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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-15
    Description: Purpose: Deletions or mutations in PTEN and TP53 tumor suppressor genes have been linked to lineage plasticity in therapy-resistant prostate cancer. Fusion-driven overexpression of the oncogenic transcription factor ERG is observed in approximately 50% of all prostate cancers, many of which also harbor PTEN and TP53 alterations. However, the role of ERG in lineage plasticity of PTEN / TP53 –altered tumors is unclear. Understanding the collective effect of multiple mutations within one tumor is essential to combat plasticity-driven therapy resistance. Experimental Design: We generated a Pten -negative/ Trp53 -mutated/ ERG -overexpressing mouse model of prostate cancer and integrated RNA-sequencing with ERG chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify pathways regulated by ERG in the context of Pten / Trp53 alteration. We investigated ERG-dependent sensitivity to the antiandrogen enzalutamide and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor palbociclib in human prostate cancer cell lines, xenografts, and allografted mouse tumors. Trends were evaluated in TCGA, SU2C, and Beltran 2016 published patient cohorts and a human tissue microarray. Results: Transgenic ERG expression in mice blocked Pten / Trp53 alteration–induced decrease of AR expression and downstream luminal epithelial genes. ERG directly suppressed expression of cell cycle–related genes, which induced RB hypophosphorylation and repressed E2F1-mediated expression of mesenchymal lineage regulators, thereby restricting adenocarcinoma plasticity and maintaining antiandrogen sensitivity. In ERG-negative tumors, CDK4/6 inhibition delayed tumor growth. Conclusions: Our studies identify a previously undefined function of ERG to restrict lineage plasticity and maintain antiandrogen sensitivity in PTEN / TP53 –altered prostate cancer. Our findings suggest ERG fusion as a biomarker to guide treatment of PTEN / TP53 -altered, RB1 -intact prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 24(18); 4551–65. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-04-08
    Description: Saccharides have a central role in the nutrition of all living organisms. Whereas several saccharide uptake systems are shared between the different phylogenetic kingdoms, the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system exists almost exclusively in bacteria. This multi-component system includes an integral membrane protein EIIC that transports saccharides and assists in their phosphorylation. Here we present the crystal structure of an EIIC from Bacillus cereus that transports diacetylchitobiose. The EIIC is a homodimer, with an expansive interface formed between the amino-terminal halves of the two protomers. The carboxy-terminal half of each protomer has a large binding pocket that contains a diacetylchitobiose, which is occluded from both sides of the membrane with its site of phosphorylation near the conserved His250 and Glu334 residues. The structure shows the architecture of this important class of transporters, identifies the determinants of substrate binding and phosphorylation, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of sugar translocation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3201810/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3201810/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cao, Yu -- Jin, Xiangshu -- Levin, Elena J -- Huang, Hua -- Zong, Yinong -- Quick, Matthias -- Weng, Jun -- Pan, Yaping -- Love, James -- Punta, Marco -- Rost, Burkhard -- Hendrickson, Wayne A -- Javitch, Jonathan A -- Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R -- Zhou, Ming -- DK088057/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM05026/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM05026-SUB0007/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM098878/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K05 DA022413/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P30 EB009998/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK088057/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM098878/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32HL087745/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 5;473(7345):50-4. doi: 10.1038/nature09939. Epub 2011 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiology & Cellular Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21471968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacillus cereus/*enzymology ; Binding Sites ; Carbohydrate Metabolism ; Crystallization ; Membrane Transport Proteins/*chemistry ; *Models, Molecular ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-01-20
    Description: The involvement of whole-chromosome aneuploidy in tumorigenesis is the subject of debate, in large part because of the lack of insight into underlying mechanisms. Here we identify a mechanism by which errors in mitotic chromosome segregation generate DNA breaks via the formation of structures called micronuclei. Whole-chromosome-containing micronuclei form when mitotic errors produce lagging chromosomes. We tracked the fate of newly generated micronuclei and found that they undergo defective and asynchronous DNA replication, resulting in DNA damage and often extensive fragmentation of the chromosome in the micronucleus. Micronuclei can persist in cells over several generations but the chromosome in the micronucleus can also be distributed to daughter nuclei. Thus, chromosome segregation errors potentially lead to mutations and chromosome rearrangements that can integrate into the genome. Pulverization of chromosomes in micronuclei may also be one explanation for 'chromothripsis' in cancer and developmental disorders, where isolated chromosomes or chromosome arms undergo massive local DNA breakage and rearrangement.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271137/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271137/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Crasta, Karen -- Ganem, Neil J -- Dagher, Regina -- Lantermann, Alexandra B -- Ivanova, Elena V -- Pan, Yunfeng -- Nezi, Luigi -- Protopopov, Alexei -- Chowdhury, Dipanjan -- Pellman, David -- 1R01CA142698-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM083299/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R00 CA154531/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA142698/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083299/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083299-14/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 18;482(7383):53-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10802.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258507" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Aneuploidy ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics/pathology ; *Chromosome Breakage ; Chromosome Segregation ; Comet Assay ; DNA Fragmentation ; DNA Replication ; Humans ; *Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective ; *Mitosis/genetics ; Neoplasms/etiology/genetics/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-10
