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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-14
    Description: Background Hyaluronan (HA) metabolism in skin fibroblasts is mediated by HYBID ( HY aluronan B inding protein I nvolved in hyaluronan D epolymerisation, KIAA1199) and HA synthases 1/2 (HAS1/2). However, photoageing-dependent changes in HA and their molecular mechanisms, and the relationship between HA metabolism and clinical symptoms in photoaged skin remain elusive. Objectives We examined amount, size and tissue distribution of HA and expression levels of HYBID and HAS1/2 in photoaged skin, and analysed their relationships to the degree of photoageing. Methods Photoageing-dependent changes of HA were investigated by studying skin biopsies isolated from photoprotected and photoexposed areas of the same donors, and the relationship between HA and photoageing symptoms such as skin wrinkling and sagging was examined. Results Skin biopsy specimens showed that amount and size of HA are decreased in the photoexposed skin compared to the photoprotected skin, and this was accompanied by increased expression of HYBID and decreased expression of HAS1/2 , respectively. Histologically, HA staining in the papillary dermis was decreased in photoexposed skin, showing reverse correlation with HYBID expression. HYBID expression in the photoexposed skin directly correlated with skin roughness and sagging parameters, and reduced HA staining in the papillary dermis in the photoexposed skin positively correlated with these symptoms. Conclusions These data demonstrate that imbalance between HYBID-mediated HA degradation and HAS-mediated HA synthesis may contribute to enhanced HA catabolism in the photoaged skin, and suggest that HYBID-mediated HA reduction in the papillary dermis is related to skin wrinkling and sagging of photoaged skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0007-0963
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2133
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Description: There are a number of mammalian anion channel types associated with cell volume changes. These channel types are classified into two groups: volume-activated anion channels (VAACs) and volume-correlated anion channels (VCACs). VAACs can be directly activated by cell swelling and include the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion channel (VSOR), which is also called the volume-regulated anion channel; the maxi-anion channel (MAC or Maxi-Cl); and the voltage-gated anion channel, chloride channel (ClC)-2. VCACs can be facultatively implicated in, although not directly activated by, cell volume changes and include the cAMP-activated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel, the Ca 2+ -activated Cl – channel (CaCC), and the acid-sensitive (or acid-stimulated) outwardly rectifying anion channel. This article describes the phenotypical properties and activation mechanisms of both groups of anion channels, including accumulating pieces of information on the basis of recent molecular understanding. To that end, this review also highlights the molecular identities of both anion channel groups; in addition to the molecular identities of ClC-2 and CFTR, those of CaCC, VSOR, and Maxi-Cl were recently identified by applying genome-wide approaches. In the last section of this review, the most up-to-date information on the pharmacological properties of both anion channel groups, especially their half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 values) and voltage-dependent blocking, is summarized particularly from the standpoint of pharmacological distinctions among them. Future physiologic and pharmacological studies are definitely warranted for therapeutic targeting of dysfunction of VAACs and VCACs.
    Print ISSN: 0031-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0081
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-02-13
    Description: Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 〈 5 x 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for approximately 2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for 〉20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382211/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382211/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Locke, Adam E -- Kahali, Bratati -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Justice, Anne E -- Pers, Tune H -- Day, Felix R -- Powell, Corey -- Vedantam, Sailaja -- Buchkovich, Martin L -- Yang, Jian -- Croteau-Chonka, Damien C -- Esko, Tonu -- Fall, Tove -- Ferreira, Teresa -- Gustafsson, Stefan -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Luan, Jian'an -- Magi, Reedik -- Randall, Joshua C -- Winkler, Thomas W -- Wood, Andrew R -- Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie -- Faul, Jessica D -- Smith, Jennifer A -- Hua Zhao, Jing -- Zhao, Wei -- Chen, Jin -- Fehrmann, Rudolf -- Hedman, Asa K -- Karjalainen, Juha -- Schmidt, Ellen M -- Absher, Devin -- Amin, Najaf -- Anderson, Denise -- Beekman, Marian -- Bolton, Jennifer L -- Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L -- Buyske, Steven -- Demirkan, Ayse -- Deng, Guohong -- Ehret, Georg B -- Feenstra, Bjarke -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Fischer, Krista -- Goel, Anuj -- Gong, Jian -- Jackson, Anne U -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Kleber, Marcus E -- Kristiansson, Kati -- Lim, Unhee -- Lotay, Vaneet -- Mangino, Massimo -- Mateo Leach, Irene -- Medina-Gomez, Carolina -- Medland, Sarah E -- Nalls, Michael A -- Palmer, Cameron D -- Pasko, Dorota -- Pechlivanis, Sonali -- Peters, Marjolein J -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Shungin, Dmitry -- Stancakova, Alena -- Strawbridge, Rona J -- Ju Sung, Yun -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Teumer, Alexander -- Trompet, Stella -- van der Laan, Sander W -- van Setten, Jessica -- Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V -- Wang, Zhaoming -- Yengo, Loic -- Zhang, Weihua -- Isaacs, Aaron -- Albrecht, Eva -- Arnlov, Johan -- Arscott, Gillian M -- Attwood, Antony P -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Barrett, Amy -- Bas, Isabelita N -- Bellis, Claire -- Bennett, Amanda J -- Berne, Christian -- Blagieva, Roza -- Bluher, Matthias -- Bohringer, Stefan -- Bonnycastle, Lori L -- Bottcher, Yvonne -- Boyd, Heather A -- Bruinenberg, Marcel -- Caspersen, Ida H -- Ida Chen, Yii-Der -- Clarke, Robert -- Daw, E Warwick -- de Craen, Anton J M -- Delgado, Graciela -- Dimitriou, Maria -- Doney, Alex S F -- Eklund, Niina -- Estrada, Karol -- Eury, Elodie -- Folkersen, Lasse -- Fraser, Ross M -- Garcia, Melissa E -- Geller, Frank -- Giedraitis, Vilmantas -- Gigante, Bruna -- Go, Alan S -- Golay, Alain -- Goodall, Alison H -- Gordon, Scott D -- Gorski, Mathias -- Grabe, Hans-Jorgen -- Grallert, Harald -- Grammer, Tanja B -- Grassler, Jurgen -- Gronberg, Henrik -- Groves, Christopher J -- Gusto, Gaelle -- Haessler, Jeffrey -- Hall, Per -- Haller, Toomas -- Hallmans, Goran -- Hartman, Catharina A -- Hassinen, Maija -- Hayward, Caroline -- Heard-Costa, Nancy L -- Helmer, Quinta -- Hengstenberg, Christian -- Holmen, Oddgeir -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- James, Alan L -- Jeff, Janina M -- Johansson, Asa -- Jolley, Jennifer -- Juliusdottir, Thorhildur -- Kinnunen, Leena -- Koenig, Wolfgang -- Koskenvuo, Markku -- Kratzer, Wolfgang -- Laitinen, Jaana -- Lamina, Claudia -- Leander, Karin -- Lee, Nanette R -- Lichtner, Peter -- Lind, Lars -- Lindstrom, Jaana -- Sin Lo, Ken -- Lobbens, Stephane -- Lorbeer, Roberto -- Lu, Yingchang -- Mach, Francois -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Mahajan, Anubha -- McArdle, Wendy L -- McLachlan, Stela -- Menni, Cristina -- Merger, Sigrun -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Milani, Lili -- Moayyeri, Alireza -- Monda, Keri L -- Morken, Mario A -- Mulas, Antonella -- Muller, Gabriele -- Muller-Nurasyid, Martina -- Musk, Arthur W -- Nagaraja, Ramaiah -- Nothen, Markus M -- Nolte, Ilja M -- Pilz, Stefan -- Rayner, Nigel W -- Renstrom, Frida -- Rettig, Rainer -- Ried, Janina S -- Ripke, Stephan -- Robertson, Neil R -- Rose, Lynda M -- Sanna, Serena -- Scharnagl, Hubert -- Scholtens, Salome -- Schumacher, Fredrick R -- Scott, William R -- Seufferlein, Thomas -- Shi, Jianxin -- Vernon Smith, Albert -- Smolonska, Joanna -- Stanton, Alice V -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Stirrups, Kathleen -- Stringham, Heather M -- Sundstrom, Johan -- Swertz, Morris A -- Swift, Amy J -- Syvanen, Ann-Christine -- Tan, Sian-Tsung -- Tayo, Bamidele O -- Thorand, Barbara -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Tyrer, Jonathan P -- Uh, Hae-Won -- Vandenput, Liesbeth -- Verhulst, Frank C -- Vermeulen, Sita H -- Verweij, Niek -- Vonk, Judith M -- Waite, Lindsay L -- Warren, Helen R -- Waterworth, Dawn -- Weedon, Michael N -- Wilkens, Lynne R -- Willenborg, Christina -- Wilsgaard, Tom -- Wojczynski, Mary K -- Wong, Andrew -- Wright, Alan F -- Zhang, Qunyuan -- LifeLines Cohort Study -- Brennan, Eoin P -- Choi, Murim -- Dastani, Zari -- Drong, Alexander W -- Eriksson, Per -- Franco-Cereceda, Anders -- Gadin, Jesper R -- Gharavi, Ali G -- Goddard, Michael E -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Huang, Jinyan -- Karpe, Fredrik -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- Keildson, Sarah -- Kiryluk, Krzysztof -- Kubo, Michiaki -- Lee, Jong-Young -- Liang, Liming -- Lifton, Richard P -- Ma, Baoshan -- McCarroll, Steven A -- McKnight, Amy J -- Min, Josine L -- Moffatt, Miriam F -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Murabito, Joanne M -- Nicholson, George -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Okada, Yukinori -- Perry, John R B -- Dorajoo, Rajkumar -- Reinmaa, Eva -- Salem, Rany M -- Sandholm, Niina -- Scott, Robert A -- Stolk, Lisette -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Tanaka, Toshihiro -- Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M -- Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Zheng, Wei -- Zondervan, Krina T -- ADIPOGen Consortium -- AGEN-BMI Working Group -- CARDIOGRAMplusC4D Consortium -- CKDGen Consortium -- GLGC -- ICBP -- MAGIC Investigators -- MuTHER Consortium -- MIGen Consortium -- PAGE Consortium -- ReproGen Consortium -- GENIE Consortium -- International Endogene Consortium -- Heath, Andrew C -- Arveiler, Dominique -- Bakker, Stephan J L -- Beilby, John -- Bergman, Richard N -- Blangero, John -- Bovet, Pascal -- Campbell, Harry -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Cesana, Giancarlo -- Chakravarti, Aravinda -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Chines, Peter S -- Collins, Francis S -- Crawford, Dana C -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Cusi, Daniele -- Danesh, John -- de Faire, Ulf -- den Ruijter, Hester M -- Dominiczak, Anna F -- Erbel, Raimund -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Farrall, Martin -- Felix, Stephan B -- Ferrannini, Ele -- Ferrieres, Jean -- Ford, Ian -- Forouhi, Nita G -- Forrester, Terrence -- Franco, Oscar H -- Gansevoort, Ron T -- Gejman, Pablo V -- Gieger, Christian -- Gottesman, Omri -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Gyllensten, Ulf -- Hall, Alistair S -- Harris, Tamara B -- Hattersley, Andrew T -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Hindorff, Lucia A -- Hingorani, Aroon D -- Hofman, Albert -- Homuth, Georg -- Hovingh, G Kees -- Humphries, Steve E -- Hunt, Steven C -- Hypponen, Elina -- Illig, Thomas -- Jacobs, Kevin B -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Jockel, Karl-Heinz -- Johansen, Berit -- Jousilahti, Pekka -- Jukema, J Wouter -- Jula, Antti M -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kastelein, John J P -- Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Knekt, Paul -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Kooperberg, Charles -- Kovacs, Peter -- Kraja, Aldi T -- Kumari, Meena -- Kuusisto, Johanna -- Lakka, Timo A -- Langenberg, Claudia -- Le Marchand, Loic -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Lyssenko, Valeriya -- Mannisto, Satu -- Marette, Andre -- Matise, Tara C -- McKenzie, Colin A -- McKnight, Barbara -- Moll, Frans L -- Morris, Andrew D -- Morris, Andrew P -- Murray, Jeffrey C -- Nelis, Mari -- Ohlsson, Claes -- Oldehinkel, Albertine J -- Ong, Ken K -- Madden, Pamela A F -- Pasterkamp, Gerard -- Peden, John F -- Peters, Annette -- Postma, Dirkje S -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Price, Jackie F -- Qi, Lu -- Raitakari, Olli T -- Rankinen, Tuomo -- Rao, D