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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: High-performance, flexible film heaters with carbon nanotube transparent conducting films are easily fabricated by both a rod-coating method and a spraying method. The main conclusion we have reached is that the film demonstrates a heating rate of 6.1°C s –1 at 35 V and sheet resistance as low as 94.7 sq –1 with 72.04% optical transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm by the spraying method after a series of post-treatment processes with acid and distilled water. Then, we adopt a mathematical method of nonlinear fitting to simulate the collected experimental data and the functions effectively. Furthermore, through analysis of the formula, the correlation between temperature and time is well explained. Therefore, carbon nanotube-based, flexible, transparent heaters exhibit high electrothermal performance and are expected to find different applications, e.g. various functional devices such as heating materials, heatable smart windows or dining tables.
    Keywords: materials science, nanotechnology, chemical physics
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-12-04
    Description: Ionic protein-lipid interactions are critical for the structure and function of membrane receptors, ion channels, integrins and many other proteins. However, the regulatory mechanism of these interactions is largely unknown. Here we show that Ca(2+) can bind directly to anionic phospholipids and thus modulate membrane protein function. The activation of T-cell antigen receptor-CD3 complex (TCR), a key membrane receptor for adaptive immunity, is regulated by ionic interactions between positively charged CD3epsilon/zeta cytoplasmic domains (CD3(CD)) and negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane. Crucial tyrosines are buried in the membrane and are largely protected from phosphorylation in resting T cells. It is not clear how CD3(CD) dissociates from the membrane in antigen-stimulated T cells. The antigen engagement of even a single TCR triggers a Ca(2+) influx and TCR-proximal Ca(2+) concentration is higher than the average cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Our biochemical, live-cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer and NMR experiments showed that an increase in Ca(2+) concentration induced the dissociation of CD3(CD) from the membrane and the solvent exposure of tyrosine residues. As a consequence, CD3 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly enhanced by Ca(2+) influx. Moreover, when compared with wild-type cells, Ca(2+) channel-deficient T cells had substantially lower levels of CD3 phosphorylation after stimulation. The effect of Ca(2+) on facilitating CD3 phosphorylation is primarily due to the charge of this ion, as demonstrated by the fact that replacing Ca(2+) with the non-physiological ion Sr(2+) resulted in the same feedback effect. Finally, (31)P NMR spectroscopy showed that Ca(2+) bound to the phosphate group in anionic phospholipids at physiological concentrations, thus neutralizing the negative charge of phospholipids. Rather than initiating CD3 phosphorylation, this regulatory pathway of Ca(2+) has a positive feedback effect on amplifying and sustaining CD3 phosphorylation and should enhance T-cell sensitivity to foreign antigens. Our study thus provides a new regulatory mechanism of Ca(2+) to T-cell activation involving direct lipid manipulation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shi, Xiaoshan -- Bi, Yunchen -- Yang, Wei -- Guo, Xingdong -- Jiang, Yan -- Wan, Chanjuan -- Li, Lunyi -- Bai, Yibing -- Guo, Jun -- Wang, Yujuan -- Chen, Xiangjun -- Wu, Bo -- Sun, Hongbin -- Liu, Wanli -- Wang, Junfeng -- Xu, Chenqi -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 3;493(7430):111-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11699. Epub 2012 Dec 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201688" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Feedback, Physiological/drug effects ; Humans ; Jurkat Cells ; Lipid Bilayers/chemistry/metabolism ; *Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects ; Mice ; Phospholipids/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Solvents/chemistry/metabolism ; Static Electricity ; T-Lymphocytes/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism ; Tyrosine/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-10-04
    Description: Structural variants are implicated in numerous diseases and make up the majority of varying nucleotides among human genomes. Here we describe an integrated set of eight structural variant classes comprising both balanced and unbalanced variants, which we constructed using short-read DNA sequencing data and statistically phased onto haplotype blocks in 26 human populations. Analysing this set, we identify numerous gene-intersecting structural variants exhibiting population stratification and describe naturally occurring homozygous gene knockouts that suggest the dispensability of a variety of human genes. We demonstrate that structural variants are enriched on haplotypes identified by genome-wide association studies and exhibit enrichment for expression quantitative trait loci. Additionally, we uncover appreciable levels of structural variant complexity at different scales, including genic loci subject to clusters of repeated rearrangement and complex structural variants with multiple breakpoints likely to have formed through individual mutational events. Our catalogue will enhance future studies into structural variant demography, functional impact and disease association.