    Description: Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for resecretion. In humans, there are two Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporters involved in enterohepatic recirculation, the Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP; also known as SLC10A1) expressed in hepatocytes, and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; also known as SLC10A2) expressed on enterocytes in the terminal ileum. In recent years, ASBT has attracted much interest as a potential drug target for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, because inhibition of ASBT reduces reabsorption of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. However, a lack of three-dimensional structures of bile acid transporters hampers our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport, and to interpret the wealth of existing functional data. The crystal structure of an ASBT homologue from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBT(NM)) in detergent was reported recently, showing the protein in an inward-open conformation bound to two Na(+) and a taurocholic acid. However, the structural changes that bring bile acid and Na(+) across the membrane are difficult to infer from a single structure. To understand the structural changes associated with the coupled transport of Na(+) and bile acids, here we solved two structures of an ASBT homologue from Yersinia frederiksenii (ASBTYf) in a lipid environment, which reveal that a large rigid-body rotation of a substrate-binding domain gives the conserved 'crossover' region, where two discontinuous helices cross each other, alternating accessibility from either side of the cell membrane. This result has implications for the location and orientation of the bile acid during transport, as well as for the translocation pathway for Na(+).〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142352/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142352/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Xiaoming -- Levin, Elena J -- Pan, Yaping -- McCoy, Jason G -- Sharma, Ruchika -- Kloss, Brian -- Bruni, Renato -- Quick, Matthias -- Zhou, Ming -- R01 DK088057/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM098878/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01DK088057/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01GM098878/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM075026/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM087519/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM095315/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54GM087519/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54GM095315/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 23;505(7484):569-73. doi: 10.1038/nature12811. Epub 2013 Dec 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA [3]. ; 1] Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2]. ; Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry and Center for Molecular Recognition, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA [2] New York State Psychiatric Institute, Division of Molecular Therapeutics, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; 1] Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA [3] Ion Channel Research and Drug Development Center, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24317697" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism ; Biological Transport ; Carrier Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Membrane Glycoproteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Conformation ; Reproducibility of Results ; Rotation ; Sodium/metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Yersinia/*chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-04-04
    Description: Human activities, especially conversion and degradation of habitats, are causing global biodiversity declines. How local ecological assemblages are responding is less clear--a concern given their importance for many ecosystem functions and services. We analysed a terrestrial assemblage database of unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and related changes. Here we show that in the worst-affected habitats, these pressures reduce within-sample species richness by an average of 76.5%, total abundance by 39.5% and rarefaction-based richness by 40.3%. We estimate that, globally, these pressures have already slightly reduced average within-sample richness (by 13.6%), total abundance (10.7%) and rarefaction-based richness (8.1%), with changes showing marked spatial variation. Rapid further losses are predicted under a business-as-usual land-use scenario; within-sample richness is projected to fall by a further 3.4% globally by 2100, with losses concentrated in biodiverse but economically poor countries. Strong mitigation can deliver much more positive biodiversity changes (up to a 1.9% average increase) that are less strongly related to countries' socioeconomic status.