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    Keywords: ACIDS ; NUCLEIC-ACIDS ; ACID ; PEPTIDE
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract: Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 is the main representative of a group of strongly related strains (mostly facultative chemolithotrophs) that are well adapted to environments containing high levels of heavy metals. It harbors the megaplasmids pMOL28 and pMOL30 which carry resistance determinants to Co2+, Ni2+, CrO42-, Hg2+, Tl+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. Among the best characterized determinants are the cnr operon (resistance to Co, Ni) on pMOL28 and the czc operon on pMOL30 (resistance to Co, Cd and Zn). Although the two systems reveal a significant degree of amino acid similarity in the structural genes, the regulation of the operons is different. The resistance mechanism in both cases is based on efflux. The efflux mechanism leads to a pH increase outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. Metals are sequestered from the external medium through the bioprecipitation of metal carbonates formed in the saturated zone around the cell. This latter phenomenon can be exploited in bioreactors designed to remove metals from effluents. The bacteria are immobilized on composite membranes in a continuous tubular membrane reactor (CTMR). The effluent continuously circulates through the intertubular space, while the external surface of the tubes is in contact with the growth medium. Metal crystals are eventually removed by the effluent stream and collected on a glass bead column. The system has been applied to effluents containing Cd, Zn, Co, Ni and Cu. By introducing catabolic plasmids involved in the aerobic degradation of PCBs and 2,4-D into metal-resistant A. eutrophus strains, the application range was widened to include effluents polluted with both organic and inorganic substances. Biosensors have been developed which are based on the fusion of genes induced by metals to a reporter system, the lux operon of Vibrio fischeri. Bacterial luciferases produce light through the oxidation of fatty aldehydes. The gene fusions are useful both for the study of regulatory genes and for the determination of heavy metal concentrations in the environment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Plasmids-in TBT-resistant bacteria ; Tin-plasmids in TBT-resistant bacteria ; Tributyltin-plasmids in bacteria resistant to
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Twenty-six tributyltin (TBT)-resistant bacterial strains isolated from sediments were examined for the presence of plasmids. Plasmids of the size reported to carry metal resistance genes were not found in 15 of the strains, indicating that resistance does not have to be plasmid-mediated. Attempts to cure plasmid-containing strains using acridine organge, ethidium bromide, novobiocin or sodium dodecylsulfate, or by growth at elevated temperature were not successful, nor were plasmids transferred from TBT-resistant strains into TBT-sensitive organisms by electroporation. In a broth mating experiment however, plasmid pUM505, a conjugative plasmid known to encode chromium resistance inPseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, was introduced into TBT-sensitiveBeijerinckia sp. MC-27 isolated from freshwater sediment. The TBT tolerance of theBeijerinckia sp. increased 100-fold, from 8.4 μM TBT inBeijerinckia sp. MC-27 to 840 μM TBT inBeijerinckia sp. MC-27 (pUM505) on solid medium. The plasmid was transferred at a frequency of approximately 6×10−4. TBT-resistant transconjugants grew faster in media containing TBT and lost their enhanced TBT tolerance and the plasmid upon serial transfer in medium without TBT. Spontaneous mutants of the donorP. aeruginosa lost both TBT resistance and the plasmid. Therefore, TBT resistance in bacteria can be plasmid-mediated. To our knowledge, this is the first report that resistance to a tin compound can be plasmid-mediated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: CTC; activated sludge; bacterial activity; formazan; tetrazolium salt; waste water treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The tetrazolium salt 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC) was used for the determination of metabolically active bacteria in active sludge. The method was adapted and optimized to the conditions of activated sludge. The colorless and nonfluorescent tetrazolium salt is readily reduced to a water-insoluble fluorescent formazan product via the microbial electron transport system and indicates mainly dehydrogenase activity. After more than 2 h incubation, no further formation of new formazan crystals was observed, although the existing crystals in active cells continued to grow at the optimal CTC-concentration of 4 mM. The dehydrogenase activity determined by direct epifluorescence microscopic enumeration did not correlate with cumulative measured activity as determined by formazan extraction. The addition of nutrients did not lead to an increase of CTC-active cells. Sample storage conditions such as low temperature or aeration resulted in a significant decrease in dehydrogenase activity within 30 min. The rapid and sensitive method is well suited for the detection and enumeration of metabolically active microorganisms in activated sludge. Extracellular redox activity was measured with the tetrazolium salt 3′-{1-[phenylamino-) carbonyl]-3,4-tetrazolium}-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate (XTT), which remains soluble in its reduced state, after extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with a cation exchange resin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: biofilms; confocal laser scanning microscopy; Newport Green; nickel; zinc; sorption; extracellular polymeric substances
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The complexing agent Newport Green fluoresces upon binding of nickel, zinc or cobalt. It was used to detect nickel or zinc in MOPS buffer, in gel-like matrices, and in natural biofilms and microbial flocs cultivated in the laboratory. The response curves for increasing nickel concentrations indicated an equimolar binding capacity of Newport Green for nickel in MOPS buffer, whereas zinc fluorescence reached saturation in the presence of a 10-fold excess of zinc ions relative to Newport Green molecules. The maximum fluorescence intensity as determined by luminometry was 8-fold and 4-fold above background for nickel and zinc, respectively. The response of Newport Green to either nickel or zinc in the presence of the other metal is consistent with a different binding affinity of Newport Green for the two metals. Zinc binds more strongly to the complexing agent than nickel but it leads to a weaker fluorescent signal which was detectable by luminometry but not by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Newport Green was able to complex nickel in the presence of 1% gelatin or agarose as determined by CLSM and image processing. Its application to fully hydrated bacterial biofilms or microbial flocs revealed the presence of nickel outside of cells. The results suggest that in addition to cellular sorption, metals are bound extracellularly by extracellular polymeric substances in intact and undisturbed microbial aggregates. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology (2000) 24, 116–123.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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