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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; HELICAL CT ; MANAGEMENT ; GUIDELINES ; IMAGE QUALITY ; CHEST CT ; STATEMENT ; SCREENING TRIAL ; LOW-DOSE CT
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of exposure parameters and raw-data based iterative reconstruction (IR) on the measurement variability of computer-aided nodule volumetry on chest multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: N=7 porcine lung explants were inflated in a dedicated ex vivo phantom and prepared with n=162 artificial nodules. MDCT was performed eight consecutive times (combinations of 120 and 80 kV with 120, 60, 30 and 12 mAs), and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and IR. Nodule volume and diameter were measured semi-automatically with dedicated software. The absolute percentage measurement error (APE) was computed in relation to the 120 kV 120 mAs acquisition. Noise was recorded for each nodule in every dataset. RESULTS: Mean nodule volume and diameter were 0.32 +/- 0.15 ml and 12.0 +/- 2.6mm, respectively. Although IR reduced noise by 24.9% on average compared to FBP (p〈0.007), APE with IR was equal to or slightly higher than with FBP. Mean APE for volume increased significantly below a volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI) of 1.0 mGy: for 120 kV 12 mAs APE was 3.8 +/- 6.2% (FBP) vs. 4.0 +/- 5.2% (IR) (p〈0.007); for 80 kV 12 mAs APE was 8.0 +/- 13.0% vs. 9.3 +/- 15.8% (n.s.), respectively. Correlating APE with image noise revealed that at identical noise APE was higher with IR than with FBP (p〈0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Computer-aided volumetry is robust in a wide range of exposure settings, and reproducibility is reduced at a CTDI below 1.0 mGy only, but the error rate remains clinically irrelevant. Noise reduction by IR is not detrimental for measurement error in the setting of semi-automatic nodule volumetry on chest MDCT.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23727376
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; DIAGNOSIS ; PERFORMANCE ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; HELICAL CT ; IMAGE QUALITY ; volumetry ; CHEST CT ; RADIOLOGISTS DETECTION ; CAD SOFTWARE
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of exposure parameters and raw-data based iterative reconstruction (IR) on the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules on chest multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven porcine lung explants were inflated in a dedicated ex vivo phantom shell and prepared with n=162 artificial nodules of a clinically relevant volume and maximum diameter (46-1063mul, and 6.2-21.5mm). n=118 nodules were solid and n=44 part-solid. MDCT was performed with different combinations of 120 and 80kV with 120, 60, 30 and 12mA*s, and reconstructed with both filtered back projection (FBP) and IR. Subsequently, 16 datasets per lung were subjected to dedicated CAD software. The rate of true positive, false negative and false positive CAD marks was measured for each reconstruction. RESULTS: The rate of true positive findings ranged between 88.9-91.4% for FBP and 88.3-90.1% for IR (n.s.) with most exposure settings, but was significantly lower with the combination of 80kV and 12mA*s (80.9% and 81.5%, respectively, p〈0.05). False positive findings ranged between 2.3 - 8.1 annotations per lung. For nodule volumes 〈200mul the rate of true positives was significantly lower than for 〉300mul (p〈0.05). Similarly, it was significantly lower for diameters 〈12mm compared to 〉/=12mm (p〈0.05). The rate of true positives for solid and part-solid nodules was similar. CONCLUSIONS: Nodule CAD on chest MDCT is robust over a wide range of exposure settings. Noise reduction by IR is not detrimental for CAD, and may be used to improve image quality in the setting of low-dose MDCT for lung cancer screening.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25740701
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An X-ray microanalytical and morphological investigation was carried out on rapidly frozen freeze-dried or freeze-substituted tissues. A comparison was made between different embedding and polymerisation procedures following freeze substitution and freeze drying. The investigation also included an analysis of specimens which had been infiltrated, embedded and polymerised by ultraviolet irradiation at low temperatures with Lowicryl-HM20. The method of freeze drying, followed by embedding and polymerisation at low temperatures in vacuo was found to give satisfactory results, comparable with more tedious and hazardous freeze substitution technique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Quantitative X-ray microanalysis was under-taken to follow the elemental changes that occur in the process of chondrocyte differentiation. For analysis at the cellular level, semi-thick freeze-dried cryosections of rat rib growth plate cartilage were used. For evaluation of the elemental concentrations at the subcellular level, thin sections of freeze-dried and low temperature vacuum embedded cartilage were analyzed. Levels of