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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The experimental investigations were consisting of two parts. The first part was carried out to study the effect of corner geometry on the steady-state forced convection inside horizontal isosceles triangular ducts with sharp corners. The electrically-heated triangular duct was used to simulate the triangular passage of a plate-fin compact heat exchanger. The isosceles triangular ducts were manufactured with duralumin, and fabricated with the same length of 2.4 m and hydraulic diameter of 0.44 m, but five different apex angles (i.e. θ a =15∘,30∘, 40∘,60∘, and 90∘) respectively. The investigation was performed under turbulent flow condition covering a wide range of Reynolds number (i.e. 7000≤Re D ≤20000). It was found that the best thermal performance is achieved with the apex angle of 60∘. The second part was performed to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the forced convection of the same system. Horizontal equilateral triangular ducts with an apex angle of 60∘ were fabricated with the same length and hydraulic diameter, but different average surface roughnesses of 1.2 m,3.0 m and 11.5 m respectively. It was concluded that the duct with a higher surface roughness will have a better heat transfer performance. Non-dimensional expressions for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient of the triangular ducts with different apex angles and surface roughnesses were also developed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Callosotomy ; Corpus callosum ; Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  From September 1989 to August 1996, we performed anterior corpus callosotomy in 83 patients. Unfortunately, 9 patients were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 74 patients, 59 had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (evolved from infantile spasms in 22), 9 had complex partial seizures with or without secondary generalized seizures, 1 had multifocal independent epileptogenic foci (MISF) syndrome, 3 had hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE), and 2 had infantile spasms. All cases were followed up for at least 2 years after surgery. The highest rate of significant improvement (more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency) was noted in the patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, 82.1% of whom experienced significant improvement, followed by those with generalized tonic seizures (76.7%), atonic seizures (72.7%), myoclonic seizures (64.9%), atypical absences (58.6%), and complex partial seizure with or without secondary generalization (61.5%). Complete freedom from seizures was noted in 14 cases (18.9%). One patient had the anterior half of his right palm amputated following radial artery thrombosis complicated by insertion of an arterial line during anesthesia. Otherwise, there were no major postoperative complications except for brief mutism and multifocal jerks in some patients during the 1st postoperative week. Thus, we conclude that corpus callosotomy is a safe alternative treatment for all kinds of medically intractable seizures, especially generalized epilepsy.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Medulloblastoma ; Neuropsychological sequelae ; Quality of life
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional independence, intellectual performance and academic achievement of children treated for medulloblastoma at the Veterans General Hospital – Taipei. Adverse factors that it was thought would result in significant intellectual impairment were also studied. Nineteen patients with medulloblastoma located over the posterior fossa were enrolled in this study. Their mean age at tumor removal was 6.16±3.30 (range 2–14) years. Mean full intelligent quotient (FIQ) was 86.00±22.66, performance intelligent quotient (PIQ) was 85.29±21.23, and verbal intelligent quotient (VIQ) was 90.50±23.50. In 11 cases academic achievement at school was poor. Sixteen patients received radiation therapy after tumor removal. Significant negative correlations were noted between IQ and whole-brain irradiation dose (r=–0.72) and between IQ and years after radiation therapy (r=–0.63). The results indicate a need for ongoing attention and intervention to prevent, remedy or minimize deficits produced by the tumor itself and by the cancer treatment.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Isolated unilateral hydrocephalus ; Foramen of Monro ; Foraminoplasty ; III Ventriculostomy ; Neuro-endoscope
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We report two cases of lateral ventricle dilatation due to membranous occlusion of the foramen of Monro following ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Both cases were treated successfully by endoscopic foraminoplasty of the obstructed foramen of Monro and III ventriculostomy. One child had meningomyelocele and hydrocephalus. She had CSF infection after repair of the back lesion. Isolated left lateral ventricle occurred after insertion of a right ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus when the girl was 2 months old. A right ventriculoperitoneal shunt was then inserted. Chronic shunt infection with abdominal pseudocyst was found 8 years later. The shunts were exteriorized. Membranous obstruction of the foramen of Monro was found endoscopically. Fenestration of the membranous obstruction along with a III ventriculostomy