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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-04-14
    Description: Nitride semiconductors are the materials of choice for a variety of device applications, notably optoelectronics and high-frequency/high-power electronics. One important practical goal is to realize such devices on large, flexible and affordable substrates, on which direct growth of nitride semiconductors of sufficient quality is problematic. Several techniques--such as laser lift-off--have been investigated to enable the transfer of nitride devices from one substrate to another, but existing methods still have some important disadvantages. Here we demonstrate that hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) can form a release layer that enables the mechanical transfer of gallium nitride (GaN)-based device structures onto foreign substrates. The h-BN layer serves two purposes: it acts as a buffer layer for the growth of high-quality GaN-based semiconductors, and provides a shear plane that makes it straightforward to release the resulting devices. We illustrate the potential versatility of this approach by using h-BN-buffered sapphire substrates to grow an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with electron mobility of 1,100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), an InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well structure, and a multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diode. These device structures, ranging in area from five millimetres square to two centimetres square, are then mechanically released from the sapphire substrates and successfully transferred onto other substrates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kobayashi, Yasuyuki -- Kumakura, Kazuhide -- Akasaka, Tetsuya -- Makimoto, Toshiki -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 11;484(7393):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10970.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉NTT Basic Research Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan. kobayashi.yasuyuki@lab.ntt.co.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22498627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-10-23
    Description: The holotype of Deinocheirus mirificus was collected by the 1965 Polish-Mongolian Palaeontological Expedition at Altan Uul III in the southern Gobi of Mongolia. Because the holotype consists mostly of giant forelimbs (2.4 m in length) with scapulocoracoids, for almost 50 years Deinocheirus has remained one of the most mysterious dinosaurs. The mosaic of ornithomimosaur and non-ornithomimosaur characters in the holotype has made it difficult to resolve the phylogenetic status of Deinocheirus. Here we describe two new specimens of Deinocheirus that were discovered in the Nemegt Formation of Altan Uul IV in 2006 and Bugiin Tsav in 2009. The Bugiin Tsav specimen (MPC-D 100/127) includes a left forelimb clearly identifiable as Deinocheirus and is 6% longer than the holotype. The Altan Uul IV specimen (MPC-D 100/128) is approximately 74% the size of MPC-D 100/127. Cladistic analysis indicates that Deinocheirus is the largest member of the Ornithomimosauria; however, it has many unique skeletal features unknown in other ornithomimosaurs, indicating that Deinocheirus was a heavily built, non-cursorial animal with an elongate snout, a deep jaw, tall neural spines, a pygostyle, a U-shaped furcula, an expanded pelvis for strong muscle attachments, a relatively short hind limb and broad-tipped pedal unguals. Ecomorphological features in the skull, more than a thousand gastroliths, and stomach contents (fish remains) suggest that Deinocheirus was a megaomnivore that lived in mesic environments.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Yuong-Nam -- Barsbold, Rinchen -- Currie, Philip J -- Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu -- Lee, Hang-Jae -- Godefroit, Pascal -- Escuillie, Francois -- Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):257-60. doi: 10.1038/nature13874. Epub 2014 Oct 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Geological Museum, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350, South Korea. ; Paleontological Center, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar 210-351, Mongolia. ; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada. ; Hokkaido University Museum, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan. ; Earth and History of Life, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. ; Eldonia, 9 Avenue des Portes Occitanes, 3800 Gannat, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25337880" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Size ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*classification ; *Fossils ; Mongolia ; Phylogeny ; Skeleton ; Skull/anatomy & histology ; Spine/anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Kentaro Mochizuki, Yukiko Tando, Tamotsu Sekinaka, Kei Otsuka, Yohei Hayashi, Hisato Kobayashi, Asuka Kamio, Yumi Ito-Matsuoka, Asuka Takehara, Tomohiro Kono, Noriko Osumi, and Yasuhisa Matsui In mouse embryos, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are fate-determined from epiblast cells. Signaling pathways involved in PGC formation have been identified, but their epigenetic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the histone methyltransferase SETDB1 is an epigenetic regulator of PGC fate determination. Setdb1 -deficient embryos exhibit drastic reduction of nascent PGCs. Dppa2 , Otx2 and Utf1 are de-repressed whereas mesoderm development-related genes, including BMP4 signaling-related genes, are downregulated by Setdb1 knockdown during PGC-like cell (PGCLC) induction. In addition, binding of SETDB1 is observed at the flanking regions of Dppa2 , Otx2 and Utf1 in cell aggregates containing PGCLCs, and trimethylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 is reduced by Setdb1 knockdown at those regions. Furthermore, DPPA2, OTX2 and UTF1 binding is increased in genes encoding BMP4 signaling-related proteins, including SMAD1. Finally, overexpression of Dppa2 , Otx2 and Utf1 in cell aggregates containing PGCLCs results in the repression of BMP4 signaling-related genes and PGC determinant genes. We propose that the localization of SETDB1 to Dppa2 , Otx2 and Utf1 , and subsequent repression of their expression, are crucial for PGC determination by ensuring BMP4 signaling.
