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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: IL-33 released by epithelial cells and immune cells functions as an alarmin and can induce both type 1 and type 2 immune responses. However, the role of IL-33 release in tumor development is still not clear. In this study, we examined the function of released IL-33 in murine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models by hydrodynamically injecting either IL-33–expressing tumor cells or IL-33–expressing plasmids into the liver of tumor-bearing mice. Tumor growth was greatly inhibited by IL-33 release. This antitumor effect of IL-33 was dependent on suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) because it was diminished in ST2 –/– mice. Moreover, HCC patients with high IL-33 expression have prolonged overall survival compared with the patients with low IL-33 expression. Further study showed that there were increased percentages and numbers of activated and effector CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in both spleen and liver in IL-33–expressing tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, IFN- production of the CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was upregulated in both spleen and liver by IL-33. The cytotoxicity of CTLs from IL-33–expressing mice was also enhanced. In vitro rIL-33 treatment could preferentially expand CD8 + T cells and promote CD4 + and CD8 + T cell activation and IFN- production. Depletion of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells diminished the antitumor activity of IL-33, suggesting that the antitumor function of released IL-33 was mediated by both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Taken together, we demonstrated in murine HCC models that IL-33 release could inhibit tumor development through its interaction with ST2 to promote antitumor CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Paired-homeodomain transcription factor 4 ( PAX4 ) gene encodes a transcription factor which plays an important role in the generation, differentiation, development, and survival of insulin-producing β-cells during mammalian pancreas development. PAX4 is a key diabetes mellitus (DM) susceptibility gene, which is associated with many different types of DM, including T1DM, T2DM, maturity onset diabetes of the young 9 (MODY9) and ketosis prone diabetes. In this study, a novel PAX4 gene knockout (KO) model was generated through co-injection of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) mRNA/sgRNA into rabbit zygotes. Typical phenotypes of growth retardation, persistent hyperglycemia, decreased number of insulin-producing β cells and increased number of glucagon-producing α cells were observed in the homozygous PAX4 KO rabbits. Furthermore, DM associated phenotypes including diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, myopathy and cardiomyopathy were also observed in the homozygous PAX4 KO rabbits but not in the wild type (WT) controls and the heterozygous PAX4 KO rabbits. In summary, this is the first PAX4 gene KO rabbit model generated by CRISPR/Cas9 system. This novel rabbit model may provide a new platform for function study of PAX4 gene in rabbit and gene therapy of human DM in clinical trails.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-23
    Description: Recent studies revealed that acetylation is a widely used protein modification in prokaryotic organisms. The major protein acetylation acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin-like deacetylase CobB have been found to be involved in basic physiological processes, such as primary metabolism, chemotaxis, and stress responses, in Escherichia coli and Salmonella . However, little is known about protein acetylation modifications in Yersinia pestis , a lethal pathogen responsible for millions of human deaths in three worldwide pandemics. Here we found that Yp_0659 and Yp_1760 of Y. pestis encode the major protein acetylation acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin-like deacetylase CobB, respectively, which can acetylate and deacetylate PhoP enzymatically in vitro . Protein acetylation impairment in cobB and yfiQ mutants greatly decreased bacterial tolerance to cold, hot, high-salt, and acidic environments. Our comparative transcriptomic data revealed that the strongly decreased tolerance to stress stimuli was probably related to downregulation of the genes encoding the heat shock proteins (HtpG, HslV, HslR, and IbpA), cold shock proteins (CspC and CspA1), and acid resistance proteins (HdeB and AdiA). We found that the reversible acetylation mediated by CobB and YfiQ conferred attenuation of virulence, probably partially due to the decreased expression of the psaABCDEF operon, which encodes Psa fimbriae that play a key role in virulence of Y. pestis . This is the first report, to our knowledge, on the roles of protein acetylation modification in stress responses, biofilm formation, and virulence of Y. pestis .
