As a subgroup of CD4+ T helper cells, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells provide help to germinal center B cells and mediate the development of long-lived humoral immunity. Dysregulation of Tfh cells is associated with several major autoimmune diseases. Although recent studies showed that Tfh cell differentiation is controlled by the transcription factor Bcl6, cytokines, and cell-cell signals, limited information is available on the proteome and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins in human Tfh cells. In the present study, we investigated quantitative proteome and acetylome in human naive CD4+ T cells and in vitro induced Tfh (iTfh) cells using the tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment, and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. In total, we identified 802 upregulated proteins and 598 downregulated proteins at the threshold of 1.5-fold in iTfh cells compared to naive CD4+ T cells. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, the biological process, the cellular compartment, the molecular function, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, and protein–protein interaction of these differentially expressed proteins were revealed. Moreover, the acetylome data showed that 22 lysine (K) acetylated proteins are upregulated and 26 K acetylated proteins are downregulated in iTfh cells compared to the naive CD4+ T cells, among which 11 differentially acetylated K residues in core histones were identified, indicating that protein acetylation and epigenetic mechanism are involved in regulating Tfh cell differentiation. The study provides some important clues for investigating T cell activation and Tfh cell differentiation.