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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-14
    Description: The search for high-performance non-platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts is the most challenging issue for fuel cell technology. Creating bimetallic non-Pt nanocrystals (NCs) with core/shell structures or alloy features has widely been explored as the most effective way for enhancing their electrochemical properties but still suffered from undesirable performance due to the limited interactions between the different components. By addressing the above issue, we report on a new class of active and stable bimetallic non-Pt electrocatalysts with palladium (Pd) icosahedra as the core and nickel (Ni) decorating the surface toward cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline conditions. The optimized Pd 6 Ni icosahedra with unique interaction between an icosahedral Pd core and surface Ni yield the highest ORR activity with a mass activity of 0.22 A mg Pd –1 , which is better than those of the conventional Pd 6 Ni icosahedra with alloy surfaces or Pd-rich surfaces, and even two times higher than that of the commercial Pt/C (0.11 A mg Pt –1 ), representing one of the best non-Pt electrocatalysts. Simulations reveal that the Pd icosahedra decorated with Ni atoms emerged in the subsurface can weaken the interaction between the adsorbed oxygen and Pd (111) facet and enhance the ORR activities due to an obvious shift of d-band center. More significantly, under electrochemical accelerated durability test, the Pd 6 Ni icosahedra can endure at least 10,000 cycles with negligible activity decay and structural change. The present work demonstrates an important advance in surface tuning of bimetallic NCs as high-performance non-Pt catalysts for catalysis, energy conversion, and beyond.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Somatic mutations in spliceosome proteins lead to dysregulated RNA splicing and are observed in a variety of cancers. These genetic aberrations may offer a potential intervention point for targeted therapeutics. SF3B1, part of the U2 small nuclear RNP (snRNP), is targeted by splicing modulators, including E7107, the first to enter clinical trials, and, more recently, H3B-8800. Modulating splicing represents a first-in-class opportunity in drug discovery, and elucidating the structural basis for the mode of action opens up new possibilities for structure-based drug design. Here, we present the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the SF3b subcomplex (SF3B1, SF3B3, PHF5A, and SF3B5) bound to E7107 at 3.95 Å. This structure shows that E7107 binds in the branch point adenosine-binding pocket, forming close contacts with key residues that confer resistance upon mutation: SF3B1 R1074H and PHF5A Y36C . The structure suggests a model in which splicing modulators interfere with branch point adenosine recognition and supports a substrate competitive mechanism of action (MOA). Using several related chemical probes, we validate the pose of the compound and support their substrate competitive MOA by comparing their activity against both strong and weak pre-mRNA substrates. Finally, we present functional data and structure–activity relationship (SAR) on the PHF5A R38C mutation that sensitizes cells to some chemical probes but not others. Developing small molecule splicing modulators represents a promising therapeutic approach for a variety of diseases, and this work provides a significant step in enabling structure-based drug design for these elaborate natural products. Importantly, this work also demonstrates that the utilization of cryo-EM in drug discovery is coming of age.
    Print ISSN: 0890-9369
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Nonmuscle myosin II has been implicated in regulation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) release from endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), but the specific role of myosin IIa isoform is poorly defined. Here, we report that myosin IIa is expressed both in primary human endothelial cells and intact mouse vessels, essential for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated endothelial VWF secretion. Downregulation of myosin IIa by shRNAs significantly suppressed both forskolin- and epinephrine-induced VWF secretion. Endothelium-specific myosin IIa knockout mice exhibited impaired epinephrine-stimulated VWF release, prolonged bleeding time, and thrombosis. Further study showed that in resting cells, myosin IIa deficiency disrupted the peripheral localization of Rab27-positive WPBs along stress fibers; on stimulation by cAMP agonists, myosin IIa in synergy with zyxin promotes the formation of a functional actin framework, which is derived from preexisting cortical actin filaments, around WPBs, facilitating fusion and subsequent exocytosis. In summary, our findings not only identify new functions of myosin IIa in regulation of WPB positioning and the interaction between preexisting cortical actin filaments and exocytosing vesicles before fusion but also reveal myosin IIa as a physiological regulator of endothelial VWF secretion in stress-induced hemostasis and thrombosis.