Na, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca were determined in the cells and extracellular matrix in different zones of the cartilage — resting, proliferative, and hypertrophic. Proliferative cells had a sodium concentration that was twice that of resting cells, suggesting that Na may play an important role in the regulation of DNA- and protein-synthesis in chondrocytes. A concomitant rise in Na and S concentration occurred between resting zone and proliferative zone cartilage matrix. The high concentrations of Na and K in the matrix are probably due to the high amount of sulfate in proteoglycans which may bind these cations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Methodological aspects of quantitative X-ray microanalysis of semi-thick cryosections (2–6 μm) of biological soft tissue were investigated. The preparation of a low background specimen holder is described. Scanning and scanning transmission images of the sections could be obtained, allowing identification and separate analysis of nuclei and cytoplasm. Parallel observations of histochemically stained adjacent sections in the light microscope allowed correlation of the microanalytical data with tissue morphology and histochemistry. Quantitative analysis could be carried out with the help of a standard: a gelatin/glycerol matrix containing mineral salts in known quantities, frozen and sectioned in the same way as the specimen. Mass loss under the electron beam was found to be comparable in specimen and standard. Comparison of various theoretical models for quantitative analysis showed that the ‘P/B-method’ (determination of the background intensity under the characteristic peak) is the most suitable for semi-thick sections. Factors determining the choice of accelerating voltage were analyzed. The usefulness of this specimen type is illustrated in some biological applications (human oral mucosa, rat salivary gland).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Chondrocytes ; Apoptosis ; Degeneration ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The process of Meckel’s cartilage development was examined with regard to expression of p53, a tumor suppressor gene product and hsp70, a stress protein (heat-shock protein), in association with the occurrence of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Balb C mice embryos from embryonic days E13, E14, E15, E16, E17, E18 and 1- and 3-day-old pups were used. P53-positive cells were detected first at E15, and were found in the perichondrium of the distal part of Meckel’s cartilage. During the degeneration process chondrocytes also became p53-positive. In contrast to p53, the expression of hsp70 was high and widespread in the early stages of development (E13–E15); however, it decreased with age, except for Meckel’s cartilage, where hsp70 was found in the cytoplasm or nuclei of the hypertrophic cells. Apoptosis was first detected at E14–E15 in the perichondrium of the distal parts of Meckel’s cartilage. The number of apoptotic bodies increased with age and the ongoing resorption of Meckel’s cartilage. From the present study it can be concluded that expression of p53 and hsp70 varied during the development of Meckel’s cartilage and that both proteins showed nuclear location in hypertrophic cells. No direct spatial or temporal correlation was observed between the expression of p53 and hsp70 and the occurrence of apoptotic bodies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: C-CAM ; Immunohistochemistry ; In situ hybridization ; Palate formation ; Retinoic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract C-CAM is a cell surface glycoprotein that is involved in cell adhesion and may play a role in histogenesis and organogenesis. It is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which is a subfamily of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. We have analyzed the expression of C-CAM during normal and disturbed craniofacial development in the mouse by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Developmental disturbances were induced by retinoic acid (RA) treatment of pregnant mice. Normal and malformed fetuses were examined on days 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. The expression of C-CAM was detected first at day 16. With age, the signal became gradually stronger. C-CAM was detected in the epithelia of both ectodermal and mesodermal origin, including oral and respiratory epithelia, epithelia of the developing vessels, glands and their ducts. In the RA-treated fetuses, the expression of C-CAM was higher in the epithelium of the oral cavity than in that of the nasal cavity, with a distinct borderline between differentiating nasal and oral epithelium of the palatal shelves. However, the submucosal nasal glands and ducts showed higher expression than oral glands in both normal and RA-treated mice. The expression of C-CAM did not differ significantly between control and RA-treated animals. The presence of C-CAM in all proliferating craniofacial epithelia indicates that this molecule may play an important role in development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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