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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and variability at altitudes down to ~130 kilometers in the subsolar region. This altitude range contains the diffusively separated upper atmosphere just above the well-mixed atmosphere, the layer of peak extreme ultraviolet heating and primary reservoir for atmospheric escape. In situ measurements of the upper atmosphere reveal previously unmeasured populations of neutral and charged particles, the homopause altitude at approximately 130 kilometers, and an unexpected level of variability both on an orbit-to-orbit basis and within individual orbits. These observations help constrain volatile escape processes controlled by thermosphere and ionosphere structure and variability.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bougher, S -- Jakosky, B -- Halekas, J -- Grebowsky, J -- Luhmann, J -- Mahaffy, P -- Connerney, J -- Eparvier, F -- Ergun, R -- Larson, D -- McFadden, J -- Mitchell, D -- Schneider, N -- Zurek, R -- Mazelle, C -- Andersson, L -- Andrews, D -- Baird, D -- Baker, D N -- Bell, J M -- Benna, M -- Brain, D -- Chaffin, M -- Chamberlin, P -- Chaufray, J-Y -- Clarke, J -- Collinson, G -- Combi, M -- Crary, F -- Cravens, T -- Crismani, M -- Curry, S -- Curtis, D -- Deighan, J -- Delory, G -- Dewey, R -- DiBraccio, G -- Dong, C -- Dong, Y -- Dunn, P -- Elrod, M -- England, S -- Eriksson, A -- Espley, J -- Evans, S -- Fang, X -- Fillingim, M -- Fortier, K -- Fowler, C M -- Fox, J -- Groller, H -- Guzewich, S -- Hara, T -- Harada, Y -- Holsclaw, G -- Jain, S K -- Jolitz, R -- Leblanc, F -- Lee, C O -- Lee, Y -- Lefevre, F -- Lillis, R -- Livi, R -- Lo, D -- Ma, Y -- Mayyasi, M -- McClintock, W -- McEnulty, T -- Modolo, R -- Montmessin, F -- Morooka, M -- Nagy, A -- Olsen, K -- Peterson, W -- Rahmati, A -- Ruhunusiri, S -- Russell, C T -- Sakai, S -- Sauvaud, J-A -- Seki, K -- Steckiewicz, M -- Stevens, M -- Stewart, A I F -- Stiepen, A -- Stone, S -- Tenishev, V -- Thiemann, E -- Tolson, R -- Toublanc, D -- Vogt, M -- Weber, T -- Withers, P -- Woods, T -- Yelle, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):aad0459. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0459.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CLaSP Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. bougher@umich.edu. ; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University. of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. ; NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. ; CNRS/Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, France. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. ; Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden. ; NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA. ; National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA, USA. ; Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales /CNRS, Verrieres-le-Buisson, France. ; Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. ; CLaSP Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. ; Computational Physics, Springfield, VA, USA. ; Department of Physics, Wright State University, Fairborn, OH, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. ; Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. ; Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542579" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-09-21
    Description: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is highly polymorphic and rich in repetitive sequences, with some transposable elements still actively shaping variation. Transcriptome studies reveal an extensive set of genes responding to environmental stress. The expansion of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 and inhibitors of apoptosis is probably central to the oyster's adaptation to sessile life in the highly stressful intertidal zone. Our analyses also show that shell formation in molluscs is more complex than currently understood and involves extensive participation of cells and their exosomes. The oyster genome sequence fills a void in our understanding of the Lophotrochozoa.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Guofan -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Guo, Ximing -- Li, Li -- Luo, Ruibang -- Xu, Fei -- Yang, Pengcheng -- Zhang, Linlin -- Wang, Xiaotong -- Qi, Haigang -- Xiong, Zhiqiang -- Que, Huayong -- Xie, Yinlong -- Holland, Peter W H -- Paps, Jordi -- Zhu, Yabing -- Wu, Fucun -- Chen, Yuanxin -- Wang, Jiafeng -- Peng, Chunfang -- Meng, Jie -- Yang, Lan -- Liu, Jun -- Wen, Bo -- Zhang, Na -- Huang, Zhiyong -- Zhu, Qihui -- Feng, Yue -- Mount, Andrew -- Hedgecock, Dennis -- Xu, Zhe -- Liu, Yunjie -- Domazet-Loso, Tomislav -- Du, Yishuai -- Sun, Xiaoqing -- Zhang, Shoudu -- Liu, Binghang -- Cheng, Peizhou -- Jiang, Xuanting -- Li, Juan -- Fan, Dingding -- Wang, Wei -- Fu, Wenjing -- Wang, Tong -- Wang, Bo -- Zhang, Jibiao -- Peng, Zhiyu -- Li, Yingxiang -- Li, Na -- Wang, Jinpeng -- Chen, Maoshan -- He, Yan -- Tan, Fengji -- Song, Xiaorui -- Zheng, Qiumei -- Huang, Ronglian -- Yang, Hailong -- Du, Xuedi -- Chen, Li -- Yang, Mei -- Gaffney, Patrick M -- Wang, Shan -- Luo, Longhai -- She, Zhicai -- Ming, Yao -- Huang, Wen -- Zhang, Shu -- Huang, Baoyu -- Zhang, Yong -- Qu, Tao -- Ni, Peixiang -- Miao, Guoying -- Wang, Junyi -- Wang, Qiang -- Steinberg, Christian E W -- Wang, Haiyan -- Li, Ning -- Qian, Lumin -- Zhang, Guojie -- Li, Yingrui -- Yang, Huanming -- Liu, Xiao -- Wang, Jian -- Yin, Ye -- Wang, Jun -- 268513/European Research Council/International -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 4;490(7418):49-54. doi: 10.1038/nature11413. Epub 2012 Sep 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22992520" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological/*genetics ; Animal Shells/chemistry/*growth & development ; Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics ; Crassostrea/*genetics ; DNA Transposable Elements/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics ; Genes, Homeobox/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics ; Humans ; Larva/genetics/growth & development ; Mass Spectrometry ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Stress, Physiological/genetics/*physiology ; Transcriptome/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-12-22
