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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Although polycrystalline hexagonal boron nitride (PC-hBN) has been realized, defects and grain boundaries still cause charge scatterings and trap sites, impeding high-performance electronics. Here, we report a method of synthesizing wafer-scale single-crystalline hBN (SC-hBN) monolayer films by chemical vapor deposition. The limited solubility of boron (B) and nitrogen (N) atoms in liquid gold promotes high diffusion of adatoms on the surface of liquid at high temperature to provoke the circular hBN grains. These further evolve into closely packed unimodal grains by means of self-collimation of B and N edges inherited by electrostatic interaction between grains, eventually forming an SC-hBN film on a wafer scale. This SC-hBN film also allows for the synthesis of wafer-scale graphene/hBN heterostructure and single-crystalline tungsten disulfide.
    Keywords: Materials Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: The regulation of water content in polymeric membranes is important in a number of applications, such as reverse electrodialysis and proton-exchange fuel-cell membranes. External thermal and water management systems add both mass and size to systems, and so intrinsic mechanisms of retaining water and maintaining ionic transport in such membranes are particularly important for applications where small system size is important. For example, in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, where water retention in the membrane is crucial for efficient transport of hydrated ions, by operating the cells at higher temperatures without external humidification, the membrane is self-humidified with water generated by electrochemical reactions. Here we report an alternative solution that does not rely on external regulation of water supply or high temperatures. Water content in hydrocarbon polymer membranes is regulated through nanometre-scale cracks ('nanocracks') in a hydrophobic surface coating. These cracks work as nanoscale valves to retard water desorption and to maintain ion conductivity in the membrane on dehumidification. Hydrocarbon fuel-cell membranes with surface nanocrack coatings operated at intermediate temperatures show improved electrochemical performance, and coated reverse-electrodialysis membranes show enhanced ionic selectivity with low bulk resistance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Park, Chi Hoon -- Lee, So Young -- Hwang, Doo Sung -- Shin, Dong Won -- Cho, Doo Hee -- Lee, Kang Hyuck -- Kim, Tae-Woo -- Kim, Tae-Wuk -- Lee, Mokwon -- Kim, Deok-Soo -- Doherty, Cara M -- Thornton, Aaron W -- Hill, Anita J -- Guiver, Michael D -- Lee, Young Moo -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):480-3. doi: 10.1038/nature17634.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Energy Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea. ; Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea. ; School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea. ; Manufacturing Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. ; State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. ; Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121841" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomimetic Materials/chemistry ; Biomimetics ; Cactaceae/metabolism ; Desiccation ; Dialysis ; Electrochemistry ; Humidity ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; *Membranes, Artificial ; *Nanotechnology ; Plant Stomata/metabolism ; Polymers/*chemistry ; Protons ; Surface Properties ; Temperature ; Water/*analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2013-01-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Guiver, Michael D -- Lee, Young Moo -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 18;339(6117):284-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1232714.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. michael.guiver@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23329040" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-10-31
    Description: Infections and inflammation can lead to cachexia and wasting of skeletal muscle and fat tissue by as yet poorly understood mechanisms. We observed that gut colonization of mice by a strain of Escherichia coli prevents wasting triggered by infections or physical damage to the intestine. During intestinal infection with the pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium or pneumonic infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, the presence of this E. coli did not alter changes in host metabolism, caloric uptake, or inflammation but instead sustained signaling of the insulin-like growth factor 1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in skeletal muscle, which is required for prevention of muscle wasting. This effect was dependent on engagement of the NLRC4 inflammasome. Therefore, this commensal promotes tolerance to diverse diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4732872/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4732872/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schieber, Alexandria M Palaferri -- Lee, Yujung Michelle -- Chang, Max W -- Leblanc, Mathias -- Collins, Brett -- Downes, Michael -- Evans, Ronald M -- Ayres, Janelle S -- CA014195/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK0577978/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014195/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI114929/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI114929/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057978/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 30;350(6260):558-63. doi: 10.1126/science.aac6468.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Nomis Center for Immunobiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Integrative Genomics and Bioinformatics Core, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Nomis Center for Immunobiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. jayres@salk.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516283" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism ; Biosynthetic Pathways ; Burkholderia ; Burkholderia Infections/complications ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Escherichia coli/*immunology ; Inflammasomes/*immunology ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/*metabolism ; Intestines/*microbiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Microbiota ; Muscle, Skeletal/*metabolism ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism ; Salmonella Infections/complications ; Salmonella typhimurium ; Wasting Syndrome/etiology/*immunology/*microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; TOOL ; CDNA ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; DOMAIN ; tumour ; hepatocytes ; FREQUENCY ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; TRANSPORT ; IDENTIFICATION ; RAT-LIVER ; GLUTATHIONE ; resistance ; UP-REGULATION ; MEMBRANE ; MUTATION ; HEPATOCYTE CANALICULAR ISOFORM ; DRUG-RESISTANCE ; MULTIDRUG-RESISTANCE ; ATP-dependent transport ; SUBSTRATE-SPECIFICITY ; VARIANT ; FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION ; ANION TRANSPORT ; basolateral membrane,cholestasis,hepatocellular transporters,MRP3,polymorphism,SNP ; BINDING CASSETTE ; CHRONIC CONJUGATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA ; DUBIN-JOHNSON-SYNDROME
