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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Ye Zhang, Jian-Feng Chang, Jin Sun, Lu Chen, Xiao-Mei Yang, Huan-Yin Tang, Yuan-Ya Jing, Xuan Kang, Zhi-Min He, Jun-Yu Wu, Hui-Min Wei, Da-Liang Wang, Rong-Gang Xu, Rui-Bao Zhu, Ying Shen, Shi-Yang Zeng, Chen Wang, Kui-Nan Liu, Yong Zhang, Zhi-Yong Mao, Ci-Zhong Jiang, and Fang-Lin Sun Dysregulation of the homeostatic balance of histone H3 di- and tri-methyl lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3) levels caused by the mis-sense mutation of histone H3 (H3K27M) is reported to be associated with various types of cancers. In this study, we found that reduction in H3K27me2/3 caused by H3.1K27M, a mutation of H3 variants found in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), dramatically attenuated the presence of 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1) foci and the capability of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in human dermal fibroblasts. H3.1K27M mutant cells showed increased rates of genomic insertions/deletions and copy number variations, as well as an increase in p53-dependent apoptosis. We further showed that both hypo-H3K27me2/3 and H3.1K27M interacted with FANCD2, a central player in the choice of DNA repair pathway. H3.1K27M triggered the accumulation of FANCD2 on chromatin, suggesting an interaction between H3.1K27M and FANCD2. Interestingly, knockdown of FANCD2 in H3.1K27M cells recovered the number of 53BP1-positive foci, NHEJ efficiency and apoptosis rate. Although these findings in HDF cells may differ from the endogenous regulation of the H3.1K27M mutant in the specific tumor context of DIPG, our results suggest a new model by which H3K27me2/3 facilitates NHEJ and the maintenance of genome stability. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper .
    Keywords: Exploring the Nucleus
    Print ISSN: 0021-9533
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9137
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Company of Biologists
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components by autophagy is essential for cellular survival and homeostasis under nutrient-deprived conditions. Acute regulation of autophagy by nutrient-sensing kinases is well defined, but longer-term transcriptional regulation is relatively unknown. Here we show that the fed-state sensing nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the fasting transcriptional activator cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) coordinately regulate the hepatic autophagy gene network. Pharmacological activation of FXR repressed many autophagy genes and inhibited autophagy even in fasted mice, and feeding-mediated inhibition of macroautophagy was attenuated in FXR-knockout mice. From mouse liver chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing data, FXR and CREB binding peaks were detected at 178 and 112 genes, respectively, out of 230 autophagy-related genes, and 78 genes showed shared binding, mostly in their promoter regions. CREB promoted autophagic degradation of lipids, or lipophagy, under nutrient-deprived conditions, and FXR inhibited this response. Mechanistically, CREB upregulated autophagy genes, including Atg7, Ulk1 and Tfeb, by recruiting the coactivator CRTC2. After feeding or pharmacological activation, FXR trans-repressed these genes by disrupting the functional CREB-CRTC2 complex. This study identifies the new FXR-CREB axis as a key physiological switch regulating autophagy, resulting in sustained nutrient regulation of autophagy during feeding/fasting cycles.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257899/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257899/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seok, Sunmi -- Fu, Ting -- Choi, Sung-E -- Li, Yang -- Zhu, Rong -- Kumar, Subodh -- Sun, Xiaoxiao -- Yoon, Gyesoon -- Kang, Yup -- Zhong, Wenxuan -- Ma, Jian -- Kemper, Byron -- Kemper, Jongsook Kim -- DK62777/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK95842/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK062777/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK095842/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):108-11. doi: 10.1038/nature13949. Epub 2014 Nov 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA [2] Institute for Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749, Korea. ; Department of Bioengineering and the Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Statistics, University of Georgia, Athens, Gerogia 30602, USA. ; Institute for Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autophagy/*genetics ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/*metabolism ; Fasting/physiology ; *Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Isoxazoles/pharmacology ; Liver/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Protein Binding ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/agonists/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation using the maximum-likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) augmented by time-of-flight information is a promising method for PET attenuation correction. However, it still suffers from several problems, including crosstalk artifacts, slow convergence speed, and noisy attenuation maps (μ-maps). In this work, we developed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to overcome these MLAA limitations, and we verified their feasibility using a clinical brain PET dataset. Methods: We applied the proposed method to one of the most challenging PET cases for simultaneous image reconstruction ( 18 F-fluorinated- N -3-fluoropropyl-2-β-carboxymethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane [ 18 F-FP-CIT] PET scans with highly specific binding to striatum of the brain). Three different CNN architectures (convolutional autoencoder [CAE], Unet, and Hybrid of CAE) were designed and trained to learn a CT-derived μ-map (μ-CT) from the MLAA-generated activity distribution and μ-map (μ-MLAA). The PET/CT data of 40 patients with suspected Parkinson disease were used for 