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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-10-25
    Description: During cell entry, capsids of incoming influenza A viruses (IAVs) must be uncoated before viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) can enter the nucleus for replication. After hemagglutinin-mediated membrane fusion in late endocytic vacuoles, the vRNPs and the matrix proteins dissociate from each other and disperse within the cytosol. Here, we found that for capsid disassembly, IAV takes advantage of the host cell's aggresome formation and disassembly machinery. The capsids mimicked misfolded protein aggregates by carrying unanchored ubiquitin chains that activated a histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-dependent pathway. The ubiquitin-binding domain was essential for recruitment of HDAC6 to viral fusion sites and for efficient uncoating and infection. That other components of the aggresome processing machinery, including dynein, dynactin, and myosin II, were also required suggested that physical forces generated by microtubule- and actin-associated motors are essential for IAV entry.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banerjee, Indranil -- Miyake, Yasuyuki -- Nobs, Samuel Philip -- Schneider, Christoph -- Horvath, Peter -- Kopf, Manfred -- Matthias, Patrick -- Helenius, Ari -- Yamauchi, Yohei -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 24;346(6208):473-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1257037.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Biochemistry, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland. ; Epigenetics, Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ; Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. ; Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Center, Szeged, Hungary. ; Epigenetics, Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. Faculty of Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. ; Institute of Biochemistry, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland. ari.helenius@bc.biol.ethz.ch yohei.yamauchi@bc.biol.ethz.ch.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25342804" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Capsid/*metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Nucleus/virology ; Dyneins/metabolism ; Gene Knockout Techniques ; Histone Deacetylases/genetics/*physiology ; Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Humans ; Influenza A virus/*physiology ; Influenza, Human/genetics/metabolism/*virology ; Membrane Fusion/genetics/physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Microtubules/metabolism ; Myosin Type II/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA Interference ; Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism ; Ubiquitin/chemistry/metabolism ; *Virus Internalization ; Virus Replication
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Abstract: According to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO), IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas comprised WHO grade II diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AIIIDHmut), WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AAIIIIDHmut), and WHO grade IV glioblastoma, IDH-mutant (GBMIDHmut). Notably, IDH gene status has been made the major criterion for classification while the manner of grading has remained unchanged: it is based on histological criteria that arose from studies which antedated knowledge of the importance of IDH status in diffuse astrocytic tumor prognostic assessment. Several studies have now demonstrated that the anticipated differences in survival between the newly defined AIIIDHmut and AAIIIIDHmut have lost their significance. In contrast, GBMIDHmut still exhibits a significantly worse outcome than its lower grade IDH-mutant counterparts. To address the problem of establishing prognostically significant grading for IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas in the IDH era, we undertook a comprehensive study that included assessment of histological and genetic approaches to prognosis in these tumors. A discovery cohort of 211 IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas with an extended observation was subjected to histological review, image analysis, and DNA methylation studies. Tumor group-specific methylation profiles and copy number variation (CNV) profiles were established for all gliomas. Algorithms for automated CNV analysis were developed. All tumors exhibiting 1p/19q codeletion were excluded from the series. We developed algorithms for grading, based on molecular, morphological and clinical data. Performance of these algorithms was compared with that of WHO grading. Three independent cohorts of 108, 154 and 224 IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas were used to validate this approach. In the discovery cohort several molecular and clinical parameters were of prognostic relevance. Most relevant for overall survival (OS) was CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion. Other parameters with major influence were necrosis and the total number of CNV. Proliferation as assessed by mitotic count, which is a key parameter in 2016 CNS WHO grading, was of only minor influence. Employing the parameters most relevant for OS in our discovery set, we developed two models for grading these tumors. These models performed significantly better than WHO grading in both the discovery and the validation sets. Our novel algorithms for grading IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas overcome the challenges caused by introduction of IDH status into the WHO classification of diffuse astrocytic tumors. We propose that these revised approaches be used for grading of these tumors and incorporated into future WHO criteria.