    Abstract: The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3, symbol ABCC3) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that mediates the efflux of organic anions, including lipophilic substances conjugated with glucuronate, sulphate or glutathione, across the basolateral membrane of polarized cells (e.g. hepatocytes) into blood. Genetic variants of MRP3 may affect the transport of these substances out of cells. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify MRP3 polymorphisms; (ii) to functionally characterize one relatively frequent MRP3 polymorphism; and (iii) to establish whether MRP3 transports bilirubin glucuronosides. Exonic nucleotide variants in the ABCC3 gene were identified by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The 3890G〉A mutation, resulting in MRP3-Arg(1297) His, was introduced into the ABCC3 cDNA which was stably transfected into MDCKII cells. For the functional characterization of MRP3-Arg(1297) His in comparison with MRP3, ATP-dependent transport was analysed in isolated membrane vesicles. Two non- synonymous MRP3 variants were identified with an allele frequency of 0.003 for 1643T〉A (MRP3-Leu(148)Gln) and 0.08 for 3890G〉A (MRP3-Arg(1297) His). Because of the high, frequency of the 3890G〉A mutation, and because of the close proximity of Arg(1297) to the second nucleotide-binding domain, we pursued the functional characterization of the MRP3-Arg(1297)His polymorphic variant. MRP3-Arg(1297)His was correctly localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCKII cells. We identified monoglucuronosyl bilirubin, bisgiucuronosyl bilirubin and leukotriene C-4 as substrates for both MRP3 and MRP3-Arg(1297)His. Dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate and 17beta-glucuronosyl oestradiol were transported with similar kinetics by MRP3 and MRP3-Arg(1297) His. This experimental setup provides a useful tool to analyse the functional consequences of polymorphic variants of MRP3. Pharmacogenetics 14: 213-223 (C) 2004 Lippincott Williams Wilkins
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15083066
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis. GTPCH has been associated with two clinically distinct human diseases: the recessive hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and the dominant dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). We found a recessive GTPCH mutation (R249 S, 747C→G) in a dystonia patient. Her PHA-stimulated mononuclear blood cells had a normal amount of GTPCH mRNA, but low GTPCH activity. Arginine 249 is located at the C-terminus of GTPCH, outside the catalytic site. E. coli expressed recombinant R249 S mutant protein possessed normal enzyme activity and kinetics. However, in transfected eukaryotic cells, R249 S mutant protein expression level was lower than the wild-type protein. Therefore, this is suspected to be a destabilizing mutation. Our data suggest that DRD could be either dominantly or recessively inherited, and the inheritance might be determined by the mechanism of mutation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Chronic hepatitis B virus carriers receiving chemotherapy develop a high hepatitis B virus reactivation rate (38–53%) with a high mortality (37–60%). Few studies have characterized the efficacy of lamivudine in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced hepatitis B virus reactivation.Aim : To determine whether lamivudine prophylaxis reduces chemotherapy-induced hepatitis B virus reactivation and mortality.Methods : The medical records of all hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients with malignancy treated with chemotherapy since 1995 at the National University Hospital of Singapore were identified, and divided into those who received lamivudine prophylaxis before chemotherapy (P) and those who did not (NP).The parameters examined included gender, age, malignancy type, steroid usage, number of chemotherapy courses and regimens, follow-up duration and hepatitis B virus status. The outcome measures were hepatitis B virus reactivation (abrupt rise of serum alanine aminotransferase to 〉 200 IU/L) and reactivation death. Patients with primary hepatoma or liver metastasis were excluded.Results : Thirty-five patients were identified: 16 in the P group and 19 in the NP group. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Seven of the 19 patients in the NP group and none of the 16 patients in the P group developed reactivation (36.8% vs. 0%, P=0.009). Six of the seven patients in the NP group who developed reactivation received lamivudine at that time, but five died (mortality, 71.4%), whilst no patient in the P group died from reactivation (P=0.064).Conclusions : Prophylactic lamivudine appears to prevent hepatitis B virus reactivation and its associated mortality in patients treated with chemotherapy. This should be confirmed with prospective studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Brevibacterium albidum  ;  Arginine tRNACCG  ;  Escherichia colirnpA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Escherichia colirnpA gene encodes C5 protein, the protein component of RNase P. The rnpA49 mutation renders the C5 protein thermosensitive, which results in thermosensitivity of RNase P function. The chromosomal DNA region from Brevibacterium albidum that complements the rnpA49 mutation was analysed. The gene capable of complementing the growth defect of an rnpA49 mutant strain at nonpermissive temperature was identified as the gene for an arginine tRNA with anticodon CCG by a deletion analysis combined with complementation assays. Transcription of the arginine tRNA gene carried on a multicopy plasmid was correlated with the complementation of the rnpA49 mutation, indicating that the gene product is indeed responsible for complementation of the rnpA49 mutation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Analytical Biochemistry 175 (1988), S. 521-524 
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    Keywords: M13 ; Sau3AI-BamHI ; self-ligation ; sequencing strategy ; subcloning
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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