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  • 1
    ISSN: 1612-4766
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Dendroctonus brevicomis ; exo-brevicomin ; frontalin ; myrcene ; attractant ; pheromone ; pheromone production ; pest management ; bark beetle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Three parameters are described for estimating the natural occurrence of chemically defined insect pheromones: (1) the rate and duration of release by the insect, (2) the density of the pheromone-emitting insect population in both time and space, and (3) dispersal and degradation rates of the chemicals. Each of these parameters, except dispersal, was estimated for a population ofDendroctonus brevicomis LeC, and its three component attractive pheromones. A single generation of 610,000 beetles, believed to comprise the entire population in a 65-km2 forest, was estimated to have released 0.78, 3.7, and 370.5 g of frontalin,exo-brevicomin, and myrcene, respectively, within a 30-day period.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Dendroctonus brevicomis ; Ips paraconfusus ; Pinus ponderosa ; bark beetle ; exo-brevicomin ; frontalin ; myrcene ; verbenone ; trans-verbenol ; attractants ; inhibition ; pheromones
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ponderosa pine logs infested withIps paraconfusus males inhibited the attraction ofDendroctonus brevicomis in the field to either attractive logs cut from a ponderosa pine tree under attack byD. brevicomis or to their synthetic pheromones,exo-brevicomin, frontalin, and myrcene. Logs cut from trees under attack byD. brevicomis inhibited the response ofI. paraconfusus to logs infested with maleI. paraconfusus.Exo-brevicomin, frontalin, and myrcene did not inhibit their response but verbenone did. Verbenone was found in maleD. brevicomis dissected from attractive logs under attack during the same time the response ofI. paraconfusus was inhibited by these logs.Trans-verbenol andexo-brevicomin were found in femaleD. brevicomis while verbenone,trans-verbenol, and frontalin were found in maleD. brevicomis in relatively large amounts near the beginning of the aggregation phase of host colonization. All of these compounds had decreased at a similar rate 5 days later. This gradual decrease inexo-brevicomin and frontalin probably caused the observed reduction in attraction. The ecological significance of these compounds in relation to termination of the aggregation phase ofD. brevicomis and reduction of interspecific competition is discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Scolytidae ; bark beetle ; Ips pini ; pheromone ; ipsdienol ; enantiomer ; interruption ; allomone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Air containing volatile compounds from around maleIps pini boring in ponderosa pine logs from California was condensed, fractionated by GC, and assayed in the laboratory and field. The only fraction that showed consistent activity in laboratory assays contained a single compound identified as ipsdienol (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadien-4-ol). Synthetic racemic ipsdienol showed no activity in either the laboratory or field. However, (−)-ipsdienol, the naturally occurring enantiomer, was attractive toI. pini in the laboratory and field, whereas (+)-ipsdienol interrupted the response ofI. pini to a natural source of attraction in field tests. (−)-Ipsdienol is a major component of the attractant pheromone of this species, since its level of activity in laboratory assays was quantitatively comparable to that of the condensed volatiles, and it was as attractive as maleI. pini boring in ponderosa pine in the field. (+)-Ipsdienol is a component of the pheromone of the competing species,I. paraconfusus.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Ips paraconfusus ; pheromones ; nonhost ; Abies concolor ; Pinus ponderosa ; ipsenol ; ipsdienol ; bark beetle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract MaleI. paraconfusus confined to artificial entrance tunnels in white fir logs produced the pheromone compounds ipsenol and ipsdienol in their hindguts. The hindguts were attractive to females in a laboratory olfactometer and the male infested logs were attractive in field bioassay. The amount of pheromones produced and the amount of feeding and boring activity is much less in white fir than in ponderosa pine. There were no pheromones detected in the hindguts of recently emerged, unfed males.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Dendroctonus brevicomis ; Ips paraconfusus ; Coleoptera ; Scolytidae ; Pinus ponderosa ; bark beetle ; exo-brevicomin ; frontalin ; myrcene ; verbenone ; ipsenol ; ipsdienol ; cis-verbenol ; attractants ; inhibition ; semiochemicals ; pheromones
