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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-09
    Description: Author(s): R. F. Garcia Ruiz, A. R. Vernon, C. L. Binnersley, B. K. Sahoo, M. Bissell, J. Billowes, T. E. Cocolios, W. Gins, R. P. de Groote, K. T. Flanagan, A. Koszorus, K. M. Lynch, G. Neyens, C. M. Ricketts, K. D. A. Wendt, S. G. Wilkins, and X. F. Yang A modified version of a spectroscopic technique used at large-scale radioactive-ion-beam facilities could be used in tabletop experiments. [Phys. Rev. X 8, 041005] Published Mon Oct 08, 2018
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-3308
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-12-04
    Description: Horizontal gene transfer allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits. Although documented instances of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce antibacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial competition. The type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) proteins are potent bacteriocidal enzymes that degrade the cell wall when delivered into competing bacterial cells by the type VI secretion system. Here we show that tae genes have been transferred to eukaryotes on at least six occasions, and that the resulting domesticated amidase effector (dae) genes have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years through purifying selection. We show that the dae genes acquired eukaryotic secretion signals, are expressed within recipient organisms, and encode active antibacterial toxins that possess substrate specificity matching extant Tae proteins of the same lineage. Finally, we show that a dae gene in the deer tick Ixodes scapularis limits proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease. Our work demonstrates that a family of horizontally acquired toxins honed to mediate interbacterial antagonism confers previously undescribed antibacterial capacity to eukaryotes. We speculate that the selective pressure imposed by competition between bacteria has produced a reservoir of genes encoding diverse antimicrobial functions that are tailored for co-option by eukaryotic innate immune systems.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4713192/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4713192/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chou, Seemay -- Daugherty, Matthew D -- Peterson, S Brook -- Biboy, Jacob -- Yang, Youyun -- Jutras, Brandon L -- Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K -- Ferrin, Michael A -- Harding, Brittany N -- Jacobs-Wagner, Christine -- Yang, X Frank -- Vollmer, Waldemar -- Malik, Harmit S -- Mougous, Joseph D -- AI080609/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI083640/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- BB/I020012/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 AI080609/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI083640/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 5;518(7537):98-101. doi: 10.1038/nature13965. Epub 2014 Nov 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Microbial Sciences Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; 1] Microbial Sciences Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA [3] Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA [4] Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25470067" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amidohydrolases/genetics/metabolism/secretion ; Animals ; Bacteria/cytology/*enzymology/*genetics/immunology ; Bacterial Secretion Systems ; Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/metabolism ; Borrelia burgdorferi/cytology/growth & development/immunology ; Cell Wall/metabolism ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Eukaryota/*genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal/*genetics ; Genes, Bacterial/*genetics ; *Immunity, Innate/genetics ; Ixodes/genetics/immunology/metabolism/microbiology ; Phylogeny ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 2249-2251 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Wetting and adhesion should be treated as inherently irreversible processes, because, in the process of joining and separating two surfaces, available energy is dissipated. In a system that undergoes inherently irreversible processes, the second law of thermodynamics is always satisfied and can offer no information regarding the system's equilibrium state. Therefore, to determine the equilibrium wetting angle, the law of energy conservation should be used. As a result, the advancing contact angle is found to be intrinsically higher than the receding one, regardless of the surface heterogeneity, and the extent of hysteresis is dependent on the amount of energy dissipated in the process of wetting and dewetting. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0301-0104
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Polyhedron 11 (1992), S. 957-962 
    ISSN: 0277-5387
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Both current-voltage and photoemission measurements of the conduction-band discontinuity of the same InGaP/GaAs p-n heterojunction have been carried out. Interpretation of the current-voltage results using thermionic emission theory applied to a heterojunction bipolar transistor have resulted in a conduction-band offset value of 0.21 eV in the case of a compositionally abrupt junction. This figure has been confirmed by performing independent photoemission measurements on the same junction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Chemical Physics Letters 181 (1991), S. 335-343 
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 113 (2000), S. 10597-10604 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photodissociation of H2O, D2O, and HOD on the A˜ 1B1′ surface through 157.6 nm excitation has been studied using the H(D) atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. Vibrational state distribution has been measured for the OH/OD product from the photodissociation of the H2O, D2O, and HOD molecules. Comparisons of our results with previous theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained using the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique have been made. Experimental results in this work indicate that the relative populations for vibrationally excited OH(v≥2) products measured using LIF are significantly underestimated, suggesting that LIF as a technique to quantitatively measure vibrational distributions of reaction product OH is seriously flawed. The experimental results presented here are in rather good agreement with previous theoretical calculations. However, our results indicate that the calculated vibrational populations for the higher vibrational states of OH are still somewhat overestimated. Relative branching ratio of H and D productions from HOD has also been estimated. This complete set of data for the photodissociation of H2O should provide an excellent testing ground for improving the theoretical potential energy surface of the first electronically excited state of the water molecule. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photodissociation of the H2S molecule at 157.6 nm was studied experimentally using the Rydberg tagging technique. Translational energy distributions of the H-atom product from the H2S photodissociation were measured, and the SH(X 2Π)+H(2S) channel was found to be the dominant dissociation process. Spin-orbit and rovibrational state distributions were also obtained for the SH product, which was found to be both vibrationally and rotationally excited. An intriguing bimodal rotational distribution in the lowest two vibrational states, v=0 and 1, has been clearly observed for the SH product, indicating that there are two distinctive dissociation mechanisms involved in the photodissociation of H2S at 157 nm excitation. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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