    Keywords: Chromatin & epigenetics, Reproductive biology
    Print ISSN: 0950-1991
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9129
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis (RIF) is a serious complication after abdominal radiotherapy for pelvic tumor or peritoneal metastasis. Herein, we show that RIF is mediated by eosinophil interactions with α-smooth muscle actin–positive (α-SMA + ) stromal cells. Abdominal irradiation caused RIF especially in the submucosa (SM) of the small intestine, which was associated with the excessive accumulation of eosinophils in both human and mouse. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed markedly ameliorated RIF, suggesting the importance of eosinophils. After abdominal irradiation, chronic crypt cell death caused elevation of extracellular adenosine triphosphate, which in turn activated expression of C-C motif chemokine 11 (CCL11) by pericryptal α-SMA + cells in the SM to attract eosinophils in mice. Inhibition of C-C chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) by genetic deficiency or neutralizing antibody (Ab) treatment suppressed eosinophil accumulation in the SM after irradiation in mice, suggesting a critical role of the CCL11/CCR3 axis in the eosinophil recruitment. Activated α-SMA + cells also expressed granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to activate eosinophils. Transforming growth factor-β1 from GM-CSF–stimulated eosinophils promoted collagen expression by α-SMA + cells. In translational studies, treatment with a newly developed interleukin-5 receptor α–targeting Ab, analogous to the human agent benralizumab, depleted intestinal eosinophils and suppressed RIF in mice. Collectively, we identified eosinophils as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of RIF and showed potential therapeutic strategies for RIF by targeting eosinophils.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background: No standard second-line chemotherapy has been yet established for gemcitabine-refractory biliary tract cancer (BTC). Patients and Methods: We conducted multivariable Cox regression analysis to examine the prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients who had received gemcitabine-based treatment. Results: Forty-six patients received second-line chemotherapy. The median serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) value was 487 U/ml. The modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) was: 0 (n=24), 1 (n=10), or 2 (n=10). The second-line chemotherapy included: S-1 in 20 patients, gemcitabine-based in 20, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors in five. The median OS was 8.3 months, and the median progression-free survival was 3.0 months. Multivariate analysis identified serum CA 19-9 ≥500 U/ml, mGPS ≥1, and presence of liver metastasis as significant prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: Second-line chemotherapy for gemcitabine-refractory BTC remains inadequate. Randomized trials with appropriate stratification criteria are required.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-11-01
    Description: Previously described feathered dinosaurs reveal a fascinating record of feather evolution, although substantial phylogenetic gaps remain. Here we report the occurrence of feathers in ornithomimosaurs, a clade of non-maniraptoran theropods for which fossilized feathers were previously unknown. The Ornithomimus specimens, recovered from Upper Cretaceous deposits of Alberta, Canada, provide new insights into dinosaur plumage and the origin of the avian wing. Individuals from different growth stages reveal the presence of a filamentous feather covering throughout life and winglike structures on the forelimbs of adults. The appearance of winglike structures in older animals indicates that they may have evolved in association with reproductive behaviors. These specimens show that primordial wings originated earlier than previously thought, among non-maniraptoran theropods.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zelenitsky, Darla K -- Therrien, Francois -- Erickson, Gregory M -- DeBuhr, Christopher L -- Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu -- Eberth, David A -- Hadfield, Frank -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 26;338(6106):510-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1225376.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada. dkzeleni@ucalgary.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112330" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*classification ; Feathers/*anatomy & histology ; North America ; Phylogeny ; Wings, Animal/*anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-09-21
    Description: Circadian clocks are self-sustained cellular oscillators that synchronize oxidative and reductive cycles in anticipation of the solar cycle. We found that the clock transcription feedback loop produces cycles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, adenosine triphosphate production, and mitochondrial respiration through modulation of mitochondrial protein acetylation to synchronize oxidative metabolic pathways with the 24-hour fasting and feeding cycle. Circadian control of the activity of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) generated rhythms in the acetylation and activity of oxidative enzymes and respiration in isolated mitochondria, and NAD(+) supplementation restored protein deacetylation and enhanced oxygen consumption in circadian mutant mice. Thus, circadian control of NAD(+) bioavailability modulates mitochondrial oxidative function and organismal metabolism across the daily cycles of fasting and feeding.