    Keywords: Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Vascular Biology
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-10-05
    Description: Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently developed from crosses between japonica rice and local wild rice as the initial cultivars spread into South East and South Asia. The domestication-associated traits are analysed through high-resolution genetic mapping. This study provides an important resource for rice breeding and an effective genomics approach for crop domestication research.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Xuehui -- Kurata, Nori -- Wei, Xinghua -- Wang, Zi-Xuan -- Wang, Ahong -- Zhao, Qiang -- Zhao, Yan -- Liu, Kunyan -- Lu, Hengyun -- Li, Wenjun -- Guo, Yunli -- Lu, Yiqi -- Zhou, Congcong -- Fan, Danlin -- Weng, Qijun -- Zhu, Chuanrang -- Huang, Tao -- Zhang, Lei -- Wang, Yongchun -- Feng, Lei -- Furuumi, Hiroyasu -- Kubo, Takahiko -- Miyabayashi, Toshie -- Yuan, Xiaoping -- Xu, Qun -- Dong, Guojun -- Zhan, Qilin -- Li, Canyang -- Fujiyama, Asao -- Toyoda, Atsushi -- Lu, Tingting -- Feng, Qi -- Qian, Qian -- Li, Jiayang -- Han, Bin -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 25;490(7421):497-501. doi: 10.1038/nature11532. Epub 2012 Oct 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Center for Gene Research, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200233, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23034647" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/*history ; Breeding/history ; Crops, Agricultural/classification/*genetics/growth & development ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Genomics ; *Geographic Mapping ; History, Ancient ; Oryza/classification/*genetics/growth & development ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Selection, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-03-23
    Description: In pregnancy, trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral artery remodelling are important for lowering maternal vascular resistance and increasing uteroplacental blood flow. Impaired spiral artery remodelling has been implicated in pre-eclampsia, a major complication of pregnancy, for a long time but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Corin (also known as atrial natriuretic peptide-converting enzyme) is a cardiac protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a cardiac hormone that is important in regulating blood pressure. Unexpectedly, corin expression was detected in the pregnant uterus. Here we identify a new function of corin and ANP in promoting trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling. We show that pregnant corin- or ANP-deficient mice developed high blood pressure and proteinuria, characteristics of pre-eclampsia. In these mice, trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral artery remodelling were markedly impaired. Consistent with this, the ANP potently stimulated human trophoblasts in invading Matrigels. In patients with pre-eclampsia, uterine Corin messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower than that in normal pregnancies. Moreover, we have identified Corin gene mutations in pre-eclamptic patients, which decreased corin activity in processing pro-ANP. These results indicate that corin and ANP are essential for physiological changes at the maternal-fetal interface, suggesting that defects in corin and ANP function may contribute to pre-eclampsia.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3578422/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3578422/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cui, Yujie -- Wang, Wei -- Dong, Ningzheng -- Lou, Jinglei -- Srinivasan, Dinesh Kumar -- Cheng, Weiwei -- Huang, Xiaoyi -- Liu, Meng -- Fang, Chaodong -- Peng, Jianhao -- Chen, Shenghan -- Wu, Shannon -- Liu, Zhenzhen -- Dong, Liang -- Zhou, Yiqing -- Wu, Qingyu -- HD064634/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HL089298/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD064634/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL089298/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 21;484(7393):246-50. doi: 10.1038/nature10897.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular Cardiology, Nephrology and Hypertension, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22437503" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Atrial Natriuretic Factor/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Blood Pressure/genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Cells, Cultured ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ischemia/metabolism/pathology ; Kidney/blood supply/pathology ; Kidney Diseases/genetics/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Mice, Transgenic ; Mutation ; Pre-Eclampsia/genetics/metabolism/pathology/physiopathology ; Pregnancy ; Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Trophoblasts/*cytology/metabolism ; Uterine Artery/*growth & development ; Uterus/*blood supply/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Xiaolei -- Ma, Keping -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 18;522(7556):287. doi: 10.1038/522287d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China. ; Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085262" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Access to Information ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Science/*methods/*trends
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family are essential mediators of fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system and are implicated in many neurological disorders. Available X-ray structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors provide tremendous insights into the binding of agonists, the subsequent opening of the ion channel, and the mechanism of channel activation. Yet the mechanism of inactivation by antagonists remains unknown. Here we present a 3.0 A X-ray structure of the human glycine receptor-alpha3 homopentamer in complex with a high affinity, high-specificity antagonist, strychnine. Our structure allows us to explore in detail the molecular recognition of antagonists. Comparisons with previous structures reveal a mechanism for antagonist-induced inactivation of Cys-loop receptors, involving an expansion of the orthosteric binding site in the extracellular domain that is coupled to closure of the ion pore in the transmembrane domain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Xin -- Chen, Hao -- Michelsen, Klaus -- Schneider, Stephen -- Shaffer, Paul L -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 8;526(7572):277-80. doi: 10.1038/nature14972. Epub 2015 Sep 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Structure and Characterization, Amgen Inc., 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Protein Technologies, Amgen Inc., 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Amgen Inc., 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-01-14