C -- Rice, Treva K -- Ridker, Paul M -- Rioux, John D -- Ritchie, Marylyn D -- Rudan, Igor -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Saramies, Jouko -- Sarzynski, Mark A -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Schwarz, Peter E H -- Sever, Peter -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Sinisalo, Juha -- Stolk, Ronald P -- Strauch, Konstantin -- Tonjes, Anke -- Tregouet, David-Alexandre -- Tremblay, Angelo -- Tremoli, Elena -- Virtamo, Jarmo -- Vohl, Marie-Claude -- Volker, Uwe -- Waeber, Gerard -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Witteman, Jacqueline C -- Zillikens, M Carola -- Adair, Linda S -- Amouyel, Philippe -- Asselbergs, Folkert W -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Bochud, Murielle -- Boehm, Bernhard O -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Bornstein, Stefan R -- Bottinger, Erwin P -- Bouchard, Claude -- Cauchi, Stephane -- Chambers, John C -- Chanock, Stephen J -- Cooper, Richard S -- de Bakker, Paul I W -- Dedoussis, George -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Franks, Paul W -- Froguel, Philippe -- Groop, Leif C -- Haiman, Christopher A -- Hamsten, Anders -- Hui, Jennie -- Hunter, David J -- Hveem, Kristian -- Kaplan, Robert C -- Kivimaki, Mika -- Kuh, Diana -- Laakso, Markku -- Liu, Yongmei -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Marz, Winfried -- Melbye, Mads -- Metspalu, Andres -- Moebus, Susanne -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Njolstad, Inger -- Oostra, Ben A -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Pedersen, Nancy L -- Perola, Markus -- Perusse, Louis -- Peters, Ulrike -- Power, Chris -- Quertermous, Thomas -- Rauramaa, Rainer -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Saaristo, Timo E -- Saleheen, Danish -- Sattar, Naveed -- Schadt, Eric E -- Schlessinger, David -- Slagboom, P Eline -- Snieder, Harold -- Spector, Tim D -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stumvoll, Michael -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Uusitupa, Matti -- van der Harst, Pim -- Walker, Mark -- Wallaschofski, Henri -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Watkins, Hugh -- Weir, David R -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Wilson, James F -- Zanen, Pieter -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Deloukas, Panos -- Fox, Caroline S -- Heid, Iris M -- O'Connell, Jeffrey R -- Strachan, David P -- Stefansson, Kari -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Franke, Lude -- Frayling, Timothy M -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Visscher, Peter M -- Scherag, Andre -- Willer, Cristen J -- Boehnke, Michael -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Barroso, Ines -- North, Kari E -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Speliotes, Elizabeth K -- 084766/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085235/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 097117/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098381/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 14136/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/672/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0601261/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K01 HL116770/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K23 DK080145/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/2/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/5/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/K013351/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P20 MD006899/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 GM103341/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 HL107251/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P60 DK020541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041517/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075787/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK078150/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK089256/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK093757/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL109946/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL117626/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R21 DA027040/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM080178/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007055/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007824/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- TL1 TR001066/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG009740/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG049505/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007416/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007419/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001067/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UM1 CA182910/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):197-206. doi: 10.1038/nature14177.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, and Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [4] Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby 2800, Denmark. ; MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. [2] The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The Translation Research Institute, Brisbane 4012, Australia. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [4] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; 1] Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland. [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland. [3] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. ; Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. ; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama 35806, USA. ; Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6008, Australia. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; 1] Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. [2] Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] Department of Statistics &Biostatistics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [3] Institute of infectious Diseases, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. ; 1] Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Cardiology, Department of Specialties of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 1211, Switzerland. ; Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen DK-2300, Denmark. ; Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Division of Cardiovacular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. ; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; 1] Vth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68187 Mannheim, Germany. [2] Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. ; Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA. ; The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University Hospital Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. [3] Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK. ; 1] Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic &Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skane University Hosptial, Malmo 205 02, Sweden. [2] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Medicine, Umea University, Umea 901 87, Sweden. [3] Department of Odontology, Umea University, Umea 901 85, Sweden. ; University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden. ; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21225, USA. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Experimental Cardiology Laboratory, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. [2] Core Genotyping Facility, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; 1] CNRS UMR 8199, F-59019 Lille, France. [2] European Genomic Institute for Diabetes, F-59000 Lille, France. [3] Universite de Lille 2, F-59000 Lille, France. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Center for Medical Sytems Biology, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, SE-791 88 Falun, Sweden. ; PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; 1] Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0PT, UK. [2] NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge CB2 0PT, UK. ; Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), 50125 Florence, Italy. ; Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; USC-Office of Population Studies Foundation, Inc., University of San Carlos, Cebu City 6000, Philippines. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78227, USA. [2] Genomics Research Centre, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia. ; Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; 1] Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. [2] Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; LifeLines Cohort Study, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles, Torrance, California 90502, USA. [2] Transgenomics Institute, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, California 90502, USA. ; Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Vth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68187 Mannheim, Germany. ; Department of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece. ; Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [3] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. ; Kaiser Permanente, Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612, USA. ; Service of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes, Obesity and Chronic Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211, Switzerland. ; 1] Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. [2] National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; 1] Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. [2] Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, HELIOS-Hospital Stralsund, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Rostock, Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [3] German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. ; Institut inter Regional pour la Sante, Synergies, F-37520 La Riche, France. ; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Nutritional Research, Umea University, Umea 90187, Sweden. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, 70100 Kuopio, Finland. ; MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [3] Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Deutsches Forschungszentrum fur Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany. [2] Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Technische Universitat Munchen, D-80636 Munich, Germany. ; Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7489, Norway. ; Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Pulmonary Physiology and Sleep Medicine, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [2] School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia. ; Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics, Pathology, SciLifeLab, Rudbeck Laboratory, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. ; Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Hjelt Institute Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FI-90100 Oulu, Finland. ; Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. ; Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8, Canada. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. [2] The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Cardiology, Department of Specialties of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 1211, Switzerland. ; School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. [2] Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] The Center for Observational Research, Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA. ; Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Sardinia 09042, Italy. ; Center for Evidence-based Healthcare, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Deutsches Forschungszentrum fur Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany. [3] Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-81377 Munich, Germany. [4] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-81377 Munich, Germany. ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; 1] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. [2] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. ; Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [3] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic &Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skane University Hosptial, Malmo 205 02, Sweden. ; Institute of Physiology, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17495 Karlsburg, Germany. ; 1] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [2] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. ; Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur 201, Iceland. [2] University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Molecular &Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; deCODE Genetics, Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [2] William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75144, Sweden. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK. ; Department of Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 61053, USA. ; 1] German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 413 45, Sweden. ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; Genetics, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, USA. ; 1] German Center for Cardiovascular Research, partner site Hamburg/Lubeck/Kiel, 23562 Lubeck, Germany. [2] Institut fur Integrative und Experimentelle Genomik, Universitat zu Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany. ; Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromso, Norway. ; MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at University College London, London WC1B 5JU, UK. ; Diabetes Complications Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland. ; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ; Lady Davis Institute, Departments of Human Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T1E2, Canada. ; Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden. ; Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA. ; 1] Biosciences Research Division, Department of Primary Industries, Victoria 3083, Australia. [2] Department of Food and Agricultural Systems, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. ; 1] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. [2] NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, OUH Trust, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. ; Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Center for Genome Science, National Institute of Health, Chungcheongbuk-do, Chungbuk 363-951, Republic of Korea. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 2115, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] College of Information Science and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026, China. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, County Down BT9 7AB, UK. ; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK. [2] MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell OX11 0QG, UK. ; 1] QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. [2] Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4059, Australia. ; 1] Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. [2] Department of Human Genetics and Disease Diversity, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 113-8510 Tokyo, Japan. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. [3] Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 138672 Singapore. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science, Helsinki FI-00076, Finland. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Folkhalsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhalsan Research Center, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics and Disease Diversity, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 113-8510 Tokyo, Japan. [2] Laboratory for Cardiovascular Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. [3] Division of Disease Diversity, Bioresource Research Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 113-8510 Tokyo, Japan. ; Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine; Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center; and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37075, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Nuffield Department of Obstetrics &Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, EA3430, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg, France. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [2] Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Cedars-Sinai Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78227, USA. ; 1] Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, 1010 Lausanne, Switzerland. [2] Ministry of Health, Victoria, Republic of Seychelles. ; University of Milano, Bicocca, 20126, Italy. ; Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA. [2] Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano, I 20142, Italy. [2] Fondazione Filarete, Milano I 20139, Italy. ; Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. ; 1] Experimental Cardiology Laboratory, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. [2] Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK. ; Clinic of Cardiology, West-German Heart Centre, University Hospital Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki 00290, Finland. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum fur Herz-Kreislaufforschung - German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy. [2] National Research Council Institute of Clinical Physiology, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy. ; Department of Cardiology, Toulouse University School of Medicine, Rangueil Hospital, 31400 Toulouse, France. ; Robertson Center for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; UWI Solutions for Developing Countries, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL 60201, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA. ; Leeds MRC Medical Bioinformatics Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9LU, UK. ; Institute of Biomedical &Clinical Science, University of Exeter, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK. ; Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen, Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano 39100, Italy (affiliated institute of the University of Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany). ; Division of Genomic Medicine, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Cardiovascular Genetics, Institute Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London WC1E 6JJ, UK. ; Cardiovascular Genetics Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA. ; 1] Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia. [2] School of Population Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia. [3] South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. [4] Population, Policy, and Practice, University College London Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Hannover Unified Biobank, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, D-30625 Hannover, Germany. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-90101 Oulu, Finland. [3] MRC Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [4] Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland. [5] Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [6] Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [2] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute Netherlands (ICIN), 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands. [3] Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN), 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Hjelt Institute Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [2] Unit of Primary Health Care/General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland. ; 1] Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Urology, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. [2] Department of Biological and Social Epidemiology, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, UK. ; Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, 70100 Kuopio, Finland. [2] Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. [3] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and School of Medicine University of Tampere, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland. ; 1] Steno Diabetes Center A/S, Gentofte DK-2820, Denmark. [2] Lund University Diabetes Centre and Department of Clinical Science, Diabetes &Endocrinology Unit, Lund University, Malmo 221 00, Sweden. ; 1] Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. [2] Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [3] Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK. ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at University College London, London WC1B 5JU, UK. ; Illumina, Inc, Little Chesterford, Cambridge CB10 1XL, UK. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Deutsches Forschungszentrum fur Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany. [3] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Tuberculosis, Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen, Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano 39100, Italy (affiliated institute of the University of Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany). [2] Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano 39100, Italy. ; 1] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, FI-20521 Turku, Finland. [2] Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, FI-20521 Turku, Finland. ; Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [3] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8, Canada. [2] Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8, Canada. ; Center for Systems Genomics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; 1] Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. [2] Croatian Centre for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; South Carelia Central Hospital, 53130 Lappeenranta, Finland. ; 1] Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. [2] Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 01307 Dresden, Germany. ; International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [2] Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [3] Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Vetrans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Helsinki University Central Hospital Heart and Lung Center, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-81377 Munich, Germany. ; 1] Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR S 1166, F-75013 Paris, France. [2] INSERM, UMR S 1166, Team Genomics and Physiopathology of Cardiovascular Diseases, F-75013 Paris, France. [3] Institute for Cardiometabolism And Nutrition (ICAN), F-75013 Paris, France. ; Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Universita di Milano &Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan 20133, Italy. ; 1] Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. [2] Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; 1] Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum fur Herz-Kreislaufforschung - German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Institut Pasteur de Lille; INSERM, U744; Universite de Lille 2; F-59000 Lille, France. ; 1] Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. [2] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute Netherlands (ICIN), 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. ; 1] Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Imperial College London and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637553 Singapore, Singapore. [2] Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Health Science Center at Houston, University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, UK. ; 1] Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic &Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skane University Hosptial, Malmo 205 02, Sweden. [3] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Medicine, Umea University, Umea 901 87, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK. [2] CNRS UMR 8199, F-59019 Lille, France. [3] European Genomic Institute for Diabetes, F-59000 Lille, France. [4] Universite de Lille 2, F-59000 Lille, France. ; 1] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Lund University Diabetes Centre and Department of Clinical Science, Diabetes &Endocrinology Unit, Lund University, Malmo 221 00, Sweden. ; 1] PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [2] Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [3] School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; 1] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Belfer 1306, New York 10461, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Center for Human Genetics, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA. ; 1] Vth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68187 Mannheim, Germany. [2] Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. [3] Synlab Academy, Synlab Services