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  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Gas inhalation ; Confined space ; Poisoning and asphyxia ; Dimethyl sulfide ; Gas distribution ; Gasinhalation ; umschlossener Raum ; Vergiftung und Erstickung ; Dimethylsulfid ; Gasverteilung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Ein Mann wurde tot in einem Tank vorgefunden, welcher Dimethylsulfid (DMS) in gasförmigem Zustand enthielt. Die Konzentrationen von DMS wurden im Blut und in den Geweben mit Hilfe der Gaschromatographie bestimmt. Mäuse wurden experimentell verschiedenen Konzentrationen (5–55%) von gasförmigem DMS in einem geschlossenen Raum exponiert und das Sterbegeschehen und die DMS-Verteilung in den Körpern wurde beobachtet, um diagnostische Kriterien für die DMS-Vergiftung zu erhalten. Für den gegenständlichen Fall wurde angenommen, daß der Tod durch eine Kombination von DMS-Vergiftung und Sauerstoffmangel aufgrund einer hypoxischen Atmosphäre zu erklären war.
    Notes: Summary A man was found dead in a tank where gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was present. The concentrations of DMS in the blond and tissue samples were measured by gas chromatography. Mice were experimentally exposed to various concentrations (5%–55%) of gascons DMS in a confined space and the course of death and DMS distribution in the bodies were observed to obtain diagnostic criteria for DMS poisoning. As a result it was considered that the cause of death of the victim was consistent with a combination of DMS poisoning and asphyxia due to a hypoxic atmosphere.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: primary metabolites ; sugars ; amino acids ; leaf cuticle ; wax
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Keywords: Key words: Lung inflammation — Lipopolysaccharide — Adhesion molecules
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objective and Design: Lung intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is increased by LPS or hyperoxia on type II cells in vivo. The goals of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of ICAM-1 expression in a lung alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS).¶Materials: A549 cells, a transformed human cell line with characteristics of alveolar epithelial cells, were used.¶Treatment: Cells were exposed to LPS, TNF-α, IL-1β, or media alone for up to 12 h.¶Methods: Northern blot analyses were done to determine mRNA expression of ICAM-1 after exposures. Protein binding to NF-κB sequences were determined by gel mobility shift assays and super-shift analysis.¶Results: ICAM-1 mRNA expression was induced in A549 cells with exposure to LPS for 1 to 4 h, and was diminished to baseline at 8 h, and the inductions were independent of TNF-α and IL-1β expression. Nuclear protein extracts from LPS-exposed cells bound to a NF-κB sequence and the timing of increased binding correlated closely with ICAM-1 mRNA induction. Super-shift studies indicated that p65 was involved in the binding to the NF-κB sequence and p50 was not.¶Conclusion: LPS inducibility of ICAM-1 mRNA in A549 cells is independent of TNF- and IL-1 in A549 cells, and the similar time course of mRNA induction and NF-κB activation suggest the induction of ICAM-1 is mediated, in part, by NF-κB.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Ectomycorrhiza ; Nitrogen-15-labeled compounds ; Water stress ; Cenococcum graniforme ; Pinus tabulaeformis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  Seedlings of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) were grown in a growth chamber using a sterilized soil/sand/vermiculite mixture, and were inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum graniforme (Sow.) Ferd. and Winge. The function of external mycelium of ectomycorrhiza for uptake and transport of N from 15N-labeled NH4 + and NO3 – for plant nutrition was evaluated under well-watered conditions and water stress. The pots comprised two-compartments, whereby the penetration of roots was prevented by a nylon mesh bag which the mycorrhizal hyphae were allowed to pass in order to colonize the rest of the pot. 15N-labeled NH4 + or NO3 – was applied to the area of the pot to which the root had no access. At harvest, the 15NH4 + concentration in plant tissues was significantly promoted by the formation of mycorrhizae both under well-watered conditions and water stress. The 15NO3 – concentration was reduced by water stress and increased by mycorrhizal formation. The enhancement of 15NO3 – uptake caused by mycorrhizal formation was more evident under water stress than under well-watered conditions. The external mycelia of the ectomycorrhizae took up and transported NH4 + and NO3 – from the soil to the plant, thereby improving plant nutrition and growth, in addition to helping the plants to avoid the effects of water stress.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 82.50