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relation of total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels, and examine the possible modifiers in the association among a general population of Chinese adults. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The study was conducted within 21 communities in Lianyungang of Jiangsu province, China. Participants A total of 26 648 participants aged ≥35 years and with no antihypertensive drug use were included in the final analysis. Results Overall, there was a positive association between tHcy concentrations and SBP (per 5 μmol/L tHcy increase: adjusted β=0.45 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.61) or DBP levels (per 5 μmol/L tHcy increase: adjusted β=0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.59). Compared with participants with tHcy 〈10 μmol/L, significantly higher SBP levels were found in those with tHcy concentrations of 10 to 〈15 (adjusted β=0.80 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.28) and ≥15 µmol/L (adjusted β=1.79 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.37; p for trend 〈0.001). Consistently, significantly higher DBP levels were found in participants with tHcy concentrations of 10 to 〈15 (adjusted β=0.86 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.49 to 1.22) and ≥15 µmol/L (adjusted β=2.01 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.46; p for trend 〈0.001), respectively as compared with those with 〈10 μmol/L. Furthermore, a stronger association between tHcy and SBP (p for interaction=0.009) or DBP (p for interaction=0.067) was found in current alcohol drinkers. Conclusion Serum tHcy concentrations were positively associated with both SBP and DBP levels in a general Chinese adult population. The association was stronger in current alcohol drinkers.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Tumor heterogeneity and changes in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status over time challenge the design of effective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment strategies for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop techniques for comprehensive tumor EGFR profiling in real time, particularly in lung cancer precision medicine trials. We report a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, N -(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-(2-(2-(2-(2- 18 F-fluoroethoxy) ethoxy) ethoxy) ethoxy)-6-methoxyquinazolin-4-amine ( 18 F-MPG), with high specificity to activating EGFR mutant kinase. We evaluate the feasibility of using 18 F-MPG PET for noninvasive imaging and quantification of EGFR-activating mutation status in preclinical models of NSCLC and in patients with primary and metastatic NSCLC tumors. 18 F-MPG PET in NSCLC animal models showed a significant correlation ( R 2 = 0.9050) between 18 F-MPG uptake and activating EGFR mutation status. In clinical studies with NSCLC patients ( n = 75), the concordance between the detection of EGFR activation by 18 F-MPG PET/computed tomography (CT) and tissue biopsy reached 84.29%. There was a greater response to EGFR-TKIs (81.58% versus 6.06%) and longer median progression-free survival (348 days versus 183 days) in NSCLC patients when 18 F-MPG PET/CT SUV max (maximum standard uptake value) was ≥2.23 versus 〈2.23. Our study demonstrates that 18 F-MPG PET/CT is a powerful method for precise quantification of EGFR-activating mutation status in NSCLC patients, and it is a promising strategy for noninvasively identifying patients sensitive to EGFR-TKIs and for monitoring the efficacy of EGFR-TKI therapy.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Cellular senescence has been viewed as a tumor suppression mechanism and also as a contributor to individual aging. Widespread shortening of 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by alternative polyadenylation (APA) has recently been discovered in cancer cells. However, the role of APA in the process of cellular senescence remains elusive. Here, we found that hundreds of genes in senescent cells tended to use distal poly(A) (pA) sites, leading to a global lengthening of 3' UTRs and reduced gene expression. Genes that harbor longer 3' UTRs in senescent cells were enriched in senescence-related pathways. Rras2 , a member of the Ras superfamily that participates in multiple signal transduction pathways, preferred longer 3' UTR usage and exhibited decreased expression in senescent cells. Depletion of Rras2 promoted senescence, while rescue of Rras2 reversed senescence-associated phenotypes. Mechanistically, splicing factor TRA2B bound to a core "AGAA" motif located in the alternative 3' UTR of Rras2 , thereby reducing the RRAS2 protein level and causing senescence. Both proximal and distal poly(A) signals showed strong sequence conservation, highlighting the vital role of APA regulation during evolution. Our results revealed APA as a novel mechanism in regulating cellular senescence.
    Electronic ISSN: 1549-5469
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Earlier spring leaf unfolding is a frequently observed response of plants to climate warming. Many deciduous tree species require chilling for dormancy release, and warming-related reductions in chilling may counteract the advance of leaf unfolding in response to warming. Empirical evidence for this, however, is limited to saplings or twigs in climate-controlled chambers. Using long-term in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species at 1,245 sites, here we show that the apparent response of leaf unfolding to climate warming (ST, expressed in days advance of leaf unfolding per degrees C warming) has significantly decreased from 1980 to 2013 in all monitored tree species. Averaged across all species and sites, ST decreased by 40% from 4.0 +/- 1.8 days degrees C(-1) during 1980-1994 to 2.3 +/- 1.6 days degrees C(-1) during 1999-2013. The declining ST was also simulated by chilling-based phenology models, albeit with a weaker decline (24-30%) than observed in situ. The reduction in ST is likely to be partly attributable to reduced chilling. Nonetheless, other mechanisms may also have a role, such as 'photoperiod limitation' mechanisms that may become ultimately limiting when leaf unfolding dates occur too early in the season. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining ST, but also suggest that the predicted strong winter warming in the future may further reduce ST and therefore result in a slowdown in the advance of tree spring phenology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fu, Yongshuo H -- Zhao, Hongfang -- Piao, Shilong -- Peaucelle, Marc -- Peng, Shushi -- Zhou, Guiyun -- Ciais, Philippe -- Huang, Mengtian -- Menzel, Annette -- Penuelas, Josep -- Song, Yang -- Vitasse, Yann -- Zeng, Zhenzhong -- Janssens, Ivan A -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):104-7. doi: 10.1038/nature15402. Epub 2015 Sep 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Centre of Excellence PLECO (Plant and Vegetation Ecology), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. ; Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Center for Excellence in Tibetan Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette 91190, France. ; School of Resources and Environment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China. ; Ecoclimatology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising 85354, Germany. ; Technische Universitat Munchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, 85748 Garching, Germany. ; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; University of