was performed. After the endoscopic procedure, the exteriorized ventriculoperitoneal shunt was removed 2 weeks later. The patient was still symptom free without shunting 14 months after the operation. The other child had hydrocephalus after a premature birth and hemorrhage. Repeated ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections contributed to membranous obstruction of bilateral foramen of Monro. After the shunt infection was treated this patient’s shunting procedure was simplified by endoscopic foraminoplasty of the left and right foramen of Monro along with a III ventriculostomy. He was symptom free with a new ventriculoperitoneal shunt 9 months after the operation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Atypical terotoid/rhabdoid tumor ; Rhabdoid tumor ; Primitive neuroectodermal tumor ; Medulloblastoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eleven atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/¶RT) and 121 primitive neuroectodermal tumors/medulloblastomas (PNET/MB) were included in this study for evaluation of the histopathological features of AT/RT and comparison between AT/RT and PNET/MB. Histopathological studies of AT/RT showed that in addition to the commonly recognized components, i.e., rhabdoid cells, small (PNET/MB) cells, spindle cells and epithelial components, there was a previously unrecognized component, sickle-shaped embracing cells, which were present in all cases and could be useful as a histological marker of this tumor. Immunohistochemical studies showed divergent differentiation of the tumor cells and among the 16 antibodies studied, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, epithelial membrane antigen and glial fibrillary acidic protein were most commonly reactive. The frequency of AT/RT expressed as a ratio of AT/RT to PNET/MB was 1 : 11 in general and increased to 1 : 3.8 among patients younger than 3 years old. The AT/RT patients were younger than those with PNET/MB and had a female predominance. The MIB-1 labeling index of AT/RT was significantly higher than that of PNET/MB (mean 63.9 vs 40.1), which correlated with a shorter survival in patients with AT/¶RT than those with PNET/MB (median survival time ¶15.4 months vs 156.4 months).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an inflammatory subepidermal blistering disease associated with autoantibodies that recognize hemidesmosomal proteins. In addition to autoantibodies, the cell-mediated immune reaction is considered to play an important part in blister formation. Objectives To investigate some T-cell activation markers and inflammatory cytokines in the blister fluid and sera of patients with BP. Methods We measured soluble CD4 (sCD4) and soluble CD8 (sCD8), which have been, respectively, associated with CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were also used to quantify the production of the leucocyte chemoattractant interleukin (IL) -8 and of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor-α in the blister fluid and sera of 11 patients with BP. Results The mean ± SD level of sCD4 in patients’ blisters (42·4 ± 25·0 units mL−1) was significantly elevated (P 〈 0·005) compared with that in their sera (11·2 ± 8·9) and that in the suction blisters of 10 healthy people (11·4 ± 5·4; P 〈 0·005). Mean ± SD IL-8 concentrations in BP blisters (4683·6 ± 3878·1 pg mL−1) were much higher than those in their sera (17·1 ± 18·9; P 〈 0·001), and were very significantly elevated (P 〈 0·005) in comparison with those in suction blisters of healthy persons (512 ± 292). sCD4 levels in BP blisters were inversely related to IL-10 levels (P = 0·03, r2 = 0·85), IL-8 levels were positively related to sCD8 levels (P = 0·01, r2 = 0·54), and IL-1β levels were positively related to sCD8 concentrations (P 〈 0·005, r2 = 0·65). Conclusions The correlations suggest that there is a delicately orchestrated network of cytokines and cell-mediated immunity operating in BP blisters.
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  • 7
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    Catalysis letters 5 (1990), S. 331-331 
    ISSN: 1572-879X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: C. capitata ; oviposition ; irradiation ; sex-ratio
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les comportements de ponte et de repos et le nombre de rencontres de mouches irradiées ou non, d'une souche de laboratoire de C. capitata ont été examinés sur des pommes suspendues sur des goyaviers dans des cages, hors du laboratoire, à Hawaï. Le nombre de femelles non-irradiées stationnant sur les fruits était réduit de plusieurs fois par la présence de femelles irradiées, soit seules, soit avec des mâles irradiés, mais non par la présence exclusive de mâles irradiés. De même, le nombre de femelles non-irradiées en train de pondre, ainsi que la durée des pontes étaient réduits par la présence de femelles irradiées. Dans les cages témoins (sans mouche irradiée), les femelles restent en moyenne 255,9±15,0 sec (SE) sur les fruits, tandis que les femelles nonirradiées et irradiées mélangées dans les cages traitées, séjournent respectivement 157±19,8 et 77,5±7,5 sec sur les fruits. Les femelles irradiées se sont comportées capricieusement sur les fruits et ont souvent eu des contacts physiques avec les autres mouches. En réduisant la ponte des femelles normales, les femelles irradiées peuvent contribuer à supprimer les populations sauvages dans les programmes de lâchers d'insectes stériles.
