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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-12
    Description: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to define clinically relevant somatic mutations and classify subtypes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Persistent allelic burden after chemotherapy is associated with higher relapse incidence, but presence of allelic burden in AML patients after receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has not been examined longitudinally. As such, we aimed to assess the feasibility of NGS in monitoring AML patients receiving HCT. Using a targeted gene panel, we performed NGS in 104 AML patients receiving HCT using samples collected at diagnosis, pre-HCT, and post-HCT at day 21 (post-HCT D21 ). NGS detected 256 mutations in 90 of 104 patients at diagnosis, which showed stepwise clearances after chemotherapy and HCT. In a subset of patients, mutations were still detectable pre-HCT and post-HCT. Most post-HCT mutations originate from mutations initially detected at diagnosis. Post-HCT D21 allelic burdens in relapsed patients were higher than in nonrelapsed patients. Post-HCT D21 mutations in relapsed patients all expanded at relapse. Assessment of variant allele frequency (VAF) revealed that overall VAF post-HCT D21 (VAF 0.2% -post-HCT D21 ) is associated with an increased risk of relapse (56.2% vs 16.0% at 3 years; P 〈 .001) and worse overall survival (OS; 36.5% vs 67.0% at 3 years; P = .006). Multivariate analyses confirmed that VAF 0.2% -post-HCT D21 is an adverse prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.07; P = .003) and relapse incidence (HR, 4.75; P 〈 .001), independent of the revised European LeukemiaNet risk groups. Overall, current study demonstrates that NGS-based posttransplant monitoring in AML patients is feasible and can distinguish high-risk patients for relapse.
    Keywords: Transplantation, Myeloid Neoplasia, Clinical Trials and Observations
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-05-27
    Description: Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (also known as NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an unusual phosphatidylcholine species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty acid acyl side chains (dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC)) is an LRH-1 agonist ligand in vitro. DLPC treatment induces bile acid biosynthetic enzymes in mouse liver, increases bile acid levels, and lowers hepatic triglycerides and serum glucose. DLPC treatment also decreases hepatic steatosis and improves glucose homeostasis in two mouse models of insulin resistance. Both the antidiabetic and lipotropic effects are lost in liver-specific Lrh-1 knockouts. These findings identify an LRH-1 dependent phosphatidylcholine signalling pathway that regulates bile acid metabolism and glucose homeostasis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3150801/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3150801/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Jae Man -- Lee, Yoon Kwang -- Mamrosh, Jennifer L -- Busby, Scott A -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Pathak, Manish C -- Ortlund, Eric A -- Moore, David D -- DK-079638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA134873/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK068804/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK083572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK083572-02/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 DK007696/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH084512/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 25;474(7352):506-10. doi: 10.1038/nature10111.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21614002" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bile Acids and Salts/biosynthesis/metabolism/pharmacology ; Blood Glucose/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Disease Models, Animal ; Fatty Liver/drug therapy/enzymology ; HeLa Cells ; Homeostasis/drug effects ; Humans ; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology ; Insulin Resistance/physiology ; Ligands ; Lipogenesis/drug effects ; Liver/drug effects/enzymology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Phosphatidylcholines/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Binding ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/agonists/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Triglycerides/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its bioactive compounds may have suppressive effects on inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and insulin resistance. Protectin DX (PDX), a double lipoxygenase product from DHA has shown a suppressive effect on inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the effects of PDX on ER stress and hepatic steatosis have not been elucidated yet. Herein we report that PDX could stimulate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, thereby upregulating oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150) expression in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of HepG2 cells with PDX attenuated the palmitate-induced triglyceride accumulation through regulation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1)–mediated pathway. To deal with the pharmacological significance in the protective effects of PDX on hepatic steatosis, we performed in vivo experiments. In a mouse model, the PDX administration would alleviate the high-fat diet–induced hepatic steatosis and trigger the hepatic AMPK phosphorylation and ORP150 expression. PDX improved palmitate-induced and HFD-induced impairment of hepatic lipid metabolism and steatosis through suppression of ER stress via an AMPK-ORP150–dependent pathway.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Trends in Biotechnology 4 (1986), S. 186-189 
    ISSN: 0167-7799
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0385-6380