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: 13 C-selective infrared multiphoton dissociation of CF3CH2Cl has been studied by analyzing the distribution of 13C concentrations of the main products CF2=CHCl, CF2=CH2, CF2=CHF, C2F6, and the trace products CF3CH2CF3 and CF3CH=CHF3. The mechanism mainly concerns the dissociation of energized CF3CH2Cl, the collisional stabilization of excited CF3CH and CF3CH2 and the recombination of the nascent radicals. No significant radical–molecule reactions degrade the intrinsic 13C dissociation selectivity. High 13C production yield and 13C concentration can be attained at a laser fluence of 1.6 J/cm2. Such low fluence can be used to improve focus condition and enhance photon utilization efficiency for practicable 13C separation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Known reproductive patterns in the polychaete family Sabellidae include: (1) broadcasting of gametes, (2) depositing of benthic egg masses, (3) brooding outside the lip of the tube, and (4) brooding within the tube. There is little information for sabellids in the third category; there-fore we have studied the reproductive biology of Sabella (=Demonax) media (Bush), one of the few species known to brood its early developmental stages outside the tube. A total of 32 adults of S. media with egg cocoons were collected from the surfaces of compound ascidians (Aplidium sp. and Didemnum sp.) and from holdfasts of a brown alga (Hedophyllum sessile) at Eagle Cove, San Juan Island, Washington, USA, from June 1981 through June 1982, between tidal levels of 0.0 and 0.6 m. The donutshaped cocoons, each containing over 1 000 eggs, are deposited just outside the tube aperture from April through September. Larval development takes place within the cocoon through the 3-setiger stage, at which time the larvae emerge (about 8 d after egg deposition). The newly hatched larvae are demersal and swim near the bottom of the culture dish for 1 d before settlement. Metamorphosis takes nearly a week, and initial formation of the tube is also gradual. The reproductive patterns within the family Sabellidae are discussed, and the adaptive significance of extratubular brooding considered.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycorrhiza 9 (1999), S. 151-159 
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Key words Ectomycorrhiza ; Competition ; Pinus densiflora ; Japanese red pine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Interactive competition of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker et Couch with an unidentified species Tanashi 01 and Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) S. F. Gray was investigated using a rhizobox. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. was used as the host plant and mycelia were distinguished by hyphal color. The speed of mycelial spread differed between the fungi;P. tinctorius and Tanashi 01 grew faster than S. luteus. A P. tinctorius mycorrhizal seedling and a Tanashi 01 mycorrhizal seedling were transplanted on opposite sides of the rhizobox. The mycelia and mycorrhizae of P. tinctorius were overgrown by Tanashi 01 hyphae and development of P. tinctorius was gradually inhibited. The areas occupied by mycelia and mycorrhiza of P. tinctorius decreased by 52% and 37%, respectively, 154 days after transplantation relative to that at 91 days. In the overlap area of P. tinctorius and Tanashi 01, the latter fungus infected new root tips emerging from P. tinctorius mycorrhiza, which lacked a mantle of P. tinctorius hyphae, and formed a composite mycorrhizal structure. P. tinctorius mycorrhizae were progressively replaced by Tanashi 01 mycorrhizae. Mycelial spread of P. tinctorius and S. luteus were naturally inhibited but there was no interaction in mycorrhizal formation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background & aim : We have previously demonstrated that ischaemia-reperfusion induces apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa. To evaluate that reactive oxygen species enhanced intestinal apoptosis after ischaemia-reperfusion, we examined whether antioxidants reduced apoptosis.Methods : Rats were infused through a duodenal tube with antioxidative agents, glutathione, rebamipide and dymethylsulfoxide during 2 h before an ischaemic insult. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion. Apoptosis was evaluated by percentage fragmented DNA (fragmented DNA/total DNA) and immunochemical staining.Results : Increase in apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa after ischaemia-reperfusion was attenuated by intraduodenal infusion of antioxidative agents, but was not completely abolished.Conclusion : Scavenging effects of the antioxidative agents attenuated increases in intestinal apoptosis, indicating that oxidative stress after ischaemia-reperfusion plays an important role in induction of apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 51 (1987), S. 1809-1811 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: CoSi2 epitaxial layers with different thicknesses have been grown onto porous-Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Good crystallinity is obtained for CoSi2 films thicker than 50 nm. The use of a thin buffer layer is found to be crucial in order to achieve abrupt interface and good crystallinity. Planar view transmission electron microscope images obtained from 30-nm-thick CoSi2 buffer-Si/porous-Si samples indicate that a large area of the epitaxial film is dislocation free, in contrast with a uniform distribution of misfit dislocations across relaxed CoSi2/single-crystal Si samples of the same thickness. This study suggests a possible pseudomorphic growth by using porous Si as a substrate.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 66 (1995), S. 358-360 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Photoluminescence imaging was used to study photodegradation in CdZnSe quantum wells, important to II-VI based blue-green light emitter technology. The observed degradation microstructure evolves similarly to features observed during CdZnSe based LED and laser operation. Degradation is shown to emanate from pre-existing defects to form dark line defects along the 〈100〉 directions. We report an observation of a mobile defect in II-VI materials that is the precursor to the 〈100〉 dark line defects.
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