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Newbold, Tim -- Hudson, Lawrence N -- Hill, Samantha L L -- Contu, Sara -- Lysenko, Igor -- Senior, Rebecca A -- Borger, Luca -- Bennett, Dominic J -- Choimes, Argyrios -- Collen, Ben -- Day, Julie -- De Palma, Adriana -- Diaz, Sandra -- Echeverria-Londono, Susy -- Edgar, Melanie J -- Feldman, Anat -- Garon, Morgan -- Harrison, Michelle L K -- Alhusseini, Tamera -- Ingram, Daniel J -- Itescu, Yuval -- Kattge, Jens -- Kemp, Victoria -- Kirkpatrick, Lucinda -- Kleyer, Michael -- Correia, David Laginha Pinto -- Martin, Callum D -- Meiri, Shai -- Novosolov, Maria -- Pan, Yuan -- Phillips, Helen R P -- Purves, Drew W -- Robinson, Alexandra -- Simpson, Jake -- Tuck, Sean L -- Weiher, Evan -- White, Hannah J -- Ewers, Robert M -- Mace, Georgina M -- Scharlemann, Jorn P W -- Purvis, Andy -- BB/F017324/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 2;520(7545):45-50. doi: 10.1038/nature14324.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. [2] Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research Cambridge, 21 Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2FB, UK. ; Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. ; 1] United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. [2] Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. ; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, London SL5 7PY, UK. ; United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. ; Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK. ; 1] Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. [2] Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, London SL5 7PY, UK. ; Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (CONICET-UNC) and FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Casilla de Correo 495, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina. ; Deptartment of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel. ; 1] Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knoll Strasse 10, 07743 Jena, Germany. [2] German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Landscape Ecology Group, Institute of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany. ; Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research Cambridge, 21 Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2FB, UK. ; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK. ; Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, Wisconsin 54701, USA. ; 1] United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. [2] School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832402" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources/trends ; Ecology/trends ; History, 16th Century ; History, 17th Century ; History, 18th Century ; History, 19th Century ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; *Human Activities ; Models, Biological ; Population Dynamics ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4028126/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4028126/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Campbell, Frances -- Conti, Gabriella -- Heckman, James J -- Moon, Seong Hyeok -- Pinto, Rodrigo -- Pungello, Elizabeth -- Pan, Yi -- 1R01HD54702/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- 5R37HD065072/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- 5RC1MD004344/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- R37 HD065072/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 28;343(6178):1478-85. doi: 10.1126/science.1248429.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24675955" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Biomarkers/blood ; Blood Preservation ; Body Mass Index ; Cardiovascular Diseases/*epidemiology/physiopathology/*prevention & control ; Child ; Cholesterol, HDL/blood ; Diet ; Early Medical Intervention/*methods ; Female ; Health ; Humans ; Male ; Metabolic Syndrome X/*epidemiology/physiopathology/*prevention & control
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Due to issues of practicality and confidentiality of genomic data sharing on a large scale, typically only meta- or mega-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data, not individual-level data, are publicly available. Reanalyses of such GWAS summary data for a wide range of applications have become more and more common and useful, which often require the use of an external reference panel with individual-level genotypic data to infer linkage disequilibrium (LD) among genetic variants. However, with a small sample size in only hundreds, as for the most popular 1000 Genomes Project European sample, estimation errors for LD are not negligible, leading to often dramatically increased numbers of false positives in subsequent analyses of GWAS summary data. To alleviate the problem in the context of association testing for a group of SNPs, we propose an alternative estimator of the covariance matrix with an idea similar to multiple imputation. We use numerical examples based on both simulated and real data to demonstrate the severe problem with the use of the 1000 Genomes Project reference panels, and the improved performance of our new approach.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
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    Genetics Society of America (GSA)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-31
    Description: It is useful to detect allelic heterogeneity (AH), i.e. , the presence of multiple causal SNPs in a locus, which, for example, may guide the development of new methods for fine mapping and determine how to interpret an appearing epistasis. In contrast to Mendelian traits, the existence and extent of AH for complex traits had been largely unknown until Hormozdiari et al. proposed a Bayesian method, called causal variants identification in associated regions (CAVIAR), and uncovered widespread AH in complex traits. However, there are several limitations with CAVIAR. First, it assumes a maximum number of causal SNPs in a locus, typically up to six, to save computing time; this assumption, as will be shown, may influence the outcome. Second, its computational time can be too demanding to be feasible since it examines all possible combinations of causal SNPs (under the assumed upper bound). Finally, it outputs a posterior probability of AH, which may be difficult to calibrate with a commonly used nominal significance level. Here, we introduce an intersection-union test (IUT) based on a joint/conditional regression model with all the SNPs in a locus to infer AH. We also propose two sequential IUT-based testing procedures to estimate the number of causal SNPs. Our proposed methods are applicable to not only individual-level genotypic and phenotypic data, but also genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics. We provide numerical examples based on both simulated and real data, including large-scale schizophrenia (SCZ) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) GWAS summary data sets, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methods. In particular, for both the SCZ and HDL data, our proposed IUT not only was faster, but also detected more AH loci than CAVIAR. Our proposed methods are expected to be useful in further uncovering the extent of AH in complex traits.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-25
