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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common prototypic autoimmune disease with substantial genetic predispositions. It is more prevalent in Asians than in Caucasians. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered more than 80 genetic loci for the risk of SLE 1 , which improve the understanding of SLE etiology and provide potential therapeutic targets. However, each GWAS finding only confers a relatively small effect, and they in total cannot fully explain SLE heritability, suggesting more genetic variants are yet to be discovered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0007-0963
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2133
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Purpose We established the China Respiratory Illness Surveillance among Pregnant women (CRISP) to conduct active surveillance for influenza-associated respiratory illness during pregnancy in China from 2015 to 2018. Among annual cohorts of pregnant women, we assess the incidence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection and the seroconversion proportion during the winter influenza season. We also plan to examine the effect of influenza virus infection on adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant health outcomes with cumulative data from the three annual cohorts. Participants Cohort nurses enrol pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy from prenatal care facilities in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Pregnant women who plan to deliver in the study facilities are eligible. Pregnant women who are seeking care for anything other than routine prenatal care, such as confirmation of low progesterone and threatened miscarriage, are excluded. At enrolment, study nurses collect baseline information on demographics, education-level attained, underlying medical conditions, seasonal influenza vaccination receipt, risk factors for influenza infection, gravidity and parity and contact information. For each participant, cohort nurses conduct twice weekly follow-up contacts, one phone call and one WeChat message (free instant messaging), from the time of enrolment until delivery or termination of pregnancy. During follow-up, study nurses ask about symptoms, timing and characteristics of ARI, healthcare-seeking behaviour and medications taken for participants reporting respiratory illness since the last contact. In addition, we collect combined nasal and throat swabs for identified ARI to test for influenza viruses. We collect paired sera before and after the influenza season. Active respiratory illness surveillance and seroinfection data during pregnancy of participants are linked to their medical record and the Suzhou Maternal Child Information System for detailed information on clinical treatment for respiratory illness, pregnancy, delivery and infant health outcomes. Findings to date In 2015–2016, of 4915 pregnant women approached, 192 (4%) refused to participate, 91 (2%) were ineligible because they did not plan to deliver in one of the study hospitals or because their visit was for anything other than routine prenatal care and 4632 (94%) were enrolled, 46% during their first trimester of pregnancy (range 5–12 weeks), 48% during the second trimester (range 13–27 weeks) and 6% during the third trimester (range 28–37 weeks). The median age of the enrollees was 27 years (range 16–45) and two (0.04%, 95% CI 0.01% to 0.17%) reported influenza vaccination in the previous 12 months before pregnancy, while zero reported influenza vaccination in the previous 12 months during pregnancy. During the observation time of 648 518 person-days, 1355 ARI episodes were identified. Among 1127 swabs collected (for 83% of all ARIs), 68 (6%) tested positive for influenza virus, for a laboratory-confirmed influenza incidence of 0.31 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.40) per 100 person-months during pregnancy in the study cohort. Future plans Results will be used to describe influenza disease burden in this population to model potential numbers of influenza illnesses averted if influenza vaccination coverage were increased and to support enhanced influenza prevention and control strategies among pregnant women in China. We also plan to enrol and follow three cohorts of pregnant women over three influenza seasons during 2015–2018 which will allow an analysis of the effect of influenza virus infection during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: The fifth wave of A(H7N9) virus infection in China from 2016 to 2017 caused great concern due to the large number of individuals infected, the isolation of drug-resistant viruses, and the emergence of highly pathogenic strains. Antibodies against neuraminidase (NA) provide added benefit to hemagglutinin-specific immunity and may be important contributors to the effectiveness of A(H7N9) vaccines. We generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to identify antigenic domains on NA of the novel A(H7N9) virus and compared their functional properties. The loop formed in the region of residue 250 (250 loop) and the domain formed by the loops containing residues 370, 400, and 430 were identified as major antigenic regions. MAbs 1E8, 2F6, 10F4, and 11B2, which recognize these two antigenic domains, were characterized in depth. These four MAbs differ in their abilities to inhibit cleavage of small and large substrates (methyl-umbelliferyl-acetyl neuraminic acid [MU-NANA] and fetuin, respectively) in NA inhibition assays. 1E8 and 11B2 did not inhibit NA cleavage of either MU-NANA or fetuin, and 2F6 inhibited cleavage of fetuin alone, whereas 10F4 inhibited cleavage of both substrates. All four MAbs reduced the in vitro spread of viruses carrying either the wild-type N9 or N9 with antiviral-resistant mutations but to different degrees. These MAbs have different in vivo levels of effectiveness: 10F4 was the most effective in protecting mice against challenge with A(H7N9) virus, 2F6 was less effective, and 11B2 failed to protect BALB/c mice at the doses tested. Our study confirms that NA-specific antibodies can protect against A(H7N9) infection and suggests that in vitro properties can be used to rank antibodies with therapeutic potential. IMPORTANCE The novel A(H7N9) viruses that emerged in China in 2013 continue to infect humans, with a high fatality rate. The most recent outbreak resulted in a larger number of human cases than previous epidemic waves. Due to the absence of a licensed vaccine and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses, there is a need to develop alternative approaches to prevent or treat A(H7N9) infection. We have made a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neuraminidase (NA) of A(H7N9) viruses; some of these MAbs are effective in inhibiting viruses that are resistant to antivirals used to treat A(H7N9) patients. Binding avidity, inhibition of NA activity, and plaque formation correlated with the effectiveness of these MAbs to protect mice against lethal A(H7N9) virus challenge. This study identifies in vitro measures that can be used to predict the in vivo efficacy of NA-specific antibodies, providing a way to select MAbs for further therapeutic development.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-02-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Jing -- Sun, Junping -- Aryal, Achyut -- Raubenheimer, David -- Liu, Deguang -- Sheng, Yan -- Chang, Dunhu -- Shi, Lei -- Wu, Jian -- Ma, Zhong -- Wang, Hongchen -- Meng, Xiuxiang -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 27;347(6225):957. doi: 10.1126/science.347.6225.957-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China. ; Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. ; Charles Perkins Centre and Faculty of Veterinary Science and School of Biological Sciences, the University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. ; College of Plant Protection, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. ; School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China. meng2014@ruc.edu.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25722402" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China/ethnology ; Climate Change ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Culture ; *Ethnic Groups ; Human Migration ; Humans ; Life Style/ethnology ; Population Density ; *Reindeer
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  International Conference on SARS - one year after the (first) outbreak; 20040508-20040511; Lübeck; DOC04sars6.03 /20040526/
    Publication Date: 2004-05-26
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0167-2738
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0254-0584
    Keywords: Epoxidized styrene-butadiene copolymers ; Oxirane ; Stress relaxation ; Thermoplastic elastomers ; Triblock copolymers
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0378-4363
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0378-4363
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2153
    Keywords: Key words:Shock tube, Shock tunnel, Riemann solver
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract. A contact discontinuity tracking method with a specially designed moving grid is developed to eliminate the interface smearing completely. In order to precisely locate the contact surface, an updated Riemann solver for unsteady one-dimensional inviscid flows is also developed to allow consideration of the specific heat ratio change across the shock wave. These two new computational techniques are illustrated in a high Mach number shock tube flow field computation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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