960
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This retrospective study documents six patients with primary cutaneous follicular centre cell lymphoma (FCCL) of the head and trunk. The hack was the most common site of presentation of the primary. Despite a good response to initial therapy, cutaneous relapses were common and one patient developed lymph node metastases. Intralesional steroids may be effective in controlling localized skin relapses of this B cell lymphoma. All patients are currently alive with two surviving over 5 years.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Hydrogen-1 ; carbon-13 ; nitrogen-15 ; cadmium-113 ; NMR ; infrared ; zinc(II) ; cadmium(II) ; isothiocyanate ; complexation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A study of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) complexes with isothiocyanate ion has been completed, using a low-temperature, multinuclear magnetic resonance technique that permits the observation of separate resonance signals for bound and free ligand, and Cd(II) metal ion. The Zn2+–NCS− complexes were studied by 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR spectroscopy. In the 1H spectra, the intensity of the coordinated water signal, corresponding to a Zn(II) hydration number of six in the absence of NCS−, decreases dramatically as this anion is added, indicating the complexing process involves more than a simple 1:1 ligand replacement. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra reveal signals for four species, most reasonably assigned to a series of tetrahedrally coordinated Zn2+–NCS− complexes. In the Cd2+–NCS− solution spectra, the 13C and 15N signals for four complexes also are observed and they are three line patterns, corresponding to a doublet from 113Cd J-coupling, and a dominant central peak, resulting from bonding to magnetically inactive Cd isotopes. The 113Cd spectra, showing signals for four complexes, correlate well in all respects with the 13C and 15N results, including coupling in specific cases. The spectral results for both metal ions reflect binding at the nitrogen atom of NCS−, with the complexes changing from an octahedral to a tetrahedral configuration when doing so. Confirming evidence for these conclusions also was provided by several infrared measurements of these metal–ion systems.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2576
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The inhibitory effects of gold compounds on the NADPH oxidase system of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been investigated. Auranofin (0.5-4.0 μg An/ml) suppressed the rate of Superoxide anion generation as well as the total yield in cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and f-Met-Leu-Phe. This implies that drug action may be occurring at the level of protein kinase C or steps subsequent to this in the signal transduction sequence. Sodium aurothiomalate (1–100 μg Au/ml) lacked such activity. Neither gold compound altered the ability of the granule-rich fraction of PMNs to produce oxy radicals whether this fraction was obtained from drug-treated cells or was treated after its isolation. Therefore, in order for auranofin to exhibit its inhibitory effects on the NADPH oxidase system, an intact cell membrane is necessary.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2576
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract C2-ceramide but not inhibitors of phosphatase types 1 and 2A (okadaic acid, calyculin A, tautomycin) blocked store-regulated Ca2+ entry induced in human neutrophils by thapsigargin. This contrasts with previous results showing that both types of compounds inhibit Ca2+ influx in fmet-leu-phe-treated cells. In present studies, phosphatase inhibitors increased the rate of secondary Ca2+ influx in a temperature-dependent manner. Their mechanism of action appeared to be independent of phosphatase inhibition since the inactive congeners, norokadaone and tetraacetyl okadaic acid, also potentiated Ca2+ influx at similar concentrations. When Ca2+ stores were predischarged by thapsigargin, okadaic acid but not norokadaone acted synergistically with fMLP to inhibit subsequent Ca2+ entry. Results suggest that blockade of Ca2+ influx in neutrophils is mediated by a phosphorylation reaction that is prolonged by phosphatase inhibitors. The requisite phosphorylation occurs in fMLP-activated cells but may be absent in cells incubated with thapsigargin.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2576
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Slow translocation of protein kinase C was observed by both auranofin and gold sodium thiomalate pretreatment of neutrophils. Both gold compounds failed to influence the activity of this enzyme directly when cell-free studies were performed. In intact neutrophils incubated with 5.1–20.3μM auranofin, protein kinase C activity decreased in the cytosol in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the levels of the membrane-associated protein kinase C were significantly elevated, although the amount of activity recovered could not account for that lost from the cytosol. Gold sodium thiomalate (5.0μM–0.505 mM) demonstrated similar effects but with lesser potency than auranofin. In confirmation of previous results, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a cellular stimulus, also induced the translocation of protein kinase C. Key differences were that the reaction was rapid (occurring within minutes after PMA addition) and that relative recovery of kinase activity from the particulate fraction was fourfold greater. The relationship between gold compound-mediated kinase C redistribution and inhibition of neutrophil responses remains to be elucidated.
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