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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Collagenase ; Alkaline protease ; Temperature control ; Oxygen control ; Regulation ; Vibrio alginolyticus ; Secretion exoproteins ; Cerulenin ; Quinacrine ; Microbial ecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The production of an extracellular collagenase and an alkaline protease by Vibrio alginolyticus during stationary phase was inhibited by a temperature shift from 30 to 37°C and by a lack of oxygen. The stability of the exoproteases was unaffected by incubation at 37°C and aeration. The optimum growth temperature for the V. alginolyticus strain was 33.5°C Aeration enhanced the rate of growth of exponential phase cells. Temperature and oxygen did not affect the growth of stationary phase cells when the exoproteases were being produced. Macromolecular synthesis in stationary phase cells was not affected by temperature. There was no rapid release of the exoproteases after temperature shift down and chloramphenicol inhibited the production of the enzymes when added at time of temperature shift down from 37 to 30°C. The regulation of exoprotease production by temperature and oxygen was specific and has implications regarding the ecology of V. alginolyticus. Cerulenin, quinacrine and O-phenanthroline inhibited the production of the exoproteases.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Vibrio alginolyticus ; Glutamine synthetase ; Metabolic regulation ; Catabolic repression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) has been purified from a collagenolytic Vibrio alginolyticus strain. The apparent molecular weight of the glutamine synthetase subunit was approximately 62,000. This indicates a particle weight for the undissociated enzyme of 744,000, assuming the enzyme is the typical dodecamer. The glutamine synthetase enzyme had a sedimentation coefficient of 25.9 S and seems to be regulated by a denylylation and deadenylylation. The pH profiles assayed by the γ-glutamyltransferase method were similar for NH4-shocked and unshocked cell extracts and isoactivity point was not obtained from these eurves. The optimum pH for purified and crude cell extracts was 7.9. Cell-free glutamine synthetase was inhibited by some amino acids and AMP. The transferase activity of glutamine synthetase from mid-exponential phase cells varied greatly depending on the sources of nitrogen or carbon in the growth medium. Glutamine synthetase level was regulated by nitrogen catabolite repression by (NH4)2SO4 and glutamine, but cells grown, in the presence of proline, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, histidine, glutamic acid, glycine and arginine had enhanced levels of transferase activity. Glutamine synthetase was not subject to glucose, sucrose, fructose, glycerol or maltose catabolite repression and these sugars had the opposite effect and markedly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A xylanase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum P262 was cloned on a recombinant plasmid pHZ300 which enabled Escherichia coli HB101 cells to produce intracellular xylanase activity. The xylanase gene was located on a 2 kb DNA fragment. The cloned xylanase had an apparent M r of approximately 28 000 and an isoelectric point of approximately 10. Optimum xylanase activity was obtained at pH 6.0 at 37–43° C. Comparison with a xylanase partially purified from the culture medium of C. acetobutylicum P262 showed that the enzymes had similar characteristics and western blot analysis showed cross-reactivity between antibodies raised against the purified cloned enzyme and a polypeptide of the same M r from C. acetobutylicum P262.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A minimal medium was used to investigate the triggers regulating the initiation of solvent production and differentiation in Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. The accumulation of acid end-products caused the inhibition of cell division and the initiation of solvent production and cell differentiation. Initiation only occurred with a narrow pH range. Glucose or ammonium limited cultures failed to achieve the necessary threshold of acid end-products and solvent production and differentiation were not initiated. The addition of acid end-products or ammonium to cultures containing suboptimal levels of glucose or nitrogen respectively, enhanced solvent production. Resuspension of cells in media containing the threshold level of acid end-products and residual glucose induced endospore formation. Glucose or ammonium limitation did not induce sporulation and there was a requirement for glucose and ammonium during solventogenesis and endospore formation. Initiation of solvent production and clostridial stage formation were essential for sporulation. The induction of endospore formation in C. acetobutylicum P262 differs from that in the aerobic endospore forming bacteria where sporulation is initiated by nutrient starvation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The detection and approximate molecular weights of extracellular serine protease isoenzymes produced by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c were determined by gelatin-PAGE. Nine bands of protease activity with apparent molecular weights of approximately 101000, 95000, 87000, 80000, 76000, 68000, 63000, 54000 and 42000 were detected after gelatin-PAGE of supernatants from exponential phase cultures. A tenth serine protease band with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 32000 was detected in stationary phase cells. The activities of all ten protease bands were inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor but their activities were not affected by inhibitors of trypsin-like enzymes or metallo-, sulphydryl-and carboxylproteases. The activity of all ten exoprotease bands was optimal between pH 6.0 and 7.5. The ten exoprotease bands were only detected in media containing trypticase or casamino acids as nitrogen sources. Production of the ten protease bands was not affected by the carbohydrate source.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Vibrio alginolyticus ; Glutamine synthetase ; Cloning glutamine synthetase ; Temperature and oxygen regulation glutamine synthetase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS) synthesis inVibrio alginolyticus was regulated by temperature, oxygen and nitrogen levels. A GS gene,glnA fromV. alginolyticus was cloned on a 5.67 kb insert in the recombinant plasmid pRM210, which enabledEscherichia coli glnA, ntrB, ntrC deletion mutants to utilize (NH4)2SO4 as a sole source of nitrogen. TheV. alginolyticus glnA gene was expressed from a regulatory region contained within the cloned fragment.V. alginolyticus glnA expression from pRM210 was subject to regulation by temperature, oxygen and nitrogen levels. GS specific activity in anE. coli wild-type strain was not affected by temperature or oxygen. pRM211 was a deletion derivative of pRM210 and GS production by pRM211 was not regulated by temperature, oxygen or nitrogen levels inE. coli.
