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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation using the maximum-likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) augmented by time-of-flight information is a promising method for PET attenuation correction. However, it still suffers from several problems, including crosstalk artifacts, slow convergence speed, and noisy attenuation maps (μ-maps). In this work, we developed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to overcome these MLAA limitations, and we verified their feasibility using a clinical brain PET dataset. Methods: We applied the proposed method to one of the most challenging PET cases for simultaneous image reconstruction ( 18 F-fluorinated- N -3-fluoropropyl-2-β-carboxymethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane [ 18 F-FP-CIT] PET scans with highly specific binding to striatum of the brain). Three different CNN architectures (convolutional autoencoder [CAE], Unet, and Hybrid of CAE) were designed and trained to learn a CT-derived μ-map (μ-CT) from the MLAA-generated activity distribution and μ-map (μ-MLAA). The PET/CT data of 40 patients with suspected Parkinson disease were used for 5-fold cross-validation. For the training of CNNs, 800,000 transverse PET and CT slices augmented from 32 patient datasets were used. The similarity to μ-CT of the CNN-generated μ-maps (μ-CAE, μ-Unet, and μ-Hybrid) and μ-MLAA was compared using Dice similarity coefficients. In addition, we compared the activity concentration of specific (striatum) and nonspecific (cerebellum and occipital cortex) binding regions and the binding ratios in the striatum in the PET activity images reconstructed using those μ-maps. Results: The CNNs generated less noisy and more uniform μ-maps than the original μ-MLAA. Moreover, the air cavities and bones were better resolved in the proposed CNN outputs. In addition, the proposed deep learning approach was useful for mitigating the crosstalk problem in the MLAA reconstruction. The Hybrid network of CAE and Unet yielded the most similar μ-maps to μ-CT (Dice similarity coefficient in the whole head = 0.79 in the bone and 0.72 in air cavities), resulting in only about a 5% error in activity and binding ratio quantification. Conclusion: The proposed deep learning approach is promising for accurate attenuation correction of activity distribution in time-of-flight PET systems.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3123
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of biomarkers related to prostate cancer metastasis and survival of patients. Materials and Methods: Proteomics were used for detecting significant differences in protein expression among normal prostate, localized prostate cancer and metastatic cancer using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. mRNA expression was then examined in order to further confirm significant differences in protein expression. A total of 7 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Immunochemistry (IHC), was also used to confirm the levels of expression of the 7 proteins in prostate cancer. Survival analysis using the candidate markers was finally performed in 98 metastatic prostate cancer patients according to IHC results. Results: In metastatic lesions, proteomic analysis indicated that heat shock protein (HSP) 27, prohibitin, glutathione S-transferase 1, fibrinogen β chain, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 6A1 were up-regulated, while α1 antitrypsin, and HSP 60 were down-regulated. IHC revealed that HSP 27, ALDH6A1 and prohibitin were highly specific to metastatic tumor cells. HSP27 and prohibitin appeared more strongly in the incipient stage of cancer than metastatic cancer, and ALDH6A1 was significantly reduced in metastatic cancer (p〈0.01). Of all proteins, phohibitin had the highest value in predicting survival. However, all three proteins were a stronger marker than each one separately. Conclusion: Trio-biomarker composed of HSP27, ALDH6A1 and prohibitin may predict survival of metastatic prostate cancer patients.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-03-29
    Description: Cancer cells have metabolic dependencies that distinguish them from their normal counterparts. Among these dependencies is an increased use of the amino acid glutamine to fuel anabolic processes. Indeed, the spectrum of glutamine-dependent tumours and the mechanisms whereby glutamine supports cancer metabolism remain areas of active investigation. Here we report the identification of a non-canonical pathway of glutamine use in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells that is required for tumour growth. Whereas most cells use glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) to convert glutamine-derived glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate in the mitochondria to fuel the tricarboxylic acid cycle, PDAC relies on a distinct pathway in which glutamine-derived aspartate is transported into the cytoplasm where it can be converted into oxaloacetate by aspartate transaminase (GOT1). Subsequently, this oxaloacetate is converted into malate and then pyruvate, ostensibly increasing the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio which can potentially maintain the cellular redox state. Importantly, PDAC