    Notes: Abstract The behavior of nonirradiated and radiation-sterilized laboratory-adapted Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was observed on apples hung on guava trees in outdoor cages in Hawaii. Oviposition and resting behavior, and physical encounters between flies were recorded. The numbers of nonirradiated females observed resting on fruit were reduced several fold by the presence of irradiated females, either alone or with irradiated males, but not by irradiated males alone. Similarly, the number and duration of nonirradiated females observed ovipositing was reduced by the presence of irradiated females. In control cages (all nonirradiated flies), females averaged 255.9±15.0 (SE) seconds on fruit, while nonirradiated and irradiated females in the mixed (treatment) cage averaged 157±19.8 seconds and 77.5±7.5 seconds on fruit, respectively. Irradiated females behaved skittishly on fruit and frequently engaged in physical encounters with other flies. By reducing oviposition of normal females, irradiated females may help suppress wild populations in sterile-insect release programs.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; bait sprays ; bird feces ; physiological state
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In studies carried out on field-caged non-fruiting host trees, we examined effects of environmental and adult physiological and experiential state factors on responses of released Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to droplets of proteinaceous bait (PIB-7) with or without 20% insecticide (malathion). We confirmed that fresh PIB-7 is both attractive and phagostimulatory to protein-deprived medflies and found that presence of 20% malathion ultra low volume concentrate (ULVC) in PIB-7 droplets does not significantly repel medflies from approaching droplets but does significantly deter feeding on them. A single relatively fresh deposit of bird feces, an important source of protein for medflies in natural environments, attracted several times more laboratory-cultured and wild medflies than 20 droplets of 80% PIB-7/20% malathion ULVC (about the average number of droplets per m2 of plant canopy in aerial bait spray programs). Attraction to protein was significantly greater among wild medflies deprived of protein continuously from eclosion than among wild medflies that had recent (within 3 days) or continuous access to protein. Attraction to protein increased significantly with increasing age (2, 7 and 12 days) of protein-deprived wild medflies. But we found no significant positive impact of recent brief experience of wild medflies with protein on degree of subsequent attraction to protein. In final experiments that mimicked the size, density and distribution of bait spray droplets on tree foliage typical for an aerial medfly control program, very few (4%) or no released protein-deprived wild medflies found a bait droplet within the 15 min test period even though most found a single deposit of bird feces. We conclude that the effectiveness of aerial bait sprays against medflies might be enhanced substantially (and the proportion of infested area treated with bait spray reduced considerably) by (1) including synthetic equivalents of attractive components of bird feces in the spray mixture, and (2) adjusting spatial and temporal patterns of bait spray applications according to estimates of the composition and abundance of natural medfly food and the age structure of medfly adult populations in infested regions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: experience ; foraging behavior ; Rhagoletis ; Ceratitis ; Tephritidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In field-cage studies, we investigated how the foraging behavior of tephritid fruit flies is modified by experience immediately prior to release on host plants. We observed females of a relatively monophagous species,Rhagoletis mendax (blueberry maggot fly), an oligophagous species,Rhagoletis pomomella (apple maggot fly), and a polyphagous species,Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly). Just prior to release on a host plant, the following kinds of stimuli were supplied: (1) single oviposition in a host fruit, (2) contact with 20% sucrose, (3) contact with a mixture of protein food (bird feces and sucrose), (4) contact with water, and (5) a walk over a host-plant leaf. When flies foraged on host plants without resources, search was most intensive (as measured by number of leaves visited) following a single oviposition in fruit, but residence time generally was the same following exposure to sugar, protein, and fruit stimuli.Rhagoletis mendax andC. capitata females visited the fewest leaves following exposure to water or host leaves, whereasR. pomonella foraged equally intensively following exposure to food stimuli, water, or leaves. On host plants containing resources (fruit and protein food), a single oviposition dramatically increased the number of females of all three species that found fruit compared to females that received experience with food, water or foliar stimuli. We found no significant effect of recent brief experience with any of the stimuli on subsequent attraction to protein food. Overall,C. capitata exhibited a higher propensity to abandon host plants than eitherR. mendax orR. pomonella. We suggest that this may reflect adaptations to differences in distribution of host plants in nature, strategies of dispersal, and host range.
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