    Description: The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon-driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with 'humanized' in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (〈5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (〈12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morrissy, A Sorana -- Garzia, Livia -- Shih, David J H -- Zuyderduyn, Scott -- Huang, Xi -- Skowron, Patryk -- Remke, Marc -- Cavalli, Florence M G -- Ramaswamy, Vijay -- Lindsay, Patricia E -- Jelveh, Salomeh -- Donovan, Laura K -- Wang, Xin -- Luu, Betty -- Zayne, Kory -- Li, Yisu -- Mayoh, Chelsea -- Thiessen, Nina -- Mercier, Eloi -- Mungall, Karen L -- Ma, Yusanne -- Tse, Kane -- Zeng, Thomas -- Shumansky, Karey -- Roth, Andrew J L -- Shah, Sohrab -- Farooq, Hamza -- Kijima, Noriyuki -- Holgado, Borja L -- Lee, John J Y -- Matan-Lithwick, Stuart -- Liu, Jessica -- Mack, Stephen C -- Manno, Alex -- Michealraj, K A -- Nor, Carolina -- Peacock, John -- Qin, Lei -- Reimand, Juri -- Rolider, Adi -- Thompson, Yuan Y -- Wu, Xiaochong -- Pugh, Trevor -- Ally, Adrian -- Bilenky, Mikhail -- Butterfield, Yaron S N -- Carlsen, Rebecca -- Cheng, Young -- Chuah, Eric -- Corbett, Richard D -- Dhalla, Noreen -- He, An -- Lee, Darlene -- Li, Haiyan I -- Long, William -- Mayo, Michael -- Plettner, Patrick -- Qian, Jenny Q -- Schein, Jacqueline E -- Tam, Angela -- Wong, Tina -- Birol, Inanc -- Zhao, Yongjun -- Faria, Claudia C -- Pimentel, Jose -- Nunes, Sofia -- Shalaby, Tarek -- Grotzer, Michael -- Pollack, Ian F -- Hamilton, Ronald L -- Li, Xiao-Nan -- Bendel, Anne E -- Fults, Daniel W -- Walter, Andrew W -- Kumabe, Toshihiro -- Tominaga, Teiji -- Collins, V Peter -- Cho, Yoon-Jae -- Hoffman, Caitlin -- Lyden, David -- Wisoff, Jeffrey H -- Garvin, James H Jr -- Stearns, Duncan S -- Massimi, Luca -- Schuller, Ulrich -- Sterba, Jaroslav -- Zitterbart, Karel -- Puget, Stephanie -- Ayrault, Olivier -- Dunn, Sandra E -- Tirapelli, Daniela P C -- Carlotti, Carlos G -- Wheeler, Helen -- Hallahan, Andrew R -- Ingram, Wendy -- MacDonald, Tobey J -- Olson, Jeffrey J -- Van Meir, Erwin G -- Lee, Ji-Yeoun -- Wang, Kyu-Chang -- Kim, Seung-Ki -- Cho, Byung-Kyu -- Pietsch, Torsten -- Fleischhack, Gudrun -- Tippelt, Stephan -- Ra, Young Shin -- Bailey, Simon -- Lindsey, Janet C -- Clifford, Steven C -- Eberhart, Charles G -- Cooper, Michael K -- Packer, Roger J -- Massimino, Maura -- Garre, Maria Luisa -- Bartels, Ute -- Tabori, Uri -- Hawkins, Cynthia E -- Dirks, Peter -- Bouffet, Eric -- Rutka, James T -- Wechsler-Reya, Robert J -- Weiss, William A -- Collier, Lara S -- Dupuy, Adam J -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Jones, David T W -- Kool, Marcel -- Northcott, Paul A -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Largaespada, David A -- Mungall, Andrew J -- Moore, Richard A -- Jabado, Nada -- Bader, Gary D -- Jones, Steven J M -- Malkin, David -- Marra, Marco A -- Taylor, Michael D -- R01 CA163722/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS096236/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01CA148699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA159859/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 21;529(7586):351-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16478. Epub 2016 Jan 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Developmental &Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. ; The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. ; The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology, and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital Dusseldorf, M5S 3E1, Germany. ; Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. ; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. ; Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4S6, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; Center for Stem Cell &Regenerative Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA. ; Clinical Genomics Research Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario 44195, Canada. ; Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada. ; School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. ; Division of Neurosurgery, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon 1649-035, Portugal. ; Divison of Pathology, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon 1649-035, Portugal. ; Unidade de Neuro-Oncologia Pediatrica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon 1099-023, Portugal. ; Departments of Oncology and Neuro-Oncology, University Children's Hospital of Zurich, Zurich 8032, Switzerland. ; Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15224, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. ; Brain Tumor Program, Children's Cancer Center and Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55404, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA. ; A I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware 19803, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8574, Japan. ; Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK. ; Departments of Neurosurgery, Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Departments of Pediatrics, Cell &Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics-Hematology and Oncology, Rainbow Babies &Children's Hospital and Department of Pediatrics-Hematology and Oncology, Case Western Reserve, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. ; Pediatric Neurosurgery, Catholic University Medical School, Rome 00198, Italy. ; Center for Neuropathology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich 81377, Germany. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, School of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno 625 00, Czech Republic. ; AP-HP, Department of Neurosurgery, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris 75743, France. ; Signaling in Development and Brain Tumors, CNRS UMR 3347 / INSERM U1021, Institut Curie, Paris Cedex 5 91405, France. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3V4, Canada. ; Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil, Rebeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14049-900, Brazil. ; Kolling Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2065, Australia. ; Queensland Children's Medical Research Institute, Children's Health Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia. ; Division of Oncology, Children's Health Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia. ; UQ Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4029, Australia. ; Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Program, School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30307, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. ; Department of Hematology &Medical Oncology, School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul 30322, South Korea. ; Institute for Neuropathology, University of Bonn D-53105, Germany. ; Children's University Hospital of Essen D-45147, Germany. ; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, South Korea. ; Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP, UK. ; Departments of Pathology, Ophthalmology and Oncology, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-8550, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington DC 20010-2970, USA. ; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan 20133, Italy. ; U.O. Neurochirurgia, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova 16147, Italy. ; Department of Haematology &Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Division of Pathology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Departments of Pediatrics, Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; School of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA. ; Molecular &Cellular Biology Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1S6., Canada. ; McLaughlin Centre and Department of Molecular Genetics, Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Biology &Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia M5G 1L7, Canada. ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760213" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-07-30
    Description: The initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II is a multistage process. X-ray crystal structures of transcription complexes containing short RNAs reveal three structural states: one with 2- and 3-nucleotide RNAs, in which only the 3'-end of the RNA is detectable; a second state with 4- and 5-nucleotide RNAs, with an RNA-DNA hybrid in a grossly distorted conformation; and a third state with RNAs of 6 nucleotides and longer, essentially the same as a stable elongating complex. The transition from the first to the second state correlates with a markedly reduced frequency of abortive initiation. The transition from the second to the third state correlates with partial "bubble collapse" and promoter escape. Polymerase structure is permissive for abortive initiation, thereby setting a lower limit on polymerase-promoter complex lifetime and allowing the dissociation of nonspecific complexes. Abortive initiation may be viewed as promoter proofreading, and the structural transitions as checkpoints for promoter control.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179255/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179255/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Xin -- Bushnell, David A -- Silva, Daniel-Adriano -- Huang, Xuhui -- Kornberg, Roger D -- AI21144/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- GM049985/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI021144/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI021144-27/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM036659/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM049985/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM049985-19/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jul 29;333(6042):633-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1206629.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21798951" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Crystallization ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/chemistry/metabolism ; Oligoribonucleotides/chemistry/metabolism ; *Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA Polymerase II/*chemistry/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism ; Templates, Genetic ; Transcription Factor TFIIB/chemistry/metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site ; *Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-04-05
    Description: When mounted on the skin, modern sensors, circuits, radios, and power supply systems have the potential to provide clinical-quality health monitoring capabilities for continuous use, beyond the confines of traditional hospital or laboratory facilities. The most well-developed component technologies are, however, broadly available only in hard, planar formats. As a result, existing options in system design are unable to effectively accommodate integration with the soft, textured, curvilinear, and time-dynamic surfaces of the skin. Here, we describe experimental and theoretical approaches for using ideas in soft microfluidics, structured adhesive surfaces, and controlled mechanical buckling to achieve ultralow modulus, highly stretchable systems that incorporate assemblies of high-modulus, rigid, state-of-the-art functional elements. The outcome is a thin, conformable device technology that can softly laminate onto the surface of the skin to enable advanced, multifunctional operation for physiological monitoring in a wireless mode.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xu, Sheng -- Zhang, Yihui -- Jia, Lin -- Mathewson, Kyle E -- Jang, Kyung-In -- Kim, Jeonghyun -- Fu, Haoran -- Huang, Xian -- Chava, Pranav -- Wang, Renhan -- Bhole, Sanat -- Wang, Lizhe -- Na, Yoon Joo -- Guan, Yue -- Flavin, Matthew -- Han, Zheshen -- Huang, Yonggang -- Rogers, John A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 4;344(6179):70-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1250169.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24700852" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Elasticity ; Electrocardiography/instrumentation/methods ; Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/instrumentation/methods ; Electroencephalography/instrumentation/methods ; Electromyography/instrumentation/methods ; Electrooculography ; Equipment Design ; Humans ; Male ; Microfluidics/*instrumentation ; Monitoring, Ambulatory/*instrumentation/methods ; Monitoring, Physiologic/*instrumentation/methods ; Remote Sensing Technology ; Silicone Elastomers ; *Skin ; Wireless Technology ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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