cells are strongly dependent on this series of reactions, as glutamine deprivation or genetic inhibition of any enzyme in this pathway leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species and a reduction in reduced glutathione. Moreover, knockdown of any component enzyme in this series of reactions also results in a pronounced suppression of PDAC growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we establish that the reprogramming of glutamine metabolism is mediated by oncogenic KRAS, the signature genetic alteration in PDAC, through the transcriptional upregulation and repression of key metabolic enzymes in this pathway. The essentiality of this pathway in PDAC and the fact that it is dispensable in normal cells may provide novel therapeutic approaches to treat these refractory tumours.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3656466/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3656466/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Son, Jaekyoung -- Lyssiotis, Costas A -- Ying, Haoqiang -- Wang, Xiaoxu -- Hua, Sujun -- Ligorio, Matteo -- Perera, Rushika M -- Ferrone, Cristina R -- Mullarky, Edouard -- Shyh-Chang, Ng -- Kang, Ya'an -- Fleming, Jason B -- Bardeesy, Nabeel -- Asara, John M -- Haigis, Marcia C -- DePinho, Ronald A -- Cantley, Lewis C -- Kimmelman, Alec C -- 5P30CA006516-46/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA117969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA120964-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA006516/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA157490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056203/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009382-26/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 4;496(7443):101-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12040. Epub 2013 Mar 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535601" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Aspartate Aminotransferases/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Citric Acid Cycle ; Glutamate Dehydrogenase/metabolism ; Glutamine/*metabolism ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Ketoglutaric Acids/metabolism ; *Metabolic Networks and Pathways ; Oncogene Protein p21(ras)/genetics/*metabolism ; Oncogenes/genetics ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; ras Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-10-28
    Description: Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health, welfare and food production worldwide. More than two billion people are infected with geohelminths, including the roundworms Ascaris (common roundworm), Necator and Ancylostoma (hookworms), and Trichuris (whipworm), mainly in developing or impoverished nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In humans, the diseases caused by these parasites result in about 135,000 deaths annually, with a global burden comparable with that of malaria or tuberculosis in disability-adjusted life years. Ascaris alone infects around 1.2 billion people and, in children, causes nutritional deficiency, impaired physical and cognitive development and, in severe cases, death. Ascaris also causes major production losses in pigs owing to reduced growth, failure to thrive and mortality. The Ascaris-swine model makes it possible to study the parasite, its relationship with the host, and ascariasis at the molecular level. To enable such molecular studies, we report the 273 megabase draft genome of Ascaris suum and compare it with other nematode genomes. This genome has low repeat content (4.4%) and encodes about 18,500 protein-coding genes. Notably, the A. suum secretome (about 750 molecules) is rich in peptidases linked to the penetration and degradation of host tissues, and an assemblage of molecules likely to modulate or evade host immune responses. This genome provides a comprehensive resource to the scientific community and underpins the development of new and urgently needed interventions (drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests) against ascariasis and other nematodiases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jex, Aaron R -- Liu, Shiping -- Li, Bo -- Young, Neil D -- Hall, Ross S -- Li, Yingrui -- Yang, Linfeng -- Zeng, Na -- Xu, Xun -- Xiong, Zijun -- Chen, Fangyuan -- Wu, Xuan -- Zhang, Guojie -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Kang, Yi -- Anderson, Garry A -- Harris, Todd W -- Campbell, Bronwyn E -- Vlaminck, Johnny -- Wang, Tao -- Cantacessi, Cinzia -- Schwarz, Erich M -- Ranganathan, Shoba -- Geldhof, Peter -- Nejsum, Peter -- Sternberg, Paul W -- Yang, Huanming -- Wang, Jun -- Wang, Jian -- Gasser, Robin B -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 26;479(7374):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature10553.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. ajex@unimelb.edu.au〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22031327" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antinematodal Agents ; Ascariasis/drug therapy/parasitology ; Ascaris suum/drug effects/*genetics ; Drug Design ; Genes, Helminth/genetics ; Genome, Helminth/*genetics ; Genomics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Targeted Therapy
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-03