    Description: Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat-specific traits, we performed whole-genome sequencing and comparative analyses of two distantly related species, fruit bat Pteropus alecto and insectivorous bat Myotis davidii. We discovered an unexpected concentration of positively selected genes in the DNA damage checkpoint and nuclear factor kappaB pathways that may be related to the origin of flight, as well as expansion and contraction of important gene families. Comparison of bat genomes with other mammalian species has provided new insights into bat biology and evolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Guojie -- Cowled, Christopher -- Shi, Zhengli -- Huang, Zhiyong -- Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Wynne, James W -- Xiong, Zhiqiang -- Baker, Michelle L -- Zhao, Wei -- Tachedjian, Mary -- Zhu, Yabing -- Zhou, Peng -- Jiang, Xuanting -- Ng, Justin -- Yang, Lan -- Wu, Lijun -- Xiao, Jin -- Feng, Yue -- Chen, Yuanxin -- Sun, Xiaoqing -- Zhang, Yong -- Marsh, Glenn A -- Crameri, Gary -- Broder, Christopher C -- Frey, Kenneth G -- Wang, Lin-Fa -- Wang, Jun -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 25;339(6118):456-60. doi: 10.1126/science.1230835. Epub 2012 Dec 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China. zhanggj@genomics.org.cn〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23258410" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Chiroptera/*genetics/immunology/physiology ; DNA Damage/genetics ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Echolocation ; Evolution, Molecular ; *Flight, Animal ; Genetic Speciation ; *Genome ; Hibernation/genetics ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Immunity, Innate/*genetics ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Selection, Genetic ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-06-21
    Description: The mechanical properties of ordinary materials degrade substantially with reduced density because their structural elements bend under applied load. We report a class of microarchitected materials that maintain a nearly constant stiffness per unit mass density, even at ultralow density. This performance derives from a network of nearly isotropic microscale unit cells with high structural connectivity and nanoscale features, whose structural members are designed to carry loads in tension or compression. Production of these microlattices, with polymers, metals, or ceramics as constituent materials, is made possible by projection microstereolithography (an additive micromanufacturing technique) combined with nanoscale coating and postprocessing. We found that these materials exhibit ultrastiff properties across more than three orders of magnitude in density, regardless of the constituent material.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zheng, Xiaoyu -- Lee, Howon -- Weisgraber, Todd H -- Shusteff, Maxim -- DeOtte, Joshua -- Duoss, Eric B -- Kuntz, Joshua D -- Biener, Monika M -- Ge, Qi -- Jackson, Julie A -- Kucheyev, Sergei O -- Fang, Nicholas X -- Spadaccini, Christopher M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jun 20;344(6190):1373-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1252291.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. zheng3@llnl.gov spadaccini2@llnl.gov nicfang@mit.edu. ; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. zheng3@llnl.gov spadaccini2@llnl.gov nicfang@mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24948733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: Coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere, combined with loss of gas from the upper atmosphere to space, likely contributed to the thin, cold, dry atmosphere of modern Mars. To help understand ongoing ion loss to space, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft made comprehensive measurements of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during an interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact in March 2015. Responses include changes in the bow shock and magnetosheath, formation of widespread diffuse aurora, and enhancement of pick-up ions. Observations and models both show an enhancement in escape rate of ions to space during the event. Ion loss during solar events early in Mars history may have been a major contributor to the long-term evolution of the Mars atmosphere.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jakosky, B M -- Grebowsky, J M -- Luhmann, J G -- Connerney, J -- Eparvier, F -- Ergun, R -- Halekas, J -- Larson, D -- Mahaffy, P -- McFadden, J -- Mitchell, D F -- Schneider, N -- Zurek, R -- Bougher, S -- Brain, D -- Ma, Y J -- Mazelle, C -- Andersson, L -- Andrews, D -- Baird, D -- Baker, D -- Bell, J M -- Benna, M -- Chaffin, M -- Chamberlin, P -- Chaufray, Y-Y -- Clarke, J -- Collinson, G -- Combi, M -- Crary, F -- Cravens, T -- Crismani, M -- Curry, S -- Curtis, D -- Deighan, J -- Delory, G -- Dewey, R -- DiBraccio, G -- Dong, C -- Dong, Y -- Dunn, P -- Elrod, M -- England, S -- Eriksson, A -- Espley, J -- Evans, S -- Fang, X -- Fillingim, M -- Fortier, K -- Fowler, C M -- Fox, J -- Groller, H -- Guzewich, S -- Hara, T -- Harada, Y -- Holsclaw, G -- Jain, S K -- Jolitz, R -- Leblanc, F -- Lee, C O -- Lee, Y -- Lefevre, F -- Lillis, R -- Livi, R -- Lo, D -- Mayyasi, M -- McClintock, W -- McEnulty, T -- Modolo, R -- Montmessin, F -- Morooka, M -- Nagy, A -- Olsen, K -- Peterson, W -- Rahmati, A -- Ruhunusiri, S -- Russell, C T -- Sakai, S -- Sauvaud, J-A -- Seki, K -- Steckiewicz, M -- Stevens, M -- Stewart, A I F -- Stiepen, A -- Stone, S -- Tenishev, V -- Thiemann, E -- Tolson, R -- Toublanc, D -- Vogt, M -- Weber, T -- Withers, P -- Woods, T -- Yelle, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):aad0210. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0210.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. bruce.jakosky@lasp.colorado.edu. ; NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. ; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. ; University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; CNRS-Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Toulouse, France. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. ; Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. ; NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA. ; National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA, USA. ; Laboratoire atmospheres, milieux et observations spatiales (LATMOS)-CNRS, Paris, France. ; Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. ; University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. ; Computational Physics, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA. ; Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. ; Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. ; Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA. ; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542576" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Nitriles and alkenes are important synthetic intermediates with complementary reactivity that play a central role in the preparation of materials, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agrochemicals. Here, we report a nickel-catalyzed transfer hydrocyanation reaction between a wide range (60 examples) of alkyl nitriles and alkenes. This strategy not only overcomes the toxicity challenge posed by the use of HCN in traditional approaches, but also encompasses distinct chemical advances, including retro-hydrocyanation and anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity. In a broader context, this work highlights an approach to the reversible hydrofunctionalization of alkenes through thermodynamically controlled transfer reactions to circumvent the use of volatile and hazardous reagents in the laboratory.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fang, Xianjie -- Yu, Peng -- Morandi, Bill -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):832-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aae0427.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max-Planck-Institut fur Kohlenforschung, Mulheim an der Ruhr, Nordrhein-Westfalen 45470, Germany. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur Kohlenforschung, Mulheim an der Ruhr, Nordrhein-Westfalen 45470, Germany. morandi@kofo.mpg.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912891" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-10-28
    Description: Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health, welfare and food production worldwide. More than two billion people are infected with geohelminths, including the roundworms Ascaris (common roundworm), Necator and Ancylostoma (hookworms), and Trichuris (whipworm), mainly in developing or impoverished nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In humans, the diseases caused by these parasites result in about 135,000 deaths annually, with a global burden comparable with that of malaria or tuberculosis in disability-adjusted life years. Ascaris alone infects around 1.2 billion people and, in children, causes nutritional deficiency, impaired physical and cognitive development and, in severe cases, death. Ascaris also causes major production losses in pigs owing to reduced growth, failure to thrive and mortality. The Ascaris-swine model makes it possible to study the parasite, its relationship with the host, and ascariasis at the molecular level. To enable such molecular studies, we report the 273 megabase draft genome of Ascaris suum and compare it with other nematode genomes. This genome has low repeat content (4.4%) and encodes about 18,500 protein-coding genes. Notably, the A. suum secretome (about 750 molecules) is rich in peptidases linked to the penetration and degradation of host tissues, and an assemblage of molecules likely to modulate or evade host immune responses. This genome provides a comprehensive resource to the scientific community and underpins the development of new and urgently needed interventions (drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests) against ascariasis and other nematodiases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jex, Aaron R -- Liu, Shiping -- Li, Bo -- Young, Neil D -- Hall, Ross S -- Li, Yingrui -- Yang, Linfeng -- Zeng, Na -- Xu, Xun -- Xiong, Zijun -- Chen, Fangyuan -- Wu, Xuan -- Zhang, Guojie -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Kang, Yi -- Anderson, Garry A -- Harris, Todd W -- Campbell, Bronwyn E -- Vlaminck, Johnny -- Wang, Tao -- Cantacessi, Cinzia -- Schwarz, Erich M -- Ranganathan, Shoba -- Geldhof, Peter -- Nejsum, Peter -- Sternberg, Paul W -- Yang, Huanming -- Wang, Jun -- Wang, Jian -- Gasser, Robin B -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 26;479(7374):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature10553.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. ajex@unimelb.edu.au〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22031327" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antinematodal Agents ; Ascariasis/drug therapy/parasitology ; Ascaris suum/drug effects/*genetics ; Drug Design ; Genes, Helminth/genetics ; Genome, Helminth/*genetics ; Genomics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Targeted Therapy