GmbH, 68163 Mannheim, Germany. ; 1] Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. [2] Department of Clinical Medicine, Copenhagen University, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Center for Medical Sytems Biology, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. [2] Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Population, Policy, and Practice, University College London Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK. ; 1] Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, 70100 Kuopio, Finland. [2] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] Finnish Diabetes Association, Kirjoniementie 15, FI-33680 Tampere, Finland. [2] Pirkanmaa Hospital District, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland. ; 1] Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. [2] Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Karatchi, Pakistan. [3] Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK. ; Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10580, USA. ; 1] deCODE Genetics, Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland. [2] Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Institute for Health Research, University Hospital of La Paz (IdiPaz), 28046 Madrid, Spain. [3] Diabetes Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. [4] Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria. ; 1] Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Finland. [2] Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. [3] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute Netherlands (ICIN), 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK. ; 1] DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum fur Herz-Kreislaufforschung - German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-85764 Munich, Germany. [2] Klinikum Grosshadern, D-81377 Munich, Germany. [3] Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [2] William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. [3] Princess Al-Jawhara Al-Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. [2] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [2] Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Division of Population Health Sciences &Education, St George's, University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [4] Center for Medical Sytems Biology, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. [3] Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; 1] Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University Hospital Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. [2] Clinical Epidemiology, Integrated Research and Treatment Center, Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), Jena University Hospital, 07743 Jena, Germany. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. [2] Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. [3] Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; 1] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland. [2] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. [3] Service of Medical Genetics, CHUV University Hospital, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [2] University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 OQQ, UK. [3] NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 OQQ, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. [3] The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. [4] The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25673413" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipogenesis/genetics ; Adiposity/genetics ; Age Factors ; *Body Mass Index ; Continental Population Groups/genetics ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism/secretion ; Male ; Obesity/*genetics/*metabolism ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Synapses/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-12-06
    Description: Platelets are the second most abundant cell type in blood and are essential for maintaining haemostasis. Their count and volume are tightly controlled within narrow physiological ranges, but there is only limited understanding of the molecular processes controlling both traits. Here we carried out a high-powered meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 66,867 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. We identified 68 genomic loci reliably associated with platelet count and volume mapping to established and putative novel regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation. These genes show megakaryocyte-specific gene expression patterns and extensive network connectivity. Using gene silencing in Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster, we identified 11 of the genes as novel regulators of blood cell formation. Taken together, our findings advance understanding of novel gene functions controlling fate-determining events during megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation, providing a new example of successful translation of GWAS to function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335296/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335296/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gieger, Christian -- Radhakrishnan, Aparna -- Cvejic, Ana -- Tang, Weihong -- Porcu, Eleonora -- Pistis, Giorgio -- Serbanovic-Canic, Jovana -- Elling, Ulrich -- Goodall, Alison H -- Labrune, Yann -- Lopez, Lorna M -- Magi, Reedik -- Meacham, Stuart -- Okada, Yukinori -- Pirastu, Nicola -- Sorice, Rossella -- Teumer, Alexander -- Voss, Katrin -- Zhang, Weihua -- Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro -- Bis, Joshua C -- Ellinghaus, David -- Gogele, Martin -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Langenberg, Claudia -- Kovacs, Peter -- O'Reilly, Paul F -- Shin, So-Youn -- Esko, Tonu -- Hartiala, Jaana -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Murgia, Federico -- Parsa, Afshin -- Stephens, Jonathan -- van der Harst, Pim -- Ellen van der Schoot, C -- Allayee, Hooman -- Attwood, Antony -- Balkau, Beverley -- Bastardot, Francois -- Basu, Saonli -- Baumeister, Sebastian E -- Biino, Ginevra -- Bomba, Lorenzo -- Bonnefond, Amelie -- Cambien, Francois -- Chambers, John C -- Cucca, Francesco -- D'Adamo, Pio -- Davies, Gail -- de Boer, Rudolf A -- de Geus, Eco J C -- Doring, Angela -- Elliott, Paul -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Evans, David M -- Falchi, Mario -- Feng, Wei -- Folsom, Aaron R -- Frazer, Ian H -- Gibson, Quince D -- Glazer, Nicole L -- Hammond, Chris -- Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa -- Heckbert, Susan R -- Hengstenberg, Christian -- Hersch, Micha -- Illig, Thomas -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Jolley, Jennifer -- Khaw, Kay Tee -- Kuhnel, Brigitte -- Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine -- Lagou, Vasiliki -- Lloyd-Jones, Heather -- Lumley, Thomas -- Mangino, Massimo -- Maschio, Andrea -- Mateo Leach, Irene -- McKnight, Barbara -- Memari, Yasin -- Mitchell, Braxton D -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Nakamura, Yusuke -- Nauck, Matthias -- Navis, Gerjan -- Nothlings, Ute -- Nolte, Ilja M -- Porteous, David J -- Pouta, Anneli -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Pullat, Janne -- Ring, Susan M -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Ruggiero, Daniela -- Ruokonen, Aimo -- Sala, Cinzia -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Sambrook, Jennifer -- Schlessinger, David -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Scott, James -- Smith, Nicholas L -- Snieder, Harold -- Starr, John M -- Stumvoll, Michael -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Tang, W H Wilson -- Taylor, Kent -- Tenesa, Albert -- Lay Thein, Swee -- Tonjes, Anke -- Uda, Manuela -- Ulivi, Sheila -- van Veldhuisen, Dirk J -- Visscher, Peter M -- Volker, Uwe -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Wiggins, Kerri L -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Yang, Tsun-Po -- Hua Zhao, Jing -- Zitting, Paavo -- Bradley, John R -- Dedoussis, George V -- Gasparini, Paolo -- Hazen, Stanley L -- Metspalu, Andres -- Pirastu, Mario -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Joost van Pelt, L -- Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Deary, Ian J -- Franke, Andre -- Froguel, Philippe -- Ganesh, Santhi K -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Meisinger, Christa -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Spector, Timothy D -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Akkerman, Jan-Willem N -- Ciullo, Marina -- Deloukas, Panos -- Greinacher, Andreas -- Jupe, Steve -- Kamatani, Naoyuki -- Khadake, Jyoti -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Penninger, Josef -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Stemple, Derek -- Toniolo, Daniela -- Wernisch, Lorenz -- Sanna, Serena -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Rendon, Augusto -- Ferreira, Manuel A -- Ouwehand, Willem H -- Soranzo, Nicole -- 092731/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/F019394/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/505/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/55/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0000111/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0601966/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700931/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701120/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701863/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801056/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K12 RR023250/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- K12 RR023250-05/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- M01 RR016500/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- M01 RR016500-08/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- MC_U105260799/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106188470/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- N01 HC055015/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC055016/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC055018/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC055019/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC055020/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC055021/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC055022/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC085079/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL076491/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL076491-09/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL098055/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL098055-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK072488/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK072488-08/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG003751/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG018728/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG018728-05S1/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM053275/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM053275-14/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD042157/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD042157-01A1/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL059367/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL059367-11/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL068986/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL068986-06/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL073410/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL073410-08/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL085251/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL085251-04/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694-05/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087641/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087641-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087679-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL088119/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL088119-04/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL103866/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL103866-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL105756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RG/09/012/28096/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RL1 MH083268/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RL1 MH083268-05/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM074518/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM074518-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515-06/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR020278/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR020278-06/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR025005/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR025005-05/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- WT077037/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077047/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT082597/Z/07/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 30;480(7376):201-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10659.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. christian.gieger@helmholtz-muenchen.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139419" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Platelets/*cytology/metabolism ; Cell Size ; Drosophila Proteins/genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics ; Europe ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Silencing ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Hematopoiesis/*genetics ; Humans ; Megakaryocytes/*cytology/metabolism ; Platelet Count ; Protein Interaction Maps ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; Zebrafish/genetics ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-01-07