    Description: Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins alpha6beta4 and alpha6beta1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin alphavbeta5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins alpha6beta4 and alphavbeta5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hoshino, Ayuko -- Costa-Silva, Bruno -- Shen, Tang-Long -- Rodrigues, Goncalo -- Hashimoto, Ayako -- Tesic Mark, Milica -- Molina, Henrik -- Kohsaka, Shinji -- Di Giannatale, Angela -- Ceder, Sophia -- Singh, Swarnima -- Williams, Caitlin -- Soplop, Nadine -- Uryu, Kunihiro -- Pharmer, Lindsay -- King, Tari -- Bojmar, Linda -- Davies, Alexander E -- Ararso, Yonathan -- Zhang, Tuo -- Zhang, Haiying -- Hernandez, Jonathan -- Weiss, Joshua M -- Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D -- Kramer, Kimberly -- Wexler, Leonard H -- Narendran, Aru -- Schwartz, Gary K -- Healey, John H -- Sandstrom, Per -- Labori, Knut Jorgen -- Kure, Elin H -- Grandgenett, Paul M -- Hollingsworth, Michael A -- de Sousa, Maria -- Kaur, Sukhwinder -- Jain, Maneesh -- Mallya, Kavita -- Batra, Surinder K -- Jarnagin, William R -- Brady, Mary S -- Fodstad, Oystein -- Muller, Volkmar -- Pantel, Klaus -- Minn, Andy J -- Bissell, Mina J -- Garcia, Benjamin A -- Kang, Yibin -- Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K -- Ghajar, Cyrus M -- Matei, Irina -- Peinado, Hector -- Bromberg, Jacqueline -- Lyden, David -- R01 CA169416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA169416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA169538/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01-CA169538/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 19;527(7578):329-35. doi: 10.1038/nature15756. Epub 2015 Oct 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Children's Cancer and Blood Foundation Laboratories, Departments of Pediatrics, and Cell and Developmental Biology, Drukier Institute for Children's Health, Meyer Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York 10021, USA. ; Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology and Center for Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan. ; Graduate Program in Areas of Basic and Applied Biology, Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Porto, 4099-003 Porto, Portugal. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan. ; Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Electron Microscopy Resource Center (EMRC), Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, 10065, USA. ; Department of Surgery, County Council of Ostergotland, and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, 58185 Linkoping, Sweden. ; Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Genomics Resources Core Facility, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York 10021, USA. ; Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Division of Pediatric Oncology, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta T3B 6A8, Canada. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Columbia University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Orthopaedic Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Nydalen, Oslo 0424, Norway. ; Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Nydalen, Oslo 0424, Norway. ; Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA. ; Gastric and Mixed Tumor Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Tumor Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Nydalen, Oslo 0424, Norway. ; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo 0318, Norway. ; Department of Gynecology, University Medical Center, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. ; Department of Tumor Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. ; Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, USA. ; Breast Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Microenvironment and Metastasis Laboratory, Department of Molecular Oncology, Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Madrid 28029, Spain. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York 10021, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524530" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomarkers/metabolism ; Brain/cytology/*metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Epithelial Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Exosomes/*metabolism ; Female ; Fibroblasts/cytology/metabolism ; Genes, src ; Humans ; Integrin alpha6beta1/metabolism ; Integrin alpha6beta4/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Integrin beta Chains/metabolism ; Integrin beta4/metabolism ; Integrins/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Kupffer Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Liver/cytology/*metabolism ; Lung/cytology/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*pathology/*prevention & control ; Organ Specificity ; Phosphorylation ; Receptors, Vitronectin/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; S100 Proteins/genetics ; *Tropism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-02-19