    Description: Biochars were produced from long-root Eichhornia crassipes at four temperatures: 200, 300, 400 and 500°C, referred to as LEC200, LEC300, LEC400 and LEC500, respectively. The sorption ability of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium from aqueous solutions by four kinds of biochars was investigated. All the biochars had lower values of CEC and higher values of pH. LEC500 was the best one to bind toxic metals which can be reflected in the results of SEM, BET and elemental analyser. It was also found that alkyl, carboxyl, phosphate and cyano groups in the biochars can play a role in binding metals. In addition, the sorption processes of four metals by the biochars in different metal concentration were all excellently represented by the pseudo-second-order model with all correlation coefficients R 2 〉 0.95. And the sorption processes of four metals in different temperatures could be described satisfactorily by the Langmuir isotherms. According to calculated results by the Langmuir equation, the maximum removal capacities of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) at 298 K were 39.09 mg g –1 , 45.40 mg g –1 , 48.20 mg g –1 and 44.04 mg g –1 , respectively. The positive value of the H 0 confirmed the adsorption process was endothermic and the negative value of G 0 confirmed the adsorption process was spontaneous. The sorption capacities were compared with several other lignocellulosic materials which implied the potential of long-root Eichhornia crassipes waste as an economic and excellent biosorbent for eliminating metal ions from contaminated waters.
    Keywords: environmental chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-09-03
    Description: Circulating lymphocytes continuously enter lymph nodes for immune surveillance through specialized blood vessels named high endothelial venules, a process that increases markedly during immune responses. How high endothelial venules (HEVs) permit lymphocyte transmigration while maintaining vascular integrity is unknown. Here we report a role for the transmembrane O-glycoprotein podoplanin (PDPN, also known as gp38 and T1alpha) in maintaining HEV barrier function. Mice with postnatal deletion of Pdpn lost HEV integrity and exhibited spontaneous bleeding in mucosal lymph nodes, and bleeding in the draining peripheral lymph nodes after immunization. Blocking lymphocyte homing rescued bleeding, indicating that PDPN is required to protect the barrier function of HEVs during lymphocyte trafficking. Further analyses demonstrated that PDPN expressed on fibroblastic reticular cells, which surround HEVs, functions as an activating ligand for platelet C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2, also known as CLEC1B). Mice lacking fibroblastic reticular cell PDPN or platelet CLEC-2 exhibited significantly reduced levels of VE-cadherin (also known as CDH5), which is essential for overall vascular integrity, on HEVs. Infusion of wild-type platelets restored HEV integrity in Clec-2-deficient mice. Activation of CLEC-2 induced release of sphingosine-1-phosphate from platelets, which promoted expression of VE-cadherin on HEVs ex vivo. Furthermore, draining peripheral lymph nodes of immunized mice lacking sphingosine-1-phosphate had impaired HEV integrity similar to Pdpn- and Clec-2-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that local sphingosine-1-phosphate release after PDPN-CLEC-2-mediated platelet activation is critical for HEV integrity during immune responses.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791160/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791160/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Herzog, Brett H -- Fu, Jianxin -- Wilson, Stephen J -- Hess, Paul R -- Sen, Aslihan -- McDaniel, J Michael -- Pan, Yanfang -- Sheng, Minjia -- Yago, Tadayuki -- Silasi-Mansat, Robert -- McGee, Samuel -- May, Frauke -- Nieswandt, Bernhard -- Morris, Andrew J -- Lupu, Florea -- Coughlin, Shaun R -- McEver, Rodger P -- Chen, Hong -- Kahn, Mark L -- Xia, Lijun -- GM097747/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM103441/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HL065590/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL085607/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL093242/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL103432/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL112788/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL085607/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P20 GM103527/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P20 RR018758/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM097747/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL103432/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL112788/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR024598/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 3;502(7469):105-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12501. Epub 2013 Sep 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cardiovascular Biology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995678" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD/metabolism ; Cadherins/metabolism ; Endothelium, Lymphatic/immunology/*metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Intercellular Junctions/genetics/immunology ; Lectins, C-Type/*metabolism ; Lymph Nodes/metabolism/pathology ; Lysophospholipids/metabolism ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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