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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-03-30
    Description: During tissue morphogenesis, simple epithelial sheets undergo folding to form complex structures. The prevailing model underlying epithelial folding involves cell shape changes driven by myosin-dependent apical constriction. Here we describe an alternative mechanism that requires differential positioning of adherens junctions controlled by modulation of epithelial apical-basal polarity. Using live embryo imaging, we show that before the initiation of dorsal transverse folds during Drosophila gastrulation, adherens junctions shift basally in the initiating cells, but maintain their original subapical positioning in the neighbouring cells. Junctional positioning in the dorsal epithelium depends on the polarity proteins Bazooka and Par-1. In particular, the basal shift that occurs in the initiating cells is associated with a progressive decrease in Par-1 levels. We show that uniform reduction of the activity of Bazooka or Par-1 results in uniform apical or lateral positioning of junctions and in each case dorsal fold initiation is abolished. In addition, an increase in the Bazooka/Par-1 ratio causes formation of ectopic dorsal folds. The basal shift of junctions not only alters the apical shape of the initiating cells, but also forces the lateral membrane of the adjacent cells to bend towards the initiating cells, thereby facilitating tissue deformation. Our data thus establish a direct link between modification of epithelial polarity and initiation of epithelial folding.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3597240/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3597240/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Yu-Chiun -- Khan, Zia -- Kaschube, Matthias -- Wieschaus, Eric F -- 5R37HD15587/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM071508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 HD015587/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 28;484(7394):390-3. doi: 10.1038/nature10938.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456706" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adherens Junctions/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Animals ; *Cell Polarity ; Cell Shape ; Choristoma ; Drosophila Proteins/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/*embryology/genetics/metabolism ; Epithelial Cells/*cytology/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Epithelium/*embryology/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Gastrula/cytology/embryology/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Gastrulation/*physiology ; Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-04-11
    Description: In obesity and type 2 diabetes, Glut4 glucose transporter expression is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific knockout or overexpression of Glut4 alters systemic insulin sensitivity. Here we show, using DNA array analyses, that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) is the most strongly reciprocally regulated gene when comparing gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) from adipose-specific Glut4-knockout or adipose-specific Glut4-overexpressing mice with their respective controls. NNMT methylates nicotinamide (vitamin B3) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. Nicotinamide is a precursor of NAD(+), an important cofactor linking cellular redox states with energy metabolism. SAM provides propylamine for polyamine biosynthesis and donates a methyl group for histone methylation. Polyamine flux including synthesis, catabolism and excretion, is controlled by the rate-limiting enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine-spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT; encoded by Sat1) and by polyamine oxidase (PAO), and has a major role in energy metabolism. We report that NNMT expression is increased in WAT and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Nnmt knockdown in WAT and liver protects against diet-induced obesity by augmenting cellular energy expenditure. NNMT inhibition increases adipose SAM and NAD(+) levels and upregulates ODC and SSAT activity as well as expression, owing to the effects of NNMT on histone H3 lysine 4 methylation in adipose tissue. Direct evidence for increased polyamine flux resulting from NNMT inhibition includes elevated urinary excretion and adipocyte secretion of diacetylspermine, a product of polyamine metabolism. NNMT inhibition in adipocytes increases oxygen consumption in an ODC-, SSAT- and PAO-dependent manner. Thus, NNMT is a novel regulator of histone methylation, polyamine flux and NAD(+)-dependent SIRT1 signalling, and is a unique and attractive target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kraus, Daniel -- Yang, Qin -- Kong, Dong -- Banks, Alexander S -- Zhang, Lin -- Rodgers, Joseph T -- Pirinen, Eija -- Pulinilkunnil, Thomas C -- Gong, Fengying -- Wang, Ya-chin -- Cen, Yana -- Sauve, Anthony A -- Asara, John M -- Peroni, Odile D -- Monia, Brett P -- Bhanot, Sanjay -- Alhonen, Leena -- Puigserver, Pere -- Kahn, Barbara B -- K01 DK094943/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K08 DK090149/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK040561/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK0460200/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK046200/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK057521/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK57521/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30CA006516-46/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK069966/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK100385/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK69966/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK043051/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK43051/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):258-62. doi: 10.1038/nature13198.