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617611/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617611/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sudmant, Peter H -- Rausch, Tobias -- Gardner, Eugene J -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Abyzov, Alexej -- Huddleston, John -- Zhang, Yan -- Ye, Kai -- Jun, Goo -- Hsi-Yang Fritz, Markus -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Malhotra, Ankit -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Shi, Xinghua -- Paolo Casale, Francesco -- Chen, Jieming -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Dayama, Gargi -- Chen, Ken -- Malig, Maika -- Chaisson, Mark J P -- Walter, Klaudia -- Meiers, Sascha -- Kashin, Seva -- Garrison, Erik -- Auton, Adam -- Lam, Hugo Y K -- Jasmine Mu, Xinmeng -- Alkan, Can -- Antaki, Danny -- Bae, Taejeong -- Cerveira, Eliza -- Chines, Peter -- Chong, Zechen -- Clarke, Laura -- Dal, Elif -- Ding, Li -- Emery, Sarah -- Fan, Xian -- Gujral, Madhusudan -- Kahveci, Fatma -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Kong, Yu -- Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo -- McCarthy, Shane -- Flicek, Paul -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Marth, Gabor -- Mason, Christopher E -- Menelaou, Androniki -- Muzny, Donna M -- Nelson, Bradley J -- Noor, Amina -- Parrish, Nicholas F -- Pendleton, Matthew -- Quitadamo, Andrew -- Raeder, Benjamin -- Schadt, Eric E -- Romanovitch, Mallory -- Schlattl, Andreas -- Sebra, Robert -- Shabalin, Andrey A -- Untergasser, Andreas -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wang, Min -- Yu, Fuli -- Zhang, Chengsheng -- Zhang, Jing -- Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun -- Zhou, Wanding -- Zichner, Thomas -- Sebat, Jonathan -- Batzer, Mark A -- McCarroll, Steven A -- 1000 Genomes Project Consortium -- Mills, Ryan E -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Bashir, Ali -- Stegle, Oliver -- Devine, Scott E -- Lee, Charles -- Eichler, Evan E -- Korbel, Jan O -- P01HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA166661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002898/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA166661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HG002898/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG007068/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RR029676-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR19895/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT085532/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT104947/Z/14/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):75-81. doi: 10.1038/nature15394.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, 3720 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, Washington 98195-5065, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 801 W Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Health Sciences Research, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Yale University, BASS 432 &437, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Yale University, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Washington University in St Louis, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Human Genetics Center, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1200 Pressler St., Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, 202 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, 10 Discovery 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, North Carolina 28223, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Computational Medicine &Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 500 S. State Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Department of Biology, Boston College, 355 Higgins Hall, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1301 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; Bina Technologies, Roche Sequencing, 555 Twin Dolphin Drive, Redwood City, California 94065, USA. ; Cancer Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Computer Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey. ; University of California San Diego (UCSD), 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 USA. ; Department of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Siteman Cancer Center, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, 1241 Catherine Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300RA, The Netherlands. ; Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; The Department of Physiology and Biophysics and the HRH Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud Institute for Computational Biomedicine, 1305 York Avenue, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, 413 East 69th St, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK. ; Department of Medical Genetics, Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3584 CG, The Netherlands. ; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine, New York School of Natural Sciences, 1428 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Center for Biomarker Research and Precision Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1112 East Clay Street, McGuire Hall, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0581, USA. ; Zentrum fur Molekulare Biologie, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Department of Computer Science, Yale University, 51 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; Department of Graduate Studies - Life Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26432246" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Genetics, Medical ; Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genomics ; Genotype ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation Rate ; *Physical Chromosome Mapping ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-06-16