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also live in full darkness, at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and are unable to sustain thermogenesis nor feel certain types of pain. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the naked mole rat genome, which reveals unique genome features and molecular adaptations consistent with cancer resistance, poikilothermy, hairlessness and insensitivity to low oxygen, and altered visual function, circadian rythms and taste sensing. This information provides insights into the naked mole rat's exceptional longevity and ability to live in hostile conditions, in the dark and at low oxygen. The extreme traits of the naked mole rat, together with the reported genome and transcriptome information, offer opportunities for understanding ageing and advancing other areas of biological and biomedical research.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319411/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319411/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Eun Bae -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Fushan, Alexey A -- Huang, Zhiyong -- Lobanov, Alexei V -- Han, Lijuan -- Marino, Stefano M -- Sun, Xiaoqing -- Turanov, Anton A -- Yang, Pengcheng -- Yim, Sun Hee -- Zhao, Xiang -- Kasaikina, Marina V -- Stoletzki, Nina -- Peng, Chunfang -- Polak, Paz -- Xiong, Zhiqiang -- Kiezun, Adam -- Zhu, Yabing -- Chen, Yuanxin -- Kryukov, Gregory V -- Zhang, Qiang -- Peshkin, Leonid -- Yang, Lan -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Buffenstein, Rochelle -- Wang, Bo -- Han, Changlei -- Li, Qiye -- Chen, Li -- Zhao, Wei -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- Park, Thomas J -- Zhang, Guojie -- Wang, Jun -- Gladyshev, Vadim N -- AG021518/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG038004/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- CA080946/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021518/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021518-10/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038004/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038004-02/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA080946/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA080946-11/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 12;479(7372):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10533.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioinspired Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological/*genetics ; Aging/genetics ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Body Temperature Regulation/genetics ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis/metabolism ; Circadian Rhythm/genetics ; Darkness ; Genes/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomic Instability/genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Ion Channels/genetics ; Longevity/*genetics/physiology ; Male ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics ; Mole Rats/*genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis/genetics ; Oxygen/analysis/metabolism ; Taste/genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics ; Visual Perception/genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Purpose: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a detrimental complication of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and associated with poor prognosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of the metastasis process are still poorly understood. Experimental Design: We performed next-generation panel sequencing of primary tumor tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and matched normal controls from epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutation-positive NSCLC patients with LM. Results: The status of EGFR -activating mutations was highly concordant between primary tumor and CSF. PIK3CA aberrations were high in these patients, implicating an association with LM risk. Intriguingly, low overlapping of somatic protein-changing variants was observed between paired CSF and primary lesions, exhibiting tumor heterogeneity and genetic divergence. Moreover, genes with CSF-recurrent genomic alterations were predominantly involved in cell-cycle regulation and DNA-damage response (DDR), suggesting a role of the pathway in LM development. Conclusions: Our study has shed light on the genomic variations of NSCLC-LM, demonstrated genetic heterogeneity and divergence, uncovered involvement of cell-cycle and DDR pathway, and paved the way for potential therapeutic approaches to this unmet medical need. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 209–16. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Keywords: PATHWAY ; CHEMISTRY ; REARRANGEMENT ; analysis ; USA ; BISHOMODITERPENE LACTONES ; CAPER SPURGE ; ESTERS ; INGENOL ; IRRITANT ; TERRACINA
    Abstract: [GRAPHICS] Lathyranone A (1), a novel diterpenoid with a rearrangement skeleton, along with a known diterpenoid, Euphorbia factor L-11 (2), was isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. A possible biosynthetic pathway for lathyranone A (1) was proposed
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17637035
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