Neuchatel, Institute of Geography, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Group Mountain Ecosystems, Davos 7260, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416746" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cold Temperature ; Europe ; *Global Warming ; Models, Biological ; Photoperiod ; Plant Leaves/*growth & development ; *Seasons ; Time Factors ; Trees/*growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: After an infection, pathogen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells) persist in nonlymphoid tissues to provide rapid control upon reinfection, and vaccination strategies that create T(RM) cell pools at sites of pathogen entry are therefore attractive. However, it is not well understood how T(RM) cells provide such pathogen protection. Here, we demonstrate that activated T(RM) cells in mouse skin profoundly alter the local tissue environment by inducing a number of broadly active antiviral and antibacterial genes. This "pathogen alert" allows skin T(RM) cells to protect against an antigenically unrelated virus. These data describe a mechanism by which tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells protect previously infected sites that is rapid, amplifies the activation of a small number of cells into an organ-wide response, and has the capacity to control escape variants.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ariotti, Silvia -- Hogenbirk, Marc A -- Dijkgraaf, Feline E -- Visser, Lindy L -- Hoekstra, Mirjam E -- Song, Ji-Ying -- Jacobs, Heinz -- Haanen, John B -- Schumacher, Ton N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 3;346(6205):101-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1254803. Epub 2014 Aug 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Immunology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Division of Biological Stress Response, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Experimental Animal Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Division of Immunology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands. t.schumacher@nki.nl.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25278612" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Female ; Immunologic Memory/genetics/*immunology ; Male ; Mice ; Skin/*immunology/microbiology/virology ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-07-22
    Description: Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value 〈 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154982/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154982/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hinch, Anjali G -- Tandon, Arti -- Patterson, Nick -- Song, Yunli -- Rohland, Nadin -- Palmer, Cameron D -- Chen, Gary K -- Wang, Kai -- Buxbaum, Sarah G -- Akylbekova, Ermeg L -- Aldrich, Melinda C -- Ambrosone, Christine B -- Amos, Christopher -- Bandera, Elisa V -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Bernstein, Leslie -- Blot, William J -- Bock, Cathryn H -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Cai, Qiuyin -- Caporaso, Neil -- Casey, Graham -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Deming, Sandra L -- Diver, W Ryan -- Divers, Jasmin -- Fornage, Myriam -- Gillanders, Elizabeth M -- Glessner, Joseph -- Harris, Curtis C -- Hu, Jennifer J -- Ingles, Sue A -- Isaacs, William -- John, Esther M -- Kao, W H Linda -- Keating, Brendan -- Kittles, Rick A -- Kolonel, Laurence N -- Larkin, Emma -- Le Marchand, Loic -- McNeill, Lorna H -- Millikan, Robert C -- Murphy, Adam -- Musani, Solomon -- Neslund-Dudas, Christine -- Nyante, Sarah -- Papanicolaou, George J -- Press, Michael F -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Reiner, Alex P -- Rich, Stephen S -- Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Rybicki, Benjamin A -- Schwartz, Ann G -- Signorello, Lisa B -- Spitz, Margaret -- Strom, Sara S -- Thun, Michael J -- Tucker, Margaret A -- Wang, Zhaoming -- Wiencke, John K -- Witte, John S -- Wrensch, Margaret -- Wu, Xifeng -- Yamamura, Yuko -- Zanetti, Krista A -- Zheng, Wei -- Ziegler, Regina G -- Zhu, Xiaofeng -- Redline, Susan -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- Henderson, Brian E -- Taylor, Herman A Jr -- Price, Alkes L -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Chanock, Stephen J -- Haiman, Christopher A -- Wilson, James G -- Reich, David -- Myers, Simon R -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- CA060691/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA092447/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA100374/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA100598/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA1116460/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA1116460S1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA121197/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA121197S2/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA127219/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA1326792/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA140388/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA141716/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA148085/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA148127/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA22453/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA54281/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA55769/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA58223/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA63464/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA68485/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA68578/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA77305/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA87895/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA88164/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES007784/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- ES011126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- ES06717/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- ES10126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GM08016/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM091332/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HD33175/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HG004726/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268200960009C/PHS HHS/ -- HL084107/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-65226/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES010126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA052689/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA092447/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG006399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL084107-04/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA73629/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004168/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004168-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jul 20;476(7359):170-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10336.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21775986" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/ethnology ; African Americans/*genetics ; Alleles ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Base Sequence ; Chromosome Mapping ; Crossing Over, Genetic/*genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Frequency ; Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Probability
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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