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Dendroctonus brevicomis was attracted to a mixture of theIps paraconfusus pheromones, ipsenol,cis-verbenol, and ipsdienol at 10−9 g each/μl but was not attracted to these pheromones at higher and lower release rates.I. paraconfusus was not attracted to theD. brevicomis pheromonesexo-brevicomin, frontalin, and myrcene at any release rate tested. Increased release rates of a mixture of the three pheromones ofI. paraconfusus inhibited the attraction ofD. brevicomis to its synthetic pheromones. A mixture of ipsenol + ipsdienol orcis-verbenol alone failed to cause inhibition indicating that at least two of theI. paraconfusus pheromones are required to inhibit the response ofD. brevicomis. The pheromones ofD. brevicomis did not inhibit the attraction ofI. paraconfusus to its pheromones; however, verbenone was a potent inhibitor.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Ips ; Scolytidae ; aggregating pheromone ; reproductive isolation ; specificity ; cross-attraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Seventeen species ofIps were laboratory or field tested for the specificity of their response to male-produced aggregating pheromones. In the laboratory, some species appeared not to differentiate among their own pheromones and those of closely related species, whether the pheromones were bioassayed individually or in direct competition. Other species showed strong preference for their own pheromones in competition with those of closely related species, even though they had demonstrated strong attraction to pheromones of the related species. Cross-responsiveness amongI. confusus, I. montanus, andI. paraconfusus, and betweenI. mexicanus andI. concinnus, was confirmed in field tests. Moreover, wildI. paraconfusus females entered the nuptial chambers of males ofI. montanus andI. confusus but not those of the more distantly relatedI. mexicanus. It is hypothesized that specificity of response to aggregating pheromone is important in the maintenance of reproductive isolation among sympatricIps and that the lack of specificity among closely related species enforces the parapatric distributions characteristic of these species.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: pheromone ; inhibition ; Scolytidae ; Ips ; pini ; paraconfusus ; ipsenol ; linalool
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The bark beetles,Ips pini andI. paraconfusus, are not cross-attractive in the field although they attack the same host material at the same time. Logs containing the pheromone-producing sex (males) of both species side by side attract significantly fewer beetles of each species than do males of either species alone. Ipsenol, a component of the maleI. paraconfusus pheromone, duplicates the activity of maleI. paraconfusus in inhibiting the response ofI. pini to maleI. pini. Linalool from maleI. pini also reduces the catch ofI. paraconfusus in response to maleI. paraconfusus. Simultaneous production of a specific attractant pheromone and an interspecific chemical inhibitor favors exclusive use of the host substrate by the first arriving species.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 1 (1975), S. 512-512 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Interspecific mating ; Ips confusus ; Ips paraconfusus ; Coleoptera ; Scolytidae ; reproduction ; reproductive isolation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Host and conspecific discrimination were tested as reproductive isolating mechanisms betweenIps paraconfusus Lanier infestingPinus coulteri (Torrey) andI. confusus (Le Conte) infestingP. monophylla (Fremont). In two areas (one area largely Coulter pine and the other largely pinyon pine) where these bark beetles and hosts cooccur in southern California, we induced pheromone production in host and nonhost logs using males of each species.Ips paraconfusus females joined both heterospecific and conspecific males tunneling in both tree species in each area.Ips confusus females failed to joinI. paraconfusus males in Coulter pine, but joinedI. paraconfusus in pinyon pine. Sympatry was demonstrated when females of both sibling species joined conspecific males in their respective hosts. Males attacked all four beetlehost treatment combinations in both areas. Laboratory tests confirmed these results. Males did not displace heterospecific males from nuptial chambers in hosts, and they did not occupy a gallery in which heterospecific males produced frass. Females that left conspecific males in a host were readily accepted by heterospecific males and oviposited in a nonhost.
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