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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-02-16
    Description: Allostery is well documented for proteins but less recognized for DNA-protein interactions. Here, we report that specific binding of a protein on DNA is substantially stabilized or destabilized by another protein bound nearby. The ternary complex's free energy oscillates as a function of the separation between the two proteins with a periodicity of ~10 base pairs, the helical pitch of B-form DNA, and a decay length of ~15 base pairs. The binding affinity of a protein near a DNA hairpin is similarly dependent on their separation, which-together with molecular dynamics simulations-suggests that deformation of the double-helical structure is the origin of DNA allostery. The physiological relevance of this phenomenon is illustrated by its effect on gene expression in live bacteria and on a transcription factor's affinity near nucleosomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586787/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586787/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Sangjin -- Brostromer, Erik -- Xing, Dong -- Jin, Jianshi -- Chong, Shasha -- Ge, Hao -- Wang, Siyuan -- Gu, Chan -- Yang, Lijiang -- Gao, Yi Qin -- Su, Xiao-dong -- Sun, Yujie -- Xie, X Sunney -- DP1 OD000277/OD/NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 15;339(6121):816-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1229223.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23413354" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Allosteric Regulation ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; DNA, B-Form/*chemistry ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*chemistry ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/chemistry ; Escherichia coli/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Lac Repressors/chemistry ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Nucleosomes/chemistry ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Glucocorticoid/chemistry ; Transcription Factors/*chemistry ; Viral Proteins/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), including enzalutamide, induces resistance in prostate cancer; ADT resistance is associated with neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). This study aimed to investigate the association between enzalutamide-induced NED and TAMs and its mechanism. Experimental Design: The association between enzalutamide-induced NED and TAMs was investigated by IHC using prostate cancer tissues, enzalutamide-resistant mouse xenografts, and a coculture system. The underlying mechanisms were assessed using in vitro cytokine antibody arrays, ELISAs, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and other methods. An orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model was established to evaluate the in vivo effects of combined IL6 receptor (IL6R) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) inhibition on enzalutamide resistance. Results: High CD163 expression was observed in ADT-treated prostate cancer or castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) tissues with high levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and chromogranin A (CHGA) and in enzalutamide-resistant xenografts, indicating the crucial roles of NED and TAMs in enzalutamide resistance. Specifically, enzalutamide-induced HMGB1 expression facilitated TAM recruitment and polarization and drove NED via β-catenin stabilization. HMGB1-activated TAMs secreted IL6 to augment enzalutamide-induced NED and directly promote HMGB1 transcription via STAT3. Finally, inhibition of the IL6/STAT3 pathway by tocilizumab combined with HMGB1 knockdown inhibited enzalutamide-induced resistance in an orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model. Conclusions: Enzalutamide elevates HMGB1 levels, which recruits and activates TAMs. Moreover, IL6 secreted by HMGB1-activated TAMs facilitates the enzalutamide-induced NED of prostate cancer, forming a positive feedback loop between NED in prostate cancer and TAMs. The combined inhibition of IL6R and HMGB1 may serve as a new treatment for enzalutamide resistance in patients with advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 708–23. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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