    Type of Publication: Journal article epub ahead of print
    PubMed ID: 29687258
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  22. Internationaler Kongress der Deutschen Ophthalmochirurgen; 20090618-20090621; Nürnberg; DOC09docPO 4.5 /20090709/
    Publication Date: 2009-08-12
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary An emission-spectrometric method was applied in the presence of CsCl-graphite buffer for the quantitative determination of traces of rare earth elements in yttrium oxide. The buffer causes an increase of the evaporation rate of the sample and of the emission intensity. The temperature in the arc plasma is decreased, and the atoms and ions of rare earths distribute uniformly along the axis of the discharge gap. The CsCl-graphite buffer enhances the sensitivity and the precision of the analytical elements to a larger extent than other buffers and permits the determination of microquantities of 10 impurity elements within limits of detection from 1 to 20 ppm in high-purity yttrium oxide. The coefficients of variation are less than 20%.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Durch den Zusatz des CsCl-Graphitpuffers werden Verdampfungsgeschwindigkeit und Emissionsintensität erhöht, die Temperatur im Bogenplasma herabgesetzt und eine gleichmäßige Verteilung der Atome und Ionen längs der Entladungsstrecke bewirkt. Empfindlichkeit und Genauigkeit der Bestimmung sind besser als bei Verwendung anderer Puffer. 10 Verunreinigungselemente können mit Nachweisgrenzen von 1–20 ppm in hochreinem Yttriumoxid bestimmt werden. Die Variationskoeffizienten liegen unter 20%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A direct-reading emission-spectrometric method was applied in the presence of methanol for the quantitative determination of traces of rare earths and diverse other elements in rare-earth compounds by the rotating electrode. Addition of alcohols with lower boiling points than water causes an increase of the rate of vaporization of the sample solution and of the emission intensity. Methanol enhances the emission intensity to a larger extent than other alcohols and permits the determination of microquantities of the elements within limits of detection from 1 to 37 ppm in high-purity rare-earth compounds. The intensity ratio of the ionic line to the atomic line increases in the presence of more than 60% methanol, indicating the elevation of plasma temperature.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Durch Zusatz von Alkoholen mit niedrigeren Siedepunkten als Wasser wird die Verdampfungsgeschwindigkeit der Lösung erhöht und die Linienintensität gesteigert. Methanol zeigt diese Wirkung in größerem Maße als andere Alkohole und ermöglicht die Bestimmung von Spuren Seltener Erden und anderer Elemente in Selten-Erd-Verbindungen hoher Reinheit mit Nachweisgrenzen von 1–37 ppm. Bei Gegenwart von mehr als 60% Methanol wird das Intensitätsverhältnis der Ionen- zur Atomlinie vergrößert, was auf eine Erhöhung der Plasmatemperatur zurückgeführt wird.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A dc arc excitation method in a controlled atmosphere was applied in the presence of CsCl-graphite (1∶9) buffer for the quantitative determination of traces of rare earth elements in europium oxide. The intensities of the cyanogen band spectra and the background could be reduced by the use of argon-oxygen (4∶1) mixed gas atmosphere and it was possible to obtain higher sensitivity than in the excitation in air. Addition of CsCl-graphite buffer causes an increase of the evaporation rate of the sample and of the number of atoms in the arc plasma, and the atoms and ions of rare earths distribute uniformly along the axis of the discharge gap. The buffer enhances the sensitivity and reproducibility and permits the determination of microquantities of 10 impurity elements within limits of detection from 3 to 11 ppm in high-purity europium oxide. The coefficients of variation are less than 13%.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Anregung erfolgt im Gleichstrombogen in kontrollierter AtmosphÄre (Argon/Sauerstoff, 4∶1) in Gegenwart eines CsCl-Graphit (1∶9)-Puffers. Durch die Verwendung von Argon/Sauerstoff konnte die IntensitÄt des Untergrundes und der Cyanbanden erheblich reduziert und eine grö\ere Empfindlichkeit erreicht werden als bei der Anregung in Luft. Durch den Puffer wird die Verdampfungsgeschwindigkeit erhöht, die Anzahl der Atome im Bogenplasma vergrö\ert und eine gleichmÄ\ige Verteilung der Atome und Ionen lÄngs der Bogenachse erzielt. Empfindlichkeit und Reproduzierbarkeit werden verbessert. Spurenverunreinigungen von 10 Elementen können in hochreinem Europiumoxid bestimmt werden. Die Nachweisgrenzen liegen zwischen 3 und 11 ppm; der Variationskoeffizient ist 〈 13%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Chemotaxis ; Information processing ; Oscillation ; Physarum polycephalum ; Thermal image camera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The spatial and temporal pattern of oscillating temperatures on the cell surface of a plasmodial strand ofPhysarum polycephalum was measured with a sensitive thermal image camera. The longitudinal tension of the strand was studied simultaneously. In the absence of chemical stimulation, the phases of the temperature oscillation observed at various portions of the strand were entrained with almost coincidental phase. The temperature and tension oscillation were synchronized, although the phase difference between them was occasionally changed. With local chemical stimulation, the phase of the temperature oscillation advanced in the portion to which the plasmodium would be induced to migrate. The phases between temperature and tension oscillations then became constant. The mechanism by which the plasmodium processes local information of chemical stimulus to global information for the migration is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0449-2986
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Complicated retinal detachments in 99 eyes were successfully managed by intraocular injections of silicone oil with or without pars plana vitrectomy. The silicone was then subsequently removed after panretinal photocoagulation. Any remaining anterior vitreous cortex near the vitreous base and/or preretinal proliferative tissue causing traction of the retina was also removed by a vitrectome or extracted by a hooked needle after the silicone-fluid exchange had been performed. The preretinal proliferation occurred in some cases even after silicone oil had been removed. Recurrent detachments were discovered in 8 of the 99 eyes and were managed successfully by reinjections of the silicone. Other silicone reinjections were required in two eyes with diabetic retinopathy and two nondiabetic eyes because of frequent rebleeding into the vitreous cavity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  • Background: We previously reported a new system of electroretinographic monitoring of the retinal function during vitrectomy in human eyes, and found that lowering the intravitreal temperature by applying an infusion solution kept at room temperature (used routinely for vitrectomy throughout the world) can alter the electroretinogram (ERG). This time we attempted to study the effect upon the ERG of replacing the intraocular medium and acutely elevating the intraocular pressure during vitrectomy. • Methods: Using a special contact lens with a built-in light-emitting diode light source, 30-Hz flicker ERG was quickly recorded under aseptic conditions. • Results: Acute, reversible reduction in amplitude was observed upon replacing the intraocular medium with air or silicone oil and during periods of acutely elevated intraocular pressure. Infusions of gentamicin or miconazole did not affect the ERG when intravitreal temperature and intraocular pressure were constant. • Conclusion: The ERG monitor can reveal changes of the retinal function during vitrectomy, particularly when the infusion temperature, intraocular medium and intraocular pressure are kept constant.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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