5-fold cross-validation. For the training of CNNs, 800,000 transverse PET and CT slices augmented from 32 patient datasets were used. The similarity to μ-CT of the CNN-generated μ-maps (μ-CAE, μ-Unet, and μ-Hybrid) and μ-MLAA was compared using Dice similarity coefficients. In addition, we compared the activity concentration of specific (striatum) and nonspecific (cerebellum and occipital cortex) binding regions and the binding ratios in the striatum in the PET activity images reconstructed using those μ-maps. Results: The CNNs generated less noisy and more uniform μ-maps than the original μ-MLAA. Moreover, the air cavities and bones were better resolved in the proposed CNN outputs. In addition, the proposed deep learning approach was useful for mitigating the crosstalk problem in the MLAA reconstruction. The Hybrid network of CAE and Unet yielded the most similar μ-maps to μ-CT (Dice similarity coefficient in the whole head = 0.79 in the bone and 0.72 in air cavities), resulting in only about a 5% error in activity and binding ratio quantification. Conclusion: The proposed deep learning approach is promising for accurate attenuation correction of activity distribution in time-of-flight PET systems.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3123
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-14
    Description: Influenza B virus (IBV) is one of the human respiratory viruses and one of the targets of seasonal vaccination. However, the bifurcation of two antigenically distinct lineages of IBVs makes it difficult to arrange proper medical countermeasures. Moreover, compared with pathogenicity-related molecular markers known for influenza A virus, little has been known for IBVs. To understand pathogenicity caused by IBVs, we investigated the molecular determinants of IBV pathogenicity in animal models. After serial lung-to-lung passages of Victoria lineage B/Brisbane/60/2008 (Vc_BR60) and Yamagata lineage B/Wisconsin/01/2010 (Ym_WI01) viruses in BALB/c mice, we identified the mouse-adapted Vc_BR60 (maVc_BR60) and Ym_WI01 (maYm_WI01) viruses, respectively. To find a molecular clue(s) to the increased pathogenicity of maVc_BR60 and maYm_WI01, we determined their genetic sequences. Several amino acid mutations were identified in the PB2, PB1, PA, BM2, and/or NS1 protein-coding regions, and one concurrent lysine (K)-to-arginine (R) mutation in PA residue 338 (PA K338R) was found in both maVc_BR60 and maYm_WI01 viruses. When analyzed using viruses rescued through reverse genetics, it was shown that PA K338R alone could increase the pathogenicity of both IBVs in mice and viral replication in the respiratory tracts of ferrets. In a subsequent minireplicon assay, the effect of PA K338R was highlighted by the enhancement of viral polymerase complex activity of both Vc_BR60 and Ym_WI01 viruses. These results suggest that the PA K338R mutation may be a molecular determinant of IBV pathogenicity via modulating the viral polymerase function of IBVs. IMPORTANCE To investigate molecular pathogenic determinants of IBVs, which are one of the targets of seasonal influenza vaccines, we adapted both Victoria and Yamagata lineage IBVs independently in mice. The recovered mouse-adapted viruses exhibited increased virulence, and of the various mutations identified from both mouse-adapted viruses, a concurrent amino acid mutation was found in the PA protein-coding region. When analyzed using viruses rescued through reverse genetics, the PA mutation alone appeared to contribute to viral pathogenicity in mice within the compatible genetic constellation between the IBV lineages and to the replication of IBVs in ferrets. Regarding the potential mechanism of increased viral pathogenicity, it was shown that the PA mutation could upregulate the viral polymerase complex activity of both IBV lineages. These results indicate that the PA mutation could be a newly defined molecular pathogenic determinant of IBVs that substantiates our understanding of the viral pathogenicity and public health risks of IBVs.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-23
    Description: The incorporation of a metal-carbon triple bond into a ring system is challenging because of the linear nature of triple bonds. To date, the synthesis of these complexes has been limited to those containing third-row transition metal centers, namely, osmium and rhenium. We report the synthesis and full characterization of the first cyclic metal carbyne complex with a second-row transition metal center, ruthenapentalyne. It shows a bond angle of 130.2(3)° around the sp-hybridized carbyne carbon, which represents the recorded smallest angle of second-row transition metal carbyne complexes, as it deviates nearly 50° from the original angle (180°). Density functional theory calculations suggest that the inherent aromatic nature of these metallacycles with bent RuC–C moieties enhances their stability. Reactivity studies showed striking observations, such as ambiphilic reactivity, a metal-carbon triple bond shift, and a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction with alkyne and cascade cyclization reactions with ambident nucleophiles.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-03-29