    Description: A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of 〉100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating approximately 10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okada, Yukinori -- Wu, Di -- Trynka, Gosia -- Raj, Towfique -- Terao, Chikashi -- Ikari, Katsunori -- Kochi, Yuta -- Ohmura, Koichiro -- Suzuki, Akari -- Yoshida, Shinji -- Graham, Robert R -- Manoharan, Arun -- Ortmann, Ward -- Bhangale, Tushar -- Denny, Joshua C -- Carroll, Robert J -- Eyler, Anne E -- Greenberg, Jeffrey D -- Kremer, Joel M -- Pappas, Dimitrios A -- Jiang, Lei -- Yin, Jian -- Ye, Lingying -- Su, Ding-Feng -- Yang, Jian -- Xie, Gang -- Keystone, Ed -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Esko, Tonu -- Metspalu, Andres -- Zhou, Xuezhong -- Gupta, Namrata -- Mirel, Daniel -- Stahl, Eli A -- Diogo, Dorothee -- Cui, Jing -- Liao, Katherine -- Guo, Michael H -- Myouzen, Keiko -- Kawaguchi, Takahisa -- Coenen, Marieke J H -- van Riel, Piet L C M -- van de Laar, Mart A F J -- Guchelaar, Henk-Jan -- Huizinga, Tom W J -- Dieude, Philippe -- Mariette, Xavier -- Bridges, S Louis Jr -- Zhernakova, Alexandra -- Toes, Rene E M -- Tak, Paul P -- Miceli-Richard, Corinne -- Bang, So-Young -- Lee, Hye-Soon -- Martin, Javier -- Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A -- Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis -- Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt -- Arlestig, Lisbeth -- Choi, Hyon K -- Kamatani, Yoichiro -- Galan, Pilar -- Lathrop, Mark -- RACI consortium -- GARNET consortium -- Eyre, Steve -- Bowes, John -- Barton, Anne -- de Vries, Niek -- Moreland, Larry W -- Criswell, Lindsey A -- Karlson, Elizabeth W -- Taniguchi, Atsuo -- Yamada, Ryo -- Kubo, Michiaki -- Liu, Jun S -- Bae, Sang-Cheol -- Worthington, Jane -- Padyukov, Leonid -- Klareskog, Lars -- Gregersen, Peter K -- Raychaudhuri, Soumya -- Stranger, Barbara E -- De Jager, Philip L -- Franke, Lude -- Visscher, Peter M -- Brown, Matthew A -- Yamanaka, Hisashi -- Mimori, Tsuneyo -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Xu, Huji -- Behrens, Timothy W -- Siminovitch, Katherine A -- Momohara, Shigeki -- Matsuda, Fumihiko -- Yamamoto, Kazuhiko -- Plenge, Robert M -- 20385/Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- 79321/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- K08-KAR055688A/PHS HHS/ -- K24 AR052403/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- P60 AR047785/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056768/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR057108/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR059648/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR063759/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR056291/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR056768/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR057108/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR059648/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR065944/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AR063759-01A1/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 AR056042/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- T15 LM007450/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM092691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-GM092691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 HL065962/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 20;506(7488):376-81. doi: 10.1038/nature12873. Epub 2013 Dec 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. [5] Centre for Cancer Research, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; 1] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Institute for the Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. [2] Department of Rheumatology and Clinical immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-0054, Japan. ; Laboratory for Autoimmune Diseases, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Rheumatology and Clinical immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Immunology Biomarkers Group, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; 1] Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; New York University Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, New York 10003, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Albany Medical Center and The Center for Rheumatology, Albany, New York 12206, USA. ; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, New York, Presbyterian Hospital, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China. ; Department of Pharmacology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; 1] University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. [2] Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; 1] Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. [2] Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. [3] Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 2J7, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB, the Netherlands. ; 1] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [3] Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Department of Psychiatry at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Arthritis Center Twente, University Twente & Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede 7500 AE, the Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; 1] Service de Rhumatologie et INSERM U699 Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, Paris 75018, France. [2] Universite Paris 7-Diderot, Paris 75013, France. ; Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U1012, Universite Paris-Sud, Rhumatologie, Hopitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Le Kremlin Bicetre 94275, France. ; Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB, the Netherlands. [2] Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; 1] AMC/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands. [2] GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage SG1 2NY, UK. [3] University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK. ; Department of Rheumatology, Hanyang University Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Seoul 133-792, South Korea. ; Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez-Neyra, CSIC, Granada 18100, Spain. ; Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, IFIMAV, Santander 39008, Spain. ; Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid 28040, Spain. ; 1] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. [2] Department of Rheumatology, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. ; 1] Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02115, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Section of Rheumatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [3] Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH), Paris 75010, France. ; Universite Paris 13 Sorbonne Paris Cite, UREN (Nutritional Epidemiology Research Unit), Inserm (U557), Inra (U1125), Cnam, Bobigny 93017, France. ; McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G1 Canada. ; 1] Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. [2] National Institute for Health Research, Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Central Manchester University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology & Department of Genome Analysis, Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands. ; Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94117, USA. ; Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Unit of Statistical Genetics, Center for Genomic Medicine Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Laboratory for Genotyping Development, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. ; The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] NIHR Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical, Research Unit, Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; 1] Section of Genetic Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. [2] Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. [2] Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) program, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. [3] Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Unite U852, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; 1] Laboratory for Autoimmune Diseases, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. [2] Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390342" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*drug therapy/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Computational Biology ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Repositioning ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-07-02
    Description: Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P 〈 1 x 10(-300), 2.1 x 10(-6), 2.5 x 10(-10) and 1.8 x 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516141/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516141/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Joshi, Peter K -- Esko, Tonu -- Mattsson, Hannele -- Eklund, Niina -- Gandin, Ilaria -- Nutile, Teresa -- Jackson, Anne U -- Schurmann, Claudia -- Smith, Albert V -- Zhang, Weihua -- Okada, Yukinori -- Stancakova, Alena -- Faul, Jessica D -- Zhao, Wei -- Bartz, Traci M -- Concas, Maria Pina -- Franceschini, Nora -- Enroth, Stefan -- Vitart, Veronique -- Trompet, Stella -- Guo, Xiuqing -- Chasman, Daniel I -- O'Connel, Jeffrey R -- Corre, Tanguy -- Nongmaithem, Suraj S -- Chen, Yuning -- Mangino, Massimo -- Ruggiero, Daniela -- Traglia, Michela -- Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni -- Kacprowski, Tim -- Bjonnes, Andrew -- van der Spek, Ashley -- Wu, Ying -- Giri, Anil K -- Yanek, Lisa R -- Wang, Lihua -- Hofer, Edith -- Rietveld, Cornelius A -- McLeod, Olga -- Cornelis, Marilyn C -- Pattaro, Cristian -- Verweij, Niek -- Baumbach, Clemens -- Abdellaoui, Abdel -- Warren, Helen R -- Vuckovic, Dragana -- Mei, Hao -- Bouchard, Claude -- Perry, John R B -- Cappellani, Stefania -- Mirza, Saira S -- Benton, Miles C -- Broeckel, Ulrich -- Medland, Sarah E -- Lind, Penelope A -- Malerba, Giovanni -- Drong, Alexander -- Yengo, Loic -- Bielak, Lawrence F -- Zhi, Degui -- van der Most, Peter J -- Shriner, Daniel -- Magi, Reedik -- Hemani, Gibran -- Karaderi, Tugce -- Wang, Zhaoming -- Liu, Tian -- Demuth, Ilja -- Zhao, Jing Hua -- Meng, Weihua -- Lataniotis, Lazaros -- van der Laan, Sander W -- Bradfield, Jonathan P -- Wood, Andrew R -- Bonnefond, Amelie -- Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S -- Hall, Leanne M -- Salvi, Erika -- Yazar, Seyhan -- Carstensen, Lisbeth -- de Haan, Hugoline G -- Abney, Mark -- Afzal, Uzma -- Allison, Matthew A -- Amin, Najaf -- Asselbergs, Folkert W -- Bakker, Stephan J L -- Barr, R Graham -- Baumeister, Sebastian E -- Benjamin, Daniel J -- Bergmann, Sven -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Bottinger, Erwin P -- Campbell, Archie -- Chakravarti, Aravinda -- Chan, Yingleong -- Chanock, Stephen J -- Chen, Constance -- Chen, Y-D Ida -- Collins, Francis S -- Connell, John -- Correa, Adolfo -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Smith, George Davey -- Davies, Gail -- Dorr, Marcus -- Ehret, Georg -- Ellis, Stephen B -- Feenstra, Bjarke -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Ford, Ian -- Fox, Caroline S -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Friedrich, Nele -- Geller, Frank -- Scotland, Generation -- Gillham-Nasenya, Irina -- Gottesman, Omri -- Graff, Misa -- Grodstein, Francine -- Gu, Charles -- Haley, Chris -- Hammond, Christopher J -- Harris, Sarah E -- Harris, Tamara B -- Hastie, Nicholas D -- Heard-Costa, Nancy L -- Heikkila, Kauko -- Hocking, Lynne J -- Homuth, Georg -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Huang, Jinyan -- Huffman, Jennifer E -- Hysi, Pirro G -- Ikram, M Arfan -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Joensuu, Anni -- Johansson, Asa -- Jousilahti, Pekka -- Jukema, J Wouter -- Kahonen, Mika -- Kamatani, Yoichiro -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Kerr, Shona M -- Khan, Nazir M -- Koellinger, Philipp -- Koistinen, Heikki A -- Kooner, Manraj K -- Kubo, Michiaki -- Kuusisto, Johanna -- Lahti, Jari -- Launer, Lenore J -- Lea, Rodney A -- Lehne, Benjamin -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Liewald, David C M -- Lind, Lars -- Loh, Marie -- Lokki, Marja-Liisa -- London, Stephanie J -- Loomis, Stephanie J -- Loukola, Anu -- Lu, Yingchang -- Lumley, Thomas -- Lundqvist, Annamari -- Mannisto, Satu -- Marques-Vidal, Pedro -- Masciullo, Corrado -- Matchan, Angela -- Mathias, Rasika A -- Matsuda, Koichi -- Meigs, James B -- Meisinger, Christa -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Menni, Cristina -- Mentch, Frank D -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Milani, Lili -- Montasser, May E -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Morrison, Alanna -- Myers, Richard H -- Nadukuru, Rajiv -- Navarro, Pau -- Nelis, Mari -- Nieminen, Markku S -- Nolte, Ilja M -- O'Connor, George T -- Ogunniyi, Adesola -- Padmanabhan, Sandosh -- Palmas, Walter R -- Pankow, James S -- Patarcic, Inga -- Pavani, Francesca -- Peyser, Patricia A -- Pietilainen, Kirsi -- Poulter, Neil -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Ralhan, Sarju -- Redmond, Paul -- Rich, Stephen S -- Rissanen, Harri -- Robino, Antonietta -- Rose, Lynda M -- Rose, Richard -- Sala, Cinzia -- Salako, Babatunde -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Sarin, Antti-Pekka -- Saxena, Richa -- Schmidt, Helena -- Scott, Laura J -- Scott, William R -- Sennblad, Bengt -- Seshadri, Sudha -- Sever, Peter -- Shrestha, Smeeta -- Smith, Blair H -- Smith, Jennifer A -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Sotoodehnia, Nona -- Southam, Lorraine -- Stanton, Alice V -- Stathopoulou, Maria G -- Strauch, Konstantin -- Strawbridge, Rona J -- Suderman, Matthew J -- Tandon, Nikhil -- Tang, Sian-Tsun -- Taylor, Kent D -- Tayo, Bamidele O -- Toglhofer, Anna Maria -- Tomaszewski, Maciej -- Tsernikova, Natalia -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Vaidya, Dhananjay -- van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid -- van Setten, Jessica -- Vasankari, Tuula -- Vedantam, Sailaja -- Vlachopoulou, Efthymia -- Vozzi, Diego -- Vuoksimaa, Eero -- Waldenberger, Melanie -- Ware, Erin B -- Wentworth-Shields, William -- Whitfield, John B -- Wild, Sarah -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Yajnik, Chittaranjan S -- Yao, Jie -- Zaza, Gianluigi -- Zhu, Xiaofeng -- BioBank Japan Project -- Salem, Rany M -- Melbye, Mads -- Bisgaard, Hans -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Cusi, Daniele -- Mackey, David A -- Cooper, Richard S -- Froguel, Philippe -- Pasterkamp, Gerard -- Grant, Struan F A -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Scott, Robert A -- Morris, Andrew D -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Dedoussis, George -- Deloukas, Panos -- Bertram, Lars -- Lindenberger, Ulman -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Tonjes, Anke -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Sorensen, Thorkild I A -- Rotimi, Charles N -- Arnett, Donna K -- Oldehinkel, Albertine J -- Kardia, Sharon L R -- Balkau, Beverley -- Gambaro, Giovanni -- Morris, Andrew P -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Wright, Margie J -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Hunt, Steven C -- Starr, John M -- Deary, Ian J -- Griffiths, Lyn R -- Tiemeier, Henning -- Pirastu, Nicola -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Perusse, Louis -- Wilson, James G -- Girotto, Giorgia -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Raitakari, Olli -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Gieger, Christian -- van der Harst, Pim -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Kraft, Peter -- Sinisalo, Juha -- Knekt, Paul -- Johannesson, Magnus -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Hamsten, Anders -- Schmidt, Reinhold -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Vartiainen, Erkki -- Becker, Diane M -- Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Boehnke, Michael -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Sanghera, Dharambir K -- Teumer, Alexander -- Zeggini, Eleftheria -- Metspalu, Andres -- Gasparini, Paolo -- Ulivi, Sheila -- Ober, Carole -- Toniolo, Daniela -- Rudan, Igor -- Porteous, David J -- Ciullo, Marina -- Spector, Tim D -- Hayward, Caroline -- Dupuis, Josee -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Wright, Alan F -- Chandak, Giriraj R -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Ridker, Paul M -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Sattar, Naveed -- Gyllensten, Ulf -- North, Kari E -- Pirastu, Mario -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Weir, David R -- Laakso, Markku -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Chambers, John C -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Strachan, David P -- Campbell, Harry -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- Perola, Markus -- Polasek, Ozren -- Wilson, James F -- 068545/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 072856/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 072960/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 079771/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084723/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 099194/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 105022/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 250157/European Research Council/International -- 280559/European Research Council/International -- 323195/European Research Council/International -- BARCVBRU-2012-1/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- BB/F019394/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/276/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/505/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZD/16/6/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZD/16/6/2/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZD/16/6/3/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZD/16/6/4/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/55/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0601966/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700931/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701863/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9815508/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/3/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/K026992/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P20 MD006899/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R03 DC013373/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- RG/2001004/12869/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RP-PG-0407-10371/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- SAG09977/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 23;523(7561):459-62. doi: 10.1038/nature14618. Epub 2015 Jul 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. [2] Division of Endocrinology and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Cambridge, 02141 Massachusetts, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge Center 7, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02242, USA. [4] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck St, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Unit of Public Health Genomics, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 104, Helsinki, FI-00251, Finland. [2] Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. ; Unit of Public Health Genomics, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 104, Helsinki, FI-00251, Finland. ; Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447 - Osp. di Cattinara, 34149 Trieste, Italy. ; Institute of Genetics and Biophysics "A. Buzzati-Traverso" CNR, via Pietro Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples, Italy. ; Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. [2] The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Icelandic Heart Association, Holtasmari 1, 201, Kopavogur, Iceland. [2] Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics and Disease Diversity, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan. [2] Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 426 Thompson Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Biostatistics and Medicine, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; Institute of Population Genetics, National Research Council, Trav. La Crucca n. 3 - Reg. Baldinca, 07100 Sassari, Italy. ; Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, 137 E. Franklin St., Suite 306, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Biomedical Center, SciLifeLab Uppsala, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala, Sweden. ; MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, EH4 2XU Edinburgh, UK. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, Leiden, 2300 RC, The Netherlands. ; 1] Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, 1124 W. Carson Street, Torrance, California 90502, USA. [2] Department of Pediatrics, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA. ; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, East, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition and Program for Personalised and Genomic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 Baltimore St. MSTF, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; 1] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 27, Lausanne, 1005, Switzerland. [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Quartier Sorge - batiment genopode, Lausanne, 1015, Switzerland. ; Genomic Research on Complex Diseases (GRC) Group, CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Habshiguda, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, 801 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Department of Twin Research &Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, South Wing, Block D, 3rd Floor, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK. [2] NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Guy's and St. Thomas' Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, Italy. ; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, 70, El. Venizelou Ave, Athens 17671, Greece. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 15A, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Center for Human Genetic Research, 55 Fruit Street, Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Genomics and Molecular Medicine, CSIR-Institute of Genomics &Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, New Delhi, 110025, India. ; The GeneSTAR Research Program, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Boulevard, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; 1] Department of Neurology, Clinical Division of Neurogeriatrics, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 22, Graz, A-8036, Austria. [2] Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz2, Graz, A-8036, Austria. ; Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, Rotterdam, 3000 DR, The Netherlands. ; Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, CMM L8:03, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, 171 76, Sweden. ; 1] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham &Women's Hospital, 181 Longwood, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 401 Park Drive, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), 39100 Bolzano, Italy (affiliated Institute of the University of Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany). ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [2] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [3] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, Amsterdam, 1081 BT, The Netherlands. ; 1] Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. [2] NIHR Barts Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N. State St., Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA. ; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA. ; MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", via dell'Istria 65, 34137 Trieste, Italy. ; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001, Australia. ; Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA. ; Quantitative Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, Brisbane Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e della Riproduzione, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; CNRS UMR 8199, European Genomic Institute for Diabetes (EGID), Lille 2 University, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, 59000 Lille, France. ; Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, P.O. box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, Building 12A/Room 4047, 12 South Dr., Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. ; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; 1] Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. [2] Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; 1] Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, Berlin 14195, Germany. [2] Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestr. 72, Berlin, 14195 Germany. ; 1] Charite Research Group on Geriatrics, Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Reinickendorferstr. 61, 13347 Berlin, Germany. [2] Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany. ; Division of Population Health Sciences, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and School of Medicine, Dundee DD2 4BF, UK. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; Experimental Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands. ; Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK. ; 1] COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Ledreborg Alle 34, DK-2820 Copenhagen, Denmark. [2] Novo Nordisk Centre for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 1, Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark. [3] Steno Diabetes Centre, Niels Steensens Vej 2, Gentofte, 2820, Denmark. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, via A. di Rudini 8, 20142 Milan, Italy. ; Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Western Australia, Lions Eye Institute, 2 Verdun Street, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, Copenhagen, 2300, Denmark. ; Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, Leiden, 2300 RC, The Netherlands. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, 920 E. 58th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands. [2] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Catharijnesingel 52, Utrecht, 3501 DG, The Netherlands. [3] Institute of Cardiovascular Science, faculty of Population Health Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medicine, Columbia University, 622 W. 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, W.-Rathenau-Str. 48, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; 1] Department of Economics, Cornell University, 480 Uris Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. [2] Department of Economics and Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, 314C Dauterive Hall, 635 Downey Way, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Human Genetics Center, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1200 Pressler Street, Suite 453E, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Cambridge, 02141 Massachusetts, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge Center 7, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02242, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck St, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. ; Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; College of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, College Office, Level 10, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; 1] Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, 801 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [2] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; 1] Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [2] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Str. NK, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; 1] McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 4, Geneve 14, 1211, Switzerland. ; Robertson Centre, University of Glasgow, Boyd Orr Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Division of Endocrinology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Str. NK, 17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Department of Twin Research &Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, South Wing, Block D, 3rd Floor, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 401 Park Drive, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University, 660 S Euclid, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, EH4 2XU Edinburgh, UK. [2] Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK. ; 1] Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [2] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; National Institutes on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E Concord St, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, P.O.Box 41, Mannerheimintie 172, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. ; Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Division of Applied Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK. ; State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 197 Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SE-17121, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Biomedical Center, SciLifeLab Uppsala, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala, Sweden. [2] Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SE-75237, Sweden. ; Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, FI-00271, Finland. ; Department of Cardiology C5-P, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, Leiden, 2300 RC, The Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, Tampere, FI-33521, Finland. ; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O.Box 340, Haartmaninkatu 4, Helsinki, FI-00029, Finland. [3] Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Biomedicum 2U, Tukholmankatu 8, Helsinki, FI-00290, Finland. ; Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. ; Laboratory for Genotyping Development RCfIMS, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, FI-70210, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [2] Folkhalsan Reasearch Centre, PB 63, Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. ; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and School of Medicine University of Tampere, Tampere, FI-33520, Finland. ; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, 75185, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine (TLGM), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 8A Biomedical Grove, 138648, Singapore. ; Transplantation laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. ; Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, 303.325 Science Centre, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand. ; Department of Health, Functional Capacity and Welfare, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, FI-00271, Finland. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Rue du Bugnon 44, Lausanne, 1011, Switzerland. ; Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1HH, UK. ; 1] The GeneSTAR Research Program, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. [2] Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. ; Division of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Staniford St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [2] Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, Munchen 81675, Germany. ; Molecular Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Genome Science Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, E-304, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; HUCH Heart and Lung center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, Helsinki, FI-00029, Finland. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E Concord St, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ; ICAMS, University of Glasgow, 126 University Way, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK. ; Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, 1300 S 2nd Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55454, USA. ; Centre for Global Health and Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Split, Soltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; 1] Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O.Box 340, Haartmaninkatu 4, Helsinki, FI-00029, Finland. [3] Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 63, Haartmaninkatu 8, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland. ; International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1LA, UK. ; Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Department of Cardiology and Cardio thoracic Surgery Hero DMC Heart Institute, Civil Lines, 141001, Ludhiana, India. ; Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Department Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia School of Medicine, 3232 West Complex, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; Department of Psychological &Brain Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington, 1101 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. ; Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University Graz, Harrachgasse 21, Graz, A-8010, Austria. ; 1] Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, CMM L8:03, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, 171 76, Sweden. [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE-17121, Sweden. ; University of Dundee, Kirsty Semple Way, Dundee DD2 4DB, UK. ; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1HH, UK. ; Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; UMR INSERM U1122; IGE-PCV "Interactions Gene-Environnement en Physiopathologie Cardio-Vasculaire", INSERM, University of Lorraine, 30 Rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy, France. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [2] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich 81377, Germany. ; Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar East, New Delhi, 110029, India. ; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK. ; Department of Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA. ; 1] Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. [2] NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. [2] Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria. [3] Diabetes Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ; 1] The GeneSTAR Research Program, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Finnish Lung Health Association, Sibeliuksenkatu 11 A 1, Helsinki, FI-00250, Finland. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [2] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Centre for Population Health Sciences, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; Diabetes Unit, KEM Hospital and Research Centre, Rasta Peth, Pune, 411011, India. ; Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, 1124 W. Carson Street, Torrance, California 90502, USA. ; Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Piazzale A. Stefani 1, 37124 Verona, Italy. ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, Copenhagen, 2300, Denmark. [2] Department of Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Ledreborg Alle 34, DK-2820 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; 1] CNRS UMR 8199, European Genomic Institute for Diabetes (EGID), Lille 2 University, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, 59000 Lille, France. [2] Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; 1] Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. [2] Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Translational Gerontology Branch, National institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21225, USA. ; Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, No. 9 Edinburgh Bioquarter, 9 Little France Road, Edinburgh EH16 4UX, UK. ; Centre for Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and School of Medicine, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; 1] William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK [2] Princess Al-Jawhara Al-Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. ; 1] Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestr. 72, Berlin, 14195 Germany. [2] Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Campus, St Dunstan's Road, London W6 8RP, UK. [3] Institutes for Neurogenetics and Integrative &Experimental Genomics, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, Berlin 14195, Germany. ; 1] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge Center 7, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02242, USA. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103, Germany. ; 1] MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. [2] Novo Nordisk Centre for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 1, Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark. [3] Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, 2000, Denmark. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Epidemiology of diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease over the lifecourse, Inserm, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health U1018, 16 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94807 Villejuif, France. ; Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Via G. Moscati 31/34, 00168 Roma, Italy. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [3] Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Stree, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK. ; 1] Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, FI-00271, Finland. [2] Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [3] Vasa Central Hospital, Sandviksgatan 2-4, Vasa, FI-65130, Finland. [4] Folkhalsan Reasearch Centre, PB 63, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [5] Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, Helsinki, FI-00290, Finland. ; Neuro-Imaging Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Cardiovascular Genetics Division, University of Utah, 420 Chipeta Way, Room 1160, Salt Lake City, Utah 84117, USA. ; 1] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [2] Alzheimer Scotland Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447 - Osp. di Cattinara, 34149 Trieste, Italy. [2] Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", via dell'Istria 65, 34137 Trieste, Italy. ; 1] Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [2] Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, P.O.Box 41, Mannerheimintie 172, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [3] National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), P.O.Box 30, Mannerheimintie 166, Helsinki, FI-00271, Finland. ; Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, 2300 rue de la Terrasse, Quebec G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N. State Street, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA. ; 1] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, FI-20521, Finland. [2] Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular medicine, University of Turku, Turku, FI-20521, Finland. ; 1] University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. [2] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Catharijnesingel 52, Utrecht, 3501 DG, The Netherlands. [3] University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, Stockholm, SE-113 83, Sweden. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, Stockholm, SE-171 77, Sweden. ; Department of Neurology, Clinical Division of Neurogeriatrics, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 22, Graz, A-8036, Austria. ; Department of Genetics and Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Boulevard, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; 1] The GeneSTAR Research Program, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. [2] Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Genomics and Molecular Medicine, CSIR-Institute of Genomics &Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, New Delhi, 110025, India. [2] School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 940 Stanton Young Boulevard, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA. [2] Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA. ; 1] Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", via dell'Istria 65, 34137 Trieste, Italy. [2] Sidra Medical and Research Centre, Doha, Qatar. ; 1] The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. [2] The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. [3] The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Genomic Research on Complex Diseases (GRC) Group, CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Habshiguda, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India. [2] Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, #02-01 Genome, Singapore, 138672, Singapore. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition and Program for Personalised and Genomic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 Baltimore St. MSTF, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [2] Program for Personalised and Genomic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 Baltimore St. MSTF, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [3] Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 685 W Baltimore MSTF, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK. ; 1] Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, 137 E. Franklin St., Suite 306, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 137 E. Franklin Street, Suite 306, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Services, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. [2] Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Imperial College London, Praed Street, London W2 1NY, UK. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Imperial College London, Praed Street, London W2 1NY, UK. ; Population Health Research Institute, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. [2] Unit of Public Health Genomics, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 104, Helsinki, FI-00251, Finland. ; 1] Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. [2] Centre for Global Health and Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Split, Soltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; 1] Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. [2] MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, EH4 2XU Edinburgh, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131930" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Blood Pressure/genetics ; Body Height/*genetics ; Cholesterol, LDL/genetics ; *Cognition ; Cohort Studies ; Educational Status ; Female ; Forced Expiratory Volume/genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; *Homozygote ; Humans ; Lung Volume Measurements ; Male ; Phenotype
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Correction: Myeloproliferative leukemia protein activation directly induces fibrocyte differentiation to cause myelofibrosis Correction: Myeloproliferative leukemia protein activation directly induces fibrocyte differentiation to cause myelofibrosis, Published online: 19 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41375-018-0237-3 Correction: Myeloproliferative leukemia protein activation directly induces fibrocyte differentiation to cause myelofibrosis
    Print ISSN: 0887-6924
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5551
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: The median overall survival for children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is less than one year. The majority of diffuse midline gliomas, including more than 70% of DIPGs, harbor an amino acid substitution from lysine (K) to methionine (M) at position 27 of histone 3 variant 3 (H3.3). From a CD8 + T cell clone established by stimulation of HLA-A2 + CD8 + T cells with synthetic peptide encompassing the H3.3K27M mutation, complementary DNA for T cell receptor (TCR) α- and β-chains were cloned into a retroviral vector. TCR-transduced HLA-A2 + T cells efficiently killed HLA-A2 + H3.3K27M + glioma cells in an antigen- and HLA-specific manner. Adoptive transfer of TCR-transduced T cells significantly suppressed the progression of glioma xenografts in mice. Alanine-scanning assays suggested the absence of known human proteins sharing the key amino acid residues required for recognition by the TCR, suggesting that the TCR could be safely used in patients. These data provide us with a strong basis for developing T cell–based therapy targeting this shared neoepitope.
    Keywords: Solid Tumors, Tumor Immunology
    Print ISSN: 0022-1007
    Electronic ISSN: 1540-9538
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-05-03
    Description: To extend our understanding of the genetic basis of human immune function and dysfunction, we performed an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) study of purified CD4(+) T cells and monocytes, representing adaptive and innate immunity, in a multi-ethnic cohort of 461 healthy individuals. Context-specific cis- and trans-eQTLs were identified, and cross-population mapping allowed, in some cases, putative functional assignment of candidate causal regulatory variants for disease-associated loci. We note an over-representation of T cell-specific eQTLs among susceptibility alleles for autoimmune diseases and of monocyte-specific eQTLs among Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease variants. This polarization implicates specific immune cell types in these diseases and points to the need to identify the cell-autonomous effects of disease susceptibility variants.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Raj, Towfique -- Rothamel, Katie -- Mostafavi, Sara -- Ye, Chun -- Lee, Mark N -- Replogle, Joseph M -- Feng, Ting -- Lee, Michelle -- Asinovski, Natasha -- Frohlich, Irene -- Imboywa, Selina -- Von Korff, Alina -- Okada, Yukinori -- Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A -- Davis, Scott -- McCabe, Cristin -- Paik, Hyun-il -- Srivastava, Gyan P -- Raychaudhuri, Soumya -- Hafler, David A -- Koller, Daphne -- Regev, Aviv -- Hacohen, Nir -- Mathis, Diane -- Benoist, Christophe -- Stranger, Barbara E -- De Jager, Philip L -- F32 AG043267/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- RC2 GM093080/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 2;344(6183):519-23. doi: 10.1126/science.1249547.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Institute for the Neurosciences, Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24786080" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptive Immunity/genetics ; Alleles ; Alzheimer Disease/ethnology/genetics ; Autoimmune Diseases/ethnology/*genetics ; Autoimmunity/*genetics ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Ethnic Groups/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/ethnology/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/genetics ; Monocytes/*immunology ; Multiple Sclerosis/ethnology/genetics ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/ethnology/*genetics ; Parkinson Disease/ethnology/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Quantitative Trait Loci ; Rheumatic Fever/ethnology/genetics ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), topology and crystal symmetry intertwine to create surface states with distinct characteristics. The breaking of crystal symmetry in TCIs is predicted to impart mass to the massless Dirac fermions. Here, we report high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy studies of a TCI, Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Se that reveal the coexistence of zero-mass Dirac fermions protected by crystal symmetry with massive Dirac fermions consistent with crystal symmetry breaking. In addition, we show two distinct regimes of the Fermi surface topology separated by a Van-Hove singularity at the Lifshitz transition point. Our work paves the way for engineering the Dirac band gap and realizing interaction-driven topological quantum phenomena in TCIs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okada, Yoshinori -- Serbyn, Maksym -- Lin, Hsin -- Walkup, Daniel -- Zhou, Wenwen -- Dhital, Chetan -- Neupane, Madhab -- Xu, Suyang -- Wang, Yung Jui -- Sankar, R -- Chou, Fangcheng -- Bansil, Arun -- Hasan, M Zahid -- Wilson, Stephen D -- Fu, Liang -- Madhavan, Vidya -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1496-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1239451. Epub 2013 Aug 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23989954" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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