    Description: Controlling the electromagnetic properties of materials, going beyond the limit that is attainable with naturally existing substances, has become a reality with the advent of metamaterials. The range of various structured artificial 'atoms' has promised a vast variety of otherwise unexpected physical phenomena, among which the experimental realization of a negative refractive index has been one of the main foci thus far. Expanding the refractive index into a high positive regime will complete the spectrum of achievable refractive index and provide more design flexibility for transformation optics. Naturally existing transparent materials possess small positive indices of refraction, except for a few semiconductors and insulators, such as lead sulphide or strontium titanate, that exhibit a rather high peak refractive index at mid- and far-infrared frequencies. Previous approaches using metamaterials were not successful in realizing broadband high refractive indices. A broadband high-refractive-index metamaterial structure was theoretically investigated only recently, but the proposed structure does not lend itself to easy implementation. Here we demonstrate that a broadband, extremely high index of refraction can be realized from large-area, free-standing, flexible terahertz metamaterials composed of strongly coupled unit cells. By drastically increasing the effective permittivity through strong capacitive coupling and decreasing the diamagnetic response with a thin metallic structure in the unit cell, a peak refractive index of 38.6 along with a low-frequency quasi-static value of over 20 were experimentally realized for a single-layer terahertz metamaterial, while maintaining low losses. As a natural extension of these single-layer metamaterials, we fabricated quasi-three-dimensional high-refractive-index metamaterials, and obtained a maximum bulk refractive index of 33.2 along with a value of around 8 at the quasi-static limit.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Muhan -- Lee, Seung Hoon -- Kim, Yushin -- Kang, Seung Beom -- Shin, Jonghwa -- Kwak, Min Hwan -- Kang, Kwang-Young -- Lee, Yong-Hee -- Park, Namkyoo -- Min, Bumki -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 17;470(7334):369-73. doi: 10.1038/nature09776.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-751, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21331038" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components by autophagy is essential for cellular survival and homeostasis under nutrient-deprived conditions. Acute regulation of autophagy by nutrient-sensing kinases is well defined, but longer-term transcriptional regulation is relatively unknown. Here we show that the fed-state sensing nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the fasting transcriptional activator cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) coordinately regulate the hepatic autophagy gene network. Pharmacological activation of FXR repressed many autophagy genes and inhibited autophagy even in fasted mice, and feeding-mediated inhibition of macroautophagy was attenuated in FXR-knockout mice. From mouse liver chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing data, FXR and CREB binding peaks were detected at 178 and 112 genes, respectively, out of 230 autophagy-related genes, and 78 genes showed shared binding, mostly in their promoter regions. CREB promoted autophagic degradation of lipids, or lipophagy, under nutrient-deprived conditions, and FXR inhibited this response. Mechanistically, CREB upregulated autophagy genes, including Atg7, Ulk1 and Tfeb, by recruiting the coactivator CRTC2. After feeding or pharmacological activation, FXR trans-repressed these genes by disrupting the functional CREB-CRTC2 complex. This study identifies the new FXR-CREB axis as a key physiological switch regulating autophagy, resulting in sustained nutrient regulation of autophagy during feeding/fasting cycles.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257899/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257899/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seok, Sunmi -- Fu, Ting -- Choi, Sung-E -- Li, Yang -- Zhu, Rong -- Kumar, Subodh -- Sun, Xiaoxiao -- Yoon, Gyesoon -- Kang, Yup -- Zhong, Wenxuan -- Ma, Jian -- Kemper, Byron -- Kemper, Jongsook Kim -- DK62777/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK95842/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK062777/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK095842/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):108-11. doi: 10.1038/nature13949. Epub 2014 Nov 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA [2] Institute for Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749, Korea. ; Department of Bioengineering and the Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Statistics, University of Georgia, Athens, Gerogia 30602, USA. ; Institute for Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autophagy/*genetics ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/*metabolism ; Fasting/physiology ; *Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Isoxazoles/pharmacology ; Liver/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Protein Binding ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/agonists/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers in western countries, with a median survival of 6 months and an extremely low percentage of long-term surviving patients. KRAS mutations are known to be a driver event of PDAC, but targeting mutant KRAS has proved challenging. Targeting oncogene-driven signalling pathways is a clinically validated approach for several devastating diseases. Still, despite marked tumour shrinkage, the frequency of relapse indicates that a fraction of tumour cells survives shut down of oncogenic signalling. Here we explore the role of mutant KRAS in PDAC maintenance using a recently developed inducible mouse model of mutated Kras (Kras(G12D), herein KRas) in a p53(LoxP/WT) background. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of dormant tumour cells surviving oncogene ablation (surviving cells) and responsible for tumour relapse has features of cancer stem cells and relies on oxidative phosphorylation for survival. Transcriptomic and metabolic analyses of surviving cells reveal prominent expression of genes governing mitochondrial function, autophagy and lysosome activity, as well as a strong reliance on mitochondrial respiration and a decreased dependence on glycolysis for cellular energetics. Accordingly, surviving cells show high sensitivity to oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors, which can inhibit tumour recurrence. Our integrated analyses illuminate a therapeutic strategy of combined targeting of the KRAS pathway and mitochondrial respiration to manage pancreatic cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376130/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376130/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Viale, Andrea -- Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio -- Lyssiotis, Costas A -- Ying, Haoqiang -- Sanchez, Nora -- Marchesini, Matteo -- Carugo, Alessandro -- Green, Tessa -- Seth, Sahil -- Giuliani, Virginia -- Kost-Alimova, Maria -- Muller, Florian -- Colla, Simona -- Nezi, Luigi -- Genovese, Giannicola -- Deem, Angela K -- Kapoor, Avnish -- Yao, Wantong -- Brunetto, Emanuela -- Kang, Ya'an -- Yuan, Min -- Asara, John M -- Wang, Y Alan -- Heffernan, Timothy P -- Kimmelman, Alec C -- Wang, Huamin -- Fleming, Jason B -- Cantley, Lewis C -- DePinho, Ronald A -- Draetta, Giulio F -- CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA16672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA117969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA117969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA16672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA127003/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):628-32. doi: 10.1038/nature13611. Epub 2014 Aug 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3]. ; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3] Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan 20139, Italy. ; Institute for Applied Cancer Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Pathology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan 20132, Italy. ; Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autophagy ; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Cell Respiration/drug effects ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, p53/genetics ; Glycolysis ; Lysosomes/metabolism ; Mice ; Mitochondria/drug effects/*metabolism ; Mutation/genetics ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control ; Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Oxidative Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/*genetics/metabolism ; Recurrence ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Abnormalities in the human microbiota are associated with the etiology of allergic diseases. Although disease site-specific microbiota may be associated with disease pathophysiology, the role of the nasal microbiota is unclear. We sought to characterize the microbiota of the site of allergic rhinitis, the inferior turbinate, in subjects with allergic rhinitis ( n = 20) and healthy controls ( n = 12) and to examine the relationship of mucosal microbiota with disease occurrence, sensitized allergen number, and allergen-specific and total IgE levels. Microbial dysbiosis correlated significantly with total IgE levels representing combined allergic responses but not with disease occurrence, the number of sensitized allergens, or house dust mite allergen-specific IgE levels. Compared to the populations in individuals with low total IgE levels (group IgE low ), low microbial biodiversity with a high relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum ( Staphylococcus aureus ) and a low relative abundance of Actinobacteria phylum ( Propionibacterium acnes ) was observed in individuals with high total serum IgE levels (group IgE high ). Phylogeny-based microbial functional potential predicted by the 16S rRNA gene indicated an increase in signal transduction-related genes and a decrease in energy metabolism-related genes in group IgE high as shown in the microbial features with atopic and/or inflammatory diseases. Thus, dysbiosis of the inferior turbinate mucosa microbiota, particularly an increase in S. aureus and a decrease in P. acnes , is linked to high total IgE levels in allergic rhinitis, suggesting that inferior turbinate microbiota may be affected by accumulated allergic responses against sensitized allergens and that site-specific microbial alterations play a potential role in disease pathophysiology.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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