    Description: Active DNA demethylation is an important part of epigenetic regulation in plants and animals. How active DNA demethylation is regulated and its relationship with histone modification patterns are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of IDM1, a regulator of DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis. IDM1 is required for preventing DNA hypermethylation of highly homologous multicopy genes and other repetitive sequences that are normally targeted for active DNA demethylation by Repressor of Silencing 1 and related 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases. IDM1 binds methylated DNA at chromatin sites lacking histone H3K4 di- or trimethylation and acetylates H3 to create a chromatin environment permissible for 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases to function. Our study reveals how some genes are indicated by multiple epigenetic marks for active DNA demethylation and protection from silencing.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575687/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575687/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qian, Weiqiang -- Miki, Daisuke -- Zhang, Heng -- Liu, Yunhua -- Zhang, Xi -- Tang, Kai -- Kan, Yunchao -- La, Honggui -- Li, Xiaojie -- Li, Shaofang -- Zhu, Xiaohong -- Shi, Xiaobing -- Zhang, Kangling -- Pontes, Olga -- Chen, Xuemei -- Liu, Renyi -- Gong, Zhizhong -- Zhu, Jian-Kang -- R01 GM059138/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM070795/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM059138/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM070795/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 15;336(6087):1445-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1219416.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology and Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22700931" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Arabidopsis/*genetics/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Chromatin/metabolism ; DNA Glycosylases/metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; DNA, Plant/*metabolism ; Gene Silencing ; Genes, Plant ; Histone Acetyltransferases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Histones/metabolism ; Methylation ; Mutation ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Transgenes
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-04
    Description: Echolocation allows toothed whales to adapt to underwater habitats where vision is ineffective. Because echolocation requires the ability to detect exceptional high-frequency sounds, fossils related to the auditory system can help to pinpoint the origin of echolocation in whales. However, because of conflicting interpretations of archaeocete fossils, when and how whales evolved the high-frequency hearing correlated with echolocation remain unclear. We address these questions at the molecular level by systematically investigating the convergent evolution of 7206 orthologs across 16 mammals and find that convergent genes between the last common ancestor of all whales (LCAW) and echolocating bats are not significantly enriched in functional categories related to hearing, and that convergence in hearing-related proteins between them is not stronger than that between nonecholocating mammalian lineages and echolocating bats. However, these results contrast with those of parallel analyses between the LCA of toothed whales (LCATW) and echolocating bats. Furthermore, we reconstruct the ancestral genes for the hearing protein prestin for the LCAW and LCATW; we show that the LCAW prestin exhibits the same function as that of nonecholocating mammals, but the LCATW prestin shows functional convergence with that of extant echolocating mammals. Mutagenesis shows that functional convergence of prestin is driven by convergent changes in the prestins S392A and L497M in the LCATW and echolocating bats. Our results provide genomic and functional evidence supporting the origin of high-frequency hearing in the LCAW, not the LCATW, and reveal molecular insights into the origin and evolutionary trajectories of echolocation in whales.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-02-05
    Description: Genomic structural variants (SVs) are abundant in humans, differing from other forms of variation in extent, origin and functional impact. Despite progress in SV characterization, the nucleotide resolution architecture of most SVs remains unknown. We constructed a map of unbalanced SVs (that is, copy number variants) based on whole genome DNA sequencing data from 185 human genomes, integrating evidence from complementary SV discovery approaches with extensive experimental validations. Our map encompassed 22,025 deletions and 6,000 additional SVs, including insertions and tandem duplications. Most SVs (53%) were mapped to nucleotide resolution, which facilitated analysing their origin and functional impact. We examined numerous whole and partial gene deletions with a genotyping approach and observed a depletion of gene disruptions amongst high frequency deletions. Furthermore, we observed differences in the size spectra of SVs originating from distinct formation mechanisms, and constructed a map of SV hotspots formed by common mechanisms. Our analytical framework and SV map serves as a resource for sequencing-based association studies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077050/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077050/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mills, Ryan E -- Walter, Klaudia -- Stewart, Chip -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Chen, Ken -- Alkan, Can -- Abyzov, Alexej -- Yoon, Seungtai Chris -- Ye, Kai -- Cheetham, R Keira -- Chinwalla, Asif -- Conrad, Donald F -- Fu, Yutao -- Grubert, Fabian -- Hajirasouliha, Iman -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Iakoucheva, Lilia M -- Iqbal, Zamin -- Kang, Shuli -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Korn, Joshua -- Khurana, Ekta -- Kural, Deniz -- Lam, Hugo Y K -- Leng, Jing -- Li, Ruiqiang -- Li, Yingrui -- Lin, Chang-Yun -- Luo, Ruibang -- Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine -- Nemesh, James -- Peckham, Heather E -- Rausch, Tobias -- Scally, Aylwyn -- Shi, Xinghua -- Stromberg, Michael