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  • 7
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    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 142 (1985), S. 362-364 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Bacteriodes fragilis ; Heat shock response ; Heat resistant mutants ; Heat and phage reactivation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The response to heat shock was investigated in the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis. The cells responded quickly to stress and synthesised seven heat shock proteins immediately upon exposure to heat. The apparent molecular weights of the seven proteins differed from the apparent molecular weights of the proteins induced by UV irradiation, O2 and H2O2. Heat shock did not induce phage reactivation whereas UV irradiation, O2 and H2O2 did induce phage reactivation systems. Ethanol did not elicit the heat shock response. Two heat resistant B. fragilis mutants were isolated. Both mutants lost the ability to synthesise the same two heat shock proteins. It is concluded that the heat shock response and the responses to UV irradiation, O2 and H2O2 represent two independent groups of stress responses in B. fragilis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens ; Carboxymethylcellulase ; Sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The nucleotide sequence of a 2.8 kb DNA segment containing an endoglucanase gene (end1) from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c was determined. The B. fibrisolvens H17c gene was expressed from its own regulatory region in Escherichia coli and three putative consensus promoter sequences were identified upstream of a ribosome binding site and an ATG start codon. The complete amino acid sequence (547 residues) was deduced and homology with the Clostridium thermocellum ME gene product (EGE) was demonstrated. The endoglucanase contained a typical amino-terminal signal sequence and five repeated sequences (PDPTPVD) between amino acids 412–447. The endoglucanase showed relatively high endoglucanase activity against endoglucanase-specific substrates with β1-4 linkages but low activity against xylan and an exoglucanasespecific substrate, p-nitrophenyl-β-d-cellobioside.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens ; Cellodextrinase ; Sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The nucleotide sequence of a 2.314 kb DNA segment containing a gene (cedl) expressing cellodextrinase activity from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c was determined. The B. fibrisolvens H17c gene was expressed from a weak internal promoter in Escherichia coli and a putative consensus promoter sequence was identified upstream of a ribosome binding site and a GTG start codon. The complete amino acid sequence (547 residues) was deduced and homology was demonstrated with the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase D (EGD), Pseudomonas fluorescens var. cellulose endoglucanase (EG), and a cellulase from the avocado fruit (Persea americana). The ced1 gene product Cedl showed cellodextrinase activity and rapidly hydrolysed short-chain cellodextrins to yield either cellobiose or cellobiose and glucose as end products. The Cedl enzyme released cellobiose from p-nitrophenyl-β-d-cellobioside and the enzyme was not inhibited by methylcellulose, an inhibitor of endoglucanase activity. Although the major activity of the Cedl enzyme was that of a cellodextrinase it also showed limited activity against endoglucanase specific substrates [carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), lichenan, laminarin and xylan]. Analysis by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with incorporated CMC showed a major activity band with an apparent M r of approximately 61000. The calculated M r of the ced1 gene product was 61023.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Reactivation of UV-irradiated phage b-1 was induced by H2O2 and UV in Bacteroides fragilis. The characteristics of H2O2 and UV induced phage reactivation differ from a previously reported oxygen induced reactivation system. The survival of B. fragilis cells after UV irradiation was also increased by pretreatment with H2O2. DNA synthesis was not inhibited in the host cells exposed to H2O2 concentrations which induced phage reactivation. The pattern of DNA degradation and synthesis after UV irradiation with and without H2O2 differed from the effect of O2 on DNA synthesis in irradiated B. fragilis cells.
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