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Seed storage proteins ; LMW-GS genes ; Molecular evolution ; Triticum tauschii ; Wheat quality ; Bacterial expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The isolation and characterisation by DNA sequencing of two different low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes from a genomic library derived from Triticum tauschii is described. These genes are similar (more than 90% similarity) but not identical to previously published LMW-GS gene sequences from cultivated wheats. A comparison of nucleotide sequence of the coding regions revealed the presence of insertions and deletions preferentially located in the region encoding the domains in the LMW-GS proteins rich in proline and glutamine and the middle part of the C-domain. The signal sequences, the amino-terminus and the remaining parts of the C-domain were conserved between all the LMW-GSs compared. The differences detected between the deduced amino-acid sequences in these three regions are only due to single nucleotide substitutions. The most important characteristic of all compared LMW-GS genes is the conservation of eight cysteine residues that could be involved in potential secondary or tertiary structure and disulphide-bond interactions. Comparisons between the 5′ and 3′ non-coding sequences of one of the isolated clones (LMW-16/10) with those of different prolamin genes from wheat, barley and rye led to the distinction of five different gene families, and confirmed the evolutionary relationships determined previously for these genes mainly on the basis of the coding region. In particular, the LMW-GS sequences are more closely related to the B-hordein sequences than to any other prolamin genes from wheat, barley and rye. Formal proof that the isolated genes coded for LMW-GSs, as defined by gel electrophoresis, was obtained by moving one of these genes (LMW-16/10) into a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid directed the synthesis of large amounts of the mature form of the subunit in Escherichia coli. This protein exhibited solubility characteristics identical to those of the LMW-GSs and cross-reacted with antibodies reactive with these proteins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits ; A genome wheats ; Tris-Tricine PAGE ; Variation in genes by PCR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A Tris-Tricine gel-electrophoresis system (Schaegger and von Jagow 1987), combined with a gradient gel, has been employed to provide an improved resolution of the B and C low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) found in the endosperm of wheat grain. The gel system was used to document the variation in the gluten subunit proteins present in A-genome diploid wheats. The majority of LMW-GSs found in the A-genome diploid wheats were not present in normal bread wheats; the data suggest that they represent a rich source of new variation for the LMW-GSs which are considered to be very important in modulating wheat flour-processing properties. The analysis of variation in the nature of the LMW-GS genes, using PCR, demonstrated that the subclass of C-subunits assayed by primers from a previously published sequence did not show as much variation as the proteins. However, the data collected suggest that sufficient variation may exist in the LMW-GS genes of A-genome diploid wheats to use them as a source of genes for altering the flour-processing properties of hexaploid wheat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit proteins ; Gene sequence ; Expression in bacteria ; A genome wheats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Three accessions of T. boeoticum were selected for the cloning and sequencing of novel low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes, based on the results of SDS-PAGE and PCR analyses of the LMW-GS diversity in A-genome wheat (Lee et al. 1998 a). A comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences of three cloned genes, LMWG-E2, LMWG-E4 and LMWG-AQ1, both to each other and to other known LMW-GS genes was carried out. The N-terminal domains showed one variable position; GAG (coding for a glutamic acid) for the E-type, and GAT (coding for an aspartic acid) for the Q-type. The comparisons of the LMW-GSs in the literature and this paper define three different types of N-terminal sequences; METSCIPGLERPW and MDTSCIPGLERPW from the durum and A-genome wheats, and METRCIPGLERPW from the hexaploid and D-genome wheats. The repetitive domains were AC-rich at the nucleotide level and coded for a large number of glutamine residues; this region showed 16 variable positions changing 12 amino-acid residues, three triple nucleotide deletions/additions, a large deletion of 18 nucleotides in LMWG-E4 and a deletion of 12 nucleotides in LMWG-E2. In the C-terminal domains 26 variable positions were found and 12 of these mutations changed amino-acid residues; no deletions/ additions were present in this region. It was shown that the LMWG-E2 and LMWG-E4 genes could be expressed in bacteria and this allowed the respective protein products to be related back to the proteins defined as LMW-GSs in vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Low-weight glutenin subunits ; Single proteins ; extensibility ; Dough properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Three genes encoding the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs), LMWG-E2 and LMWG-E4, from A-genome diploid wheat species, and LMW-16/10 from a D-genome diploid wheat, were expressed in bacteria. The respective proteins were produced on a relatively large scale and compared with respect to their effects on flour-processing properties such as dough mixing, extensibility and maximum resistance; these are important features in the end-use of wheat for producing food products. The LMWG-E2 and LMWG-E4 proteins caused significant increases in peak resistance and mixing time, compared to the control, when incorporated into dough preparations. The LMWG-16/10 protein was qualitatively less effective in producing these changes. All three proteins also conferred varying degrees of decrease in dough breakdown. LMWG-E2 and LMWG-E4 caused significant increases in dough extensibility, and decreases in maximum resistance, relative to the control. LMW-16/10 did not show a significant effect on extensibility but showed a significant decrease in maximum resistance. The refinement of relating specific features of the structure of the LMW-GS genes to the functional properties of their respective proteins is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Comamonas testosteroni P15 and its mutant strain E23 can tolerate and utilize phenol as the sole source of carbon and energy at up to 15 mM and 20 mM, respectively. Compared to the wild type P15, mutant E23 showed higher values of K s and K i but a lower μmax value, and had lower phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activities. Without phenol exposure, mutant E23 demonstrated a two-fold greater amount of cardiolipin than the wild type P15. Upon exposure to phenol, an increase in cardiolipin at the expense of phosphatidylethanolamine was observed in the wild type P15. However, there was no significant difference in major phospholipid contents between mutant E23 cells grown in the presence or absence of phenol. It was noted that the ratio of trans/cis fatty acids of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin in mutant E23 was 65–70% higher than that in the wild type P15. In the absence of phenol, the degree of saturation of cardiolipin in mutant E23 was 33% higher than that in wild type P15. In contrast to earlier findings, an increase in C16:1 9trans with a simultaneous decrease in C18:1 11cis instead of C16:1 9cis was observed in specific classes of phospholipids.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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