P -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Urban, Alexander Eckehart -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wu, Jiantao -- Zhang, Yujun -- Zhang, Zhengdong D -- Batzer, Mark A -- Ding, Li -- Marth, Gabor T -- McVean, Gil -- Sebat, Jonathan -- Snyder, Michael -- Wang, Jun -- Ye, Kenny -- Eichler, Evan E -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Hurles, Matthew E -- Lee, Charles -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Korbel, Jan O -- 1000 Genomes Project -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077014/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000758/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 HG004120/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S2/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S3/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-02S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH091350/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 3;470(7332):59-65. doi: 10.1038/nature09708.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293372" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; *Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-03-05
    Description: Recognition of modified histones by 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of chromatin. H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) is deposited onto the nucleosomes in the transcribed regions after RNA polymerase II elongation. In yeast, this mark in turn recruits epigenetic regulators to reset the chromatin to a relatively repressive state, thus suppressing cryptic transcription. However, much less is known about the role of H3K36me3 in transcription regulation in mammals. This is further complicated by the transcription-coupled incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 in gene bodies. Here we show that the candidate tumour suppressor ZMYND11 specifically recognizes H3K36me3 on H3.3 (H3.3K36me3) and regulates RNA polymerase II elongation. Structural studies show that in addition to the trimethyl-lysine binding by an aromatic cage within the PWWP domain, the H3.3-dependent recognition is mediated by the encapsulation of the H3.3-specific 'Ser 31' residue in a composite pocket formed by the tandem bromo-PWWP domains of ZMYND11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing shows a genome-wide co-localization of ZMYND11 with H3K36me3 and H3.3 in gene bodies, and its occupancy requires the pre-deposition of H3.3K36me3. Although ZMYND11 is associated with highly expressed genes, it functions as an unconventional transcription co-repressor by modulating RNA polymerase II at the elongation stage. ZMYND11 is critical for the repression of a transcriptional program that is essential for tumour cell growth; low expression levels of ZMYND11 in breast cancer patients correlate with worse prognosis. Consistently, overexpression of ZMYND11 suppresses cancer cell growth in vitro and tumour formation in mice. Together, this study identifies ZMYND11 as an H3.3-specific reader of H3K36me3 that links the histone-variant-mediated transcription elongation control to tumour suppression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wen, Hong -- Li, Yuanyuan -- Xi, Yuanxin -- Jiang, Shiming -- Stratton, Sabrina -- Peng, Danni -- Tanaka, Kaori -- Ren, Yongfeng -- Xia, Zheng -- Wu, Jun -- Li, Bing -- Barton, Michelle C -- Li, Wei -- Li, Haitao -- Shi, Xiaobing -- CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):263-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13045. Epub 2014 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3]. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [3]. ; 1] Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2]. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3] Genes and Development Graduate Program, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Teaxs 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590075" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Co-Repressor Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disease-Free Survival ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Histones/chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/*metabolism ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oncogenes/genetics ; Prognosis ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA Polymerase II/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Inflammatory caspases (caspase-1, -4, -5 and -11) are critical for innate defences. Caspase-1 is activated by ligands of various canonical inflammasomes, and caspase-4, -5 and -11 directly recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide, both of which trigger pyroptosis. Despite the crucial role in immunity and endotoxic shock, the mechanism for pyroptosis induction by inflammatory caspases is unknown. Here we identify gasdermin D (Gsdmd) by genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease screens of caspase-11- and caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis in mouse bone marrow macrophages. GSDMD-deficient cells resisted the induction of pyroptosis by cytosolic lipopolysaccharide and known canonical inflammasome ligands. Interleukin-1beta release was also diminished in Gsdmd(-/-) cells, despite intact processing by caspase-1. Caspase-1 and caspase-4/5/11 specifically cleaved the linker between the amino-terminal gasdermin-N and carboxy-terminal gasdermin-C domains in GSDMD, which was required and sufficient for pyroptosis. The cleavage released the intramolecular inhibition on the gasdermin-N domain that showed intrinsic pyroptosis-inducing activity. Other gasdermin family members were not cleaved by inflammatory caspases but shared the autoinhibition; gain-of-function mutations in Gsdma3 that cause alopecia and skin defects disrupted the autoinhibition, allowing its gasdermin-N domain to trigger pyroptosis. These findings offer insight into