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] [3] Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine I, Wurzburg University Hospital, Oberdurrbacher Strasse 6, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany (D.K.); Department of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Diabetes Research and Treatment, and Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA (Q.Y.); Research Programs Unit, Molecular Neurology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00290, Helsinki, Finland (E.P.); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Dalhousie University, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L4L5, USA (T.C.P.); Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China (F.G.); School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland (L.A.). ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland [2] Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine I, Wurzburg University Hospital, Oberdurrbacher Strasse 6, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany (D.K.); Department of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Diabetes Research and Treatment, and Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA (Q.Y.); Research Programs Unit, Molecular Neurology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00290, Helsinki, Finland (E.P.); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Dalhousie University, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L4L5, USA (T.C.P.); Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China (F.G.); School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland (L.A.). ; 1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine I, Wurzburg University Hospital, Oberdurrbacher Strasse 6, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany (D.K.); Department of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Diabetes Research and Treatment, and Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA (Q.Y.); Research Programs Unit, Molecular Neurology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00290, Helsinki, Finland (E.P.); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Dalhousie University, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L4L5, USA (T.C.P.); Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China (F.G.); School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland (L.A.). ; Department of Pharmacology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Isis Pharmaceuticals, 1896 Rutherford Road, Carlsbad, California 92008-7326, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetyltransferases/metabolism ; Adipocytes/metabolism/secretion ; Adipose Tissue/enzymology/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, White/enzymology/metabolism ; Animals ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/enzymology/metabolism ; *Diet ; Energy Metabolism ; Fatty Liver ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Glucose Intolerance ; Glucose Transporter Type 4/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Insulin Resistance ; Liver/enzymology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; NAD/metabolism ; Niacinamide/metabolism ; Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase/*deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Obesity/*enzymology/etiology/genetics/*prevention & control ; Ornithine Decarboxylase/metabolism ; Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors/metabolism ; S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism ; Sirtuin 1/metabolism ; Spermine/analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; Thinness/enzymology/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: Sexual reproduction requires recognition between the male and female gametes. In flowering plants, the immobile sperms are delivered to the ovule-enclosed female gametophyte by guided pollen tube growth. Although the female gametophyte-secreted peptides have been identified to be the chemotactic attractant to the pollen tube, the male receptor(s) is still unknown. Here we identify a cell-surface receptor heteromer, MDIS1-MIK, on the pollen tube that perceives female attractant LURE1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. MDIS1, MIK1 and MIK2 are plasma-membrane-localized receptor-like kinases with extracellular leucine-rich repeats and an intracellular kinase domain. LURE1 specifically binds the extracellular domains of MDIS1, MIK1 and MIK2, whereas mdis1 and mik1 mik2 mutant pollen tubes respond less sensitively to LURE1. Furthermore, LURE1 triggers dimerization of the receptors and activates the kinase activity of MIK1. Importantly, transformation of AtMDIS1 to the sister species Capsella rubella can partially break down the reproductive isolation barrier. Our findings reveal a new mechanism of the male perception of the female attracting signals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Tong -- Liang, Liang -- Xue, Yong -- Jia, Peng-Fei -- Chen, Wei -- Zhang, Meng-Xia -- Wang, Ying-Chun -- Li, Hong-Ju -- Yang, Wei-Cai -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):241-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16975. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. ; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863186" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/genetics/*metabolism/physiology ; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Capsella/genetics/metabolism/physiology ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Mutation ; Ovule/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Phosphotransferases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Pollen Tube/genetics/growth & development/metabolism ; Protein Kinases/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Cell Surface/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Reproduction ; *Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Pigeons ; Nucleus isthmi (Ipc and Imc) ; Extracellular recording ; Direction and orientation selectivity ; Retinotopography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The visual response characteristics of single cells in the nucleus isthmi (NI) of pigeons were investigated using standard extracellular recording techniques. The results show that both major components of NI, the parvocellular NI (Ipc) and the magnocellular NI (Imc), have a tight retinotopic organization where nasal regions of the visual field are mapped onto the rostral poles of Ipc and Imc, and temporal regions of the visual field are mapped onto the caudal poles. The more ventral regions of these nuclei receive input from more inferior regions of visual space. The receptive fields (RFs) of both Ipc and Imc are large and oval-shaped, and their long axis is oriented vertically in the visual field. Most RFs are distributed on the contralateral visual horizon, and no binocular responses were found in either Ipc or Imc. All of the excitatory RFs of NI cells were surrounded by large inhibitory regions which participated in the dramatic modulation of the driven visual response when a large background pattern was moved across this zone. Although both Ipc and Imc neurons are driven best by small dark spots, some of them also show orientation selectivity to bars which may result from their ovalshaped RF (74% of Imc cells, 20/38, were orientation selective as compared to 10% of the Ipc cells, 3/30). It is suggested that some tectal cells with small RFs, and which originate from a vertically oriented zone may converge onto a single NI neuron to produce the elliptical shaped receptive fields.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Annals of hematology 76 (1998), S. 87-90 
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Ticlopidine ; Aplastic anemia ; Growth factor ; Corticosteroid ; Antilymphocyte globulin ; Cyclosporine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Serious hematologic complications associated with ticlopidine have been reported, including aplastic anemia. We report here an additional case of fatal aplastic anemia due to ticlopidine. A 66-year-old male patient developed fever and pancytopenia 2 months after ticlopidine was started. Despite the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and broad-spectrum antibiotics, as well as aggressive red cell and platelet transfusions, the patient died 16 days after admission due to septic shock. Eighteen other cases of ticlopidine-induced aplastic anemia published in the English literature are also reviewed and presented here. Eight of the total 19 patients (including the one reported here) have died, mostly due to infection. Of the seven who received supportive treatment only, four had spontaneous recovery. Nine cases were treated with G-CSF or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and response was observed in only four of them. Several other cases were treated with high-dose corticosteroids or androgens; however, it was not possible to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments because of the limited number of cases. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for ticlopidine-induced aplastic anemia at present, it may be reasonable to try antilymphocyte globulin or cyclosporine. Also, great efforts should be made in the prevention and management of infection accompanying this disease.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Acute myeloid leukemia ; Erythrophagocytosis ; Tetraploidy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Numerical change of chromosomes is common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, a chromosome number as high as near-tetraploidy is very rare, especially in minimally differentiated AML (AML-M0). Erythrophagocytosis by reactive or malignant histiocytes is common in malignant hematological diseases; however, erythrophagocytosis by leukemic blasts is also very rare, especially in AML-M0. We report here the first case of AML-M0 with both of these unique characteristics: a near-tetraploid karyotype and erythrophagocytosis by leukemic blasts.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The timing of early human dispersal to Asia is a central issue in the study of human evolution. Excavations in predominantly lacustrine sediments at Majuangou, Nihewan basin, north China, uncovered four layers of indisputable hominin stone tools. Here we report magnetostratigraphic results that ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Room temperature photoreflectance (PR) was used to investigate the surface state densities of GaAs and In0.52Al0.48As surface intrinsic-n+ structures. The built-in electric field and thus the surface barrier height are evaluated using the observed Franz–Keldysh oscillations in the PR spectra. Based on the thermionic emission theory and current-transport theory, the surface state density as well as the pinning position of the Fermi level can be determined from the dependence of the surface barrier height on the pump beam intensity. Even though this method is significantly simpler, easier to perform, and time efficient compared with other approaches, the results obtained agree with the literature. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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