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963134/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963134/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Peek, Clara Bien -- Affinati, Alison H -- Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan -- Kuo, Hsin-Yu -- Yu, Wei -- Sena, Laura A -- Ilkayeva, Olga -- Marcheva, Biliana -- Kobayashi, Yumiko -- Omura, Chiaki -- Levine, Daniel C -- Bacsik, David J -- Gius, David -- Newgard, Christopher B -- Goetzman, Eric -- Chandel, Navdeep S -- Denu, John M -- Mrksich, Milan -- Bass, Joseph -- 5P01HL071643-10/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5P30AR057216-05/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- F30 DK085936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30 ES019815/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- F32 DK092034/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG011412/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01AG011412-16/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01DK58398/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014520/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038679/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA152601-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA152799-01A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA16383801A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA168292/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA168292-01A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK090242/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK090625/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM065386/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL097817/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01DK090242-03/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK090625-01A1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HL097817-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM059785/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 DK007169/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008152/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007909/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 1;342(6158):1243417. doi: 10.1126/science.1243417. Epub 2013 Sep 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24051248" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ARNTL Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Acetylation ; Animals ; Circadian Clocks/genetics/*physiology ; *Energy Metabolism ; Fasting ; Lipid Metabolism ; Liver/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitochondria, Liver/*metabolism ; NAD/*metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxygen Consumption ; Sirtuin 3/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Abstract: According to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO), IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas comprised WHO grade II diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AIIIDHmut), WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AAIIIIDHmut), and WHO grade IV glioblastoma, IDH-mutant (GBMIDHmut). Notably, IDH gene status has been made the major criterion for classification while the manner of grading has remained unchanged: it is based on histological criteria that arose from studies which antedated knowledge of the importance of IDH status in diffuse astrocytic tumor prognostic assessment. Several studies have now demonstrated that the anticipated differences in survival between the newly defined AIIIDHmut and AAIIIIDHmut have lost their significance. In contrast, GBMIDHmut still exhibits a significantly worse outcome than its lower grade IDH-mutant counterparts. To address the problem of establishing prognostically significant grading for IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas in the IDH era, we undertook a comprehensive study that included assessment of histological and genetic approaches to prognosis in these tumors. A discovery cohort of 211 IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas with an extended observation was subjected to histological review, image analysis, and DNA methylation studies. Tumor group-specific methylation profiles and copy number variation (CNV) profiles were established for all gliomas. Algorithms for automated CNV analysis were developed. All tumors exhibiting 1p/19q codeletion were excluded from the series. We developed algorithms for grading, based on molecular, morphological and clinical data. Performance of these algorithms was compared with that of WHO grading. Three independent cohorts of 108, 154 and 224 IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas were used to validate this approach. In the discovery cohort several molecular and clinical parameters were of prognostic relevance. Most relevant for overall survival (OS) was CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion. Other parameters with major influence were necrosis and the total number of CNV. Proliferation as assessed by mitotic count, which is a key parameter in 2016 CNS WHO grading, was of only minor influence. Employing the parameters most relevant for OS in our discovery set, we developed two models for grading these tumors. These models performed significantly better than WHO grading in both the discovery and the validation sets. Our novel algorithms for grading IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas overcome the challenges caused by introduction of IDH status into the WHO classification of diffuse astrocytic tumors. We propose that these revised approaches be used for grading of these tumors and incorporated into future WHO criteria.
    Type of Publication: Journal article epub ahead of print
    PubMed ID: 29687258
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  • 9
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  45. Gemeinsame Tagung der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Urologie und Andrologie und der Bayerischen Urologenvereinigung; 20190509-20190511; Wien; DOC19oegu016 /20190408/
    Publication Date: 2019-04-09
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Ionics 34 (1989), S. 287-291 
    ISSN: 0167-2738
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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