inflammasome-mediated immunity/diseases and also change our understanding of pyroptosis and programmed necrosis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shi, Jianjin -- Zhao, Yue -- Wang, Kun -- Shi, Xuyan -- Wang, Yue -- Huang, Huanwei -- Zhuang, Yinghua -- Cai, Tao -- Wang, Fengchao -- Shao, Feng -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 29;526(7575):660-5. doi: 10.1038/nature15514. Epub 2015 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Peking University-Tsinghua University-National Institute of Biological Sciences Joint Graduate Program, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084, China. ; National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China. ; National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. ; National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Beijing 102206, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375003" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-03-09
    Description: Freestanding nanowires have ultrahigh elastic strain limits (4 to 7%) and yield strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic mechanical properties in bulk composites has proven to be difficult. We exploited the intrinsic mechanical properties of nanowires in a phase-transforming matrix based on the concept of elastic and transformation strain matching. By engineering the microstructure and residual stress to couple the true elasticity of Nb nanowires with the pseudoelasticity of a NiTi shape-memory alloy, we developed an in situ composite that possesses a large quasi-linear elastic strain of over 6%, a low Young's modulus of ~28 gigapascals, and a high yield strength of ~1.65 gigapascals. Our elastic strain-matching approach allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be exploited in bulk materials.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hao, Shijie -- Cui, Lishan -- Jiang, Daqiang -- Han, Xiaodong -- Ren, Yang -- Jiang, Jiang -- Liu, Yinong -- Liu, Zhenyang -- Mao, Shengcheng -- Wang, Yandong -- Li, Yan -- Ren, Xiaobing -- Ding, Xiangdong -- Wang, Shan -- Yu, Cun -- Shi, Xiaobin -- Du, Minshu -- Yang, Feng -- Zheng, Yanjun -- Zhang, Ze -- Li, Xiaodong -- Brown, Dennis E -- Li, Ju -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 8;339(6124):1191-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1228602.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23471404" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified Symbiodinium-specific gene families. No whole-genome duplication was observed, but instead we found active (retro)transposition and gene family expansion, especially in processes important for successful symbiosis with corals. We also documented genes potentially governing sexual reproduction and cyst formation, novel promoter elements, and a microRNA system potentially regulating gene expression in both symbiont and coral. We found biochemical complementarity between genomes of S. kawagutii and the anthozoan Acropora, indicative of host-symbiont coevolution, providing a resource for studying the molecular basis and evolution of coral symbiosis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Senjie -- Cheng, Shifeng -- Song, Bo -- Zhong, Xiao -- Lin, Xin -- Li, Wujiao -- Li, Ling -- Zhang, Yaqun -- Zhang, Huan -- Ji, Zhiliang -- Cai, Meichun -- Zhuang, Yunyun -- Shi, Xinguo -- Lin, Lingxiao -- Wang, Lu -- Wang, Zhaobao -- Liu, Xin -- Yu, Sheng -- Zeng, Peng -- Hao, Han -- Zou, Quan -- Chen, Chengxuan -- Li, Yanjun -- Wang, Ying -- Xu, Chunyan -- Meng, Shanshan -- Xu, Xun -- Wang, Jun -- Yang, Huanming -- Campbell, David A -- Sturm, Nancy R -- Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve -- Morse, David -- AI056034/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI073806/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):691-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0408.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Marine Biodiversity and Global Change Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361101, China. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340, USA. senjie.lin@uconn.edu. ; Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI)-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China. Hong Kong University (HKU)-BGI Bioinformatics Algorithms and Core Technology Research Laboratory, The Computer Science Department, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. ; Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI)-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Marine Biodiversity and Global Change Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361101, China. ; Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361101, China. ; Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore. ; Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI)-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China. Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. Princess Al Jawhara Center of Excellence in the Research of Hereditary Disorders, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. ; Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI)-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China. Princess Al Jawhara Center of Excellence in the Research of Hereditary Disorders, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. James D. Watson Institute of Genome Science, Hangzhou, China. ; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. ; Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Departement de Sciences Biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542574" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anthozoa/*physiology ; Biological Evolution ; *Coral Reefs ; Dinoflagellida/*genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Gene Targeting ; *Genome, Protozoan ; MicroRNAs/genetics ; Symbiosis/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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