    Description: Cancer cells have metabolic dependencies that distinguish them from their normal counterparts. Among these dependencies is an increased use of the amino acid glutamine to fuel anabolic processes. Indeed, the spectrum of glutamine-dependent tumours and the mechanisms whereby glutamine supports cancer metabolism remain areas of active investigation. Here we report the identification of a non-canonical pathway of glutamine use in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells that is required for tumour growth. Whereas most cells use glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) to convert glutamine-derived glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate in the mitochondria to fuel the tricarboxylic acid cycle, PDAC relies on a distinct pathway in which glutamine-derived aspartate is transported into the cytoplasm where it can be converted into oxaloacetate by aspartate transaminase (GOT1). Subsequently, this oxaloacetate is converted into malate and then pyruvate, ostensibly increasing the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio which can potentially maintain the cellular redox state. Importantly, PDAC cells are strongly dependent on this series of reactions, as glutamine deprivation or genetic inhibition of any enzyme in this pathway leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species and a reduction in reduced glutathione. Moreover, knockdown of any component enzyme in this series of reactions also results in a pronounced suppression of PDAC growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we establish that the reprogramming of glutamine metabolism is mediated by oncogenic KRAS, the signature genetic alteration in PDAC, through the transcriptional upregulation and repression of key metabolic enzymes in this pathway. The essentiality of this pathway in PDAC and the fact that it is dispensable in normal cells may provide novel therapeutic approaches to treat these refractory tumours.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3656466/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3656466/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Son, Jaekyoung -- Lyssiotis, Costas A -- Ying, Haoqiang -- Wang, Xiaoxu -- Hua, Sujun -- Ligorio, Matteo -- Perera, Rushika M -- Ferrone, Cristina R -- Mullarky, Edouard -- Shyh-Chang, Ng -- Kang, Ya'an -- Fleming, Jason B -- Bardeesy, Nabeel -- Asara, John M -- Haigis, Marcia C -- DePinho, Ronald A -- Cantley, Lewis C -- Kimmelman, Alec C -- 5P30CA006516-46/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA117969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA120964-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA006516/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA157490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056203/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009382-26/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 4;496(7443):101-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12040. Epub 2013 Mar 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535601" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Aspartate Aminotransferases/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Citric Acid Cycle ; Glutamate Dehydrogenase/metabolism ; Glutamine/*metabolism ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Ketoglutaric Acids/metabolism ; *Metabolic Networks and Pathways ; Oncogene Protein p21(ras)/genetics/*metabolism ; Oncogenes/genetics ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; ras Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-07-23
    Description: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including transmembrane helix 7 and helix 8, to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a approximately 20 degrees rotation between the amino and carboxy domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. This structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signalling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521999/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521999/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Yanyong -- Zhou, X Edward -- Gao, Xiang -- He, Yuanzheng -- Liu, Wei -- Ishchenko, Andrii -- Barty, Anton -- White, Thomas A -- Yefanov, Oleksandr -- Han, Gye Won -- Xu, Qingping -- de Waal, Parker W -- Ke, Jiyuan -- Tan, M H Eileen -- Zhang, Chenghai -- Moeller, Arne -- West, Graham M -- Pascal, Bruce D -- Van Eps, Ned -- Caro, Lydia N -- Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A -- Lee, Regina J -- Suino-Powell, Kelly M -- Gu, Xin -- Pal, Kuntal -- Ma, Jinming -- Zhi, Xiaoyong -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Williams, Garth J -- Messerschmidt, Marc -- Gati, Cornelius -- Zatsepin, Nadia A -- Wang, Dingjie -- James, Daniel -- Basu, Shibom -- Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi -- Conrad, Chelsie E -- Coe, Jesse -- Liu, Haiguang -- Lisova, Stella -- Kupitz, Christopher -- Grotjohann, Ingo -- Fromme, Raimund -- Jiang, Yi -- Tan, Minjia -- Yang, Huaiyu -- Li, Jun -- Wang, Meitian -- Zheng, Zhong -- Li, Dianfan -- Howe, Nicole -- Zhao, Yingming -- Standfuss, Jorg -- Diederichs, Kay -- Dong, Yuhui -- Potter, Clinton S -- Carragher, Bridget -- Caffrey, Martin -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Chapman, Henry N -- Spence, John C H -- Fromme, Petra -- Weierstall, Uwe -- Ernst, Oliver P -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Gurevich, Vsevolod V -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Hubbell, Wayne L -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Melcher, Karsten -- Xu, H Eric -- DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- EY005216/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY011500/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM077561/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM097463/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM102545/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM104212/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM108635/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30EY000331/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073210/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK066202/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY011500/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087413/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM109955/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094586/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):561-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14656. Epub 2015 Jul 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Joint Center for Structural Genomics, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA [2] Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; The National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, New York Structural Biology Center, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA. ; Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA [2] BioXFEL, NSF Science and Technology Center, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Haidian District, Beijing 10084, China. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; School of Medicine and School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; 1] BioXFEL, NSF Science and Technology Center, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA [2] Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Laboratory of Biomolecular Research at Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany. ; Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. ; 1] Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [2] Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; 1] Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [2] Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [3] iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, 2F Building 6, 99 Haike Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai 201210, China. ; 1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA [2] VARI-SIMM Center, Center for Structure and Function of Drug Targets, CAS-Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200343" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arrestin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disulfides/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lasers ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Reproducibility of Results ; Rhodopsin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; X-Rays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of biomarkers related to prostate cancer metastasis and survival of patients. Materials and Methods: Proteomics were used for detecting significant differences in protein expression among normal prostate, localized prostate cancer and metastatic cancer using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. mRNA expression was then examined in order to further confirm significant differences in protein expression. A total of 7 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Immunochemistry (IHC), was also used to confirm the levels of expression of the 7 proteins in prostate cancer. Survival analysis using the candidate markers was finally performed in 98 metastatic prostate cancer patients according to IHC results. Results: In metastatic lesions, proteomic analysis indicated that heat shock protein (HSP) 27, prohibitin, glutathione S-transferase 1, fibrinogen β chain, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 6A1 were up-regulated, while α1 antitrypsin, and HSP 60 were down-regulated. IHC revealed that HSP 27, ALDH6A1 and prohibitin were highly specific to metastatic tumor cells. HSP27 and prohibitin appeared more strongly in the incipient stage of cancer than metastatic cancer, and ALDH6A1 was significantly reduced in metastatic cancer (p〈0.01). Of all proteins, phohibitin had the highest value in predicting survival. However, all three proteins were a stronger marker than each one separately. Conclusion: Trio-biomarker composed of HSP27, ALDH6A1 and prohibitin may predict survival of metastatic prostate cancer patients.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-10-28
    Description: Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health, welfare and food production worldwide. More than two billion people are infected with geohelminths, including the roundworms Ascaris (common roundworm), Necator and Ancylostoma (hookworms), and Trichuris (whipworm), mainly in developing or impoverished nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In humans, the diseases caused by these parasites result in about 135,000 deaths annually, with a global burden comparable with that of malaria or tuberculosis in disability-adjusted life years. Ascaris alone infects around 1.2 billion people and, in children, causes nutritional deficiency, impaired physical and cognitive development and, in severe cases, death. Ascaris also causes major production losses in pigs owing to reduced growth, failure to thrive and mortality. The Ascaris-swine model makes it possible to study the parasite, its relationship with the host, and ascariasis at the molecular level. To enable such molecular studies, we report the 273 megabase draft genome of Ascaris suum and compare it with other nematode genomes. This genome has low repeat content (4.4%) and encodes about 18,500 protein-coding genes. Notably, the A. suum secretome (about 750 molecules) is rich in peptidases linked to the penetration and degradation of host tissues, and an assemblage of molecules likely to modulate or evade host immune responses. This genome provides a comprehensive resource to the scientific community and underpins the development of new and urgently needed interventions (drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests) against ascariasis and other nematodiases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jex, Aaron R -- Liu, Shiping -- Li, Bo -- Young, Neil D -- Hall, Ross S -- Li, Yingrui -- Yang, Linfeng -- Zeng, Na -- Xu, Xun -- Xiong, Zijun -- Chen, Fangyuan -- Wu, Xuan -- Zhang, Guojie -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Kang, Yi -- Anderson, Garry A -- Harris, Todd W -- Campbell, Bronwyn E -- Vlaminck, Johnny -- Wang, Tao -- Cantacessi, Cinzia -- Schwarz, Erich M -- Ranganathan, Shoba -- Geldhof, Peter -- Nejsum, Peter -- Sternberg, Paul W -- Yang, Huanming -- Wang, Jun -- Wang, Jian -- Gasser, Robin B -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 26;479(7374):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature10553.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. ajex@unimelb.edu.au〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22031327" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antinematodal Agents ; Ascariasis/drug therapy/parasitology ; Ascaris suum/drug effects/*genetics ; Drug Design ; Genes, Helminth/genetics ; Genome, Helminth/*genetics ; Genomics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Targeted Therapy
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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