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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-03
    Description: Quantum oscillations are usually the manifestation of the underlying physical nature in condensed matter systems. Here, we report a new type of log-periodic quantum oscillations in ultraquantum three-dimensional topological materials. Beyond the quantum limit (QL), we observe the log-periodic oscillations involving up to five oscillating cycles (five peaks and five dips) on the magnetoresistance of high-quality single-crystal ZrTe 5 , virtually showing the clearest feature of discrete scale invariance (DSI). Further, theoretical analyses show that the two-body quasi-bound states can be responsible for the DSI feature. Our work provides a new perspective on the ground state of topological materials beyond the QL.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Cell functions can be mediated through their interactions with the microenvironments, which highly depend on the surface state of the substrate. However, how to finely adjust the surface of biomaterials is still very challenging. In this study, poly( d,l -lactide) (PDLLA) with high molecular weight was synthesized via ring opening polymerization, which was hot-pressed into PDLLA membrane. In order to modify the hydrophobicity of the membrane (a limiting factor for its biomedical application), an amphiphilic monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly( d,l -lactide) (PEG-PDLLA) was selected to improve its surface hydrophilicity through a simple self-assembly approach. It was found that the contact angles of the modified membrane can be well controlled by variation of PEG-PDLLA concentrations. In vitro cell biological study indicates that optimized cell adhesion can be achieved on the modified membrane with a contact angle of around 50° via its self-assembly with an ethanol/water solution of PEG-PDLA (35 mg ml –1 ). The surface modification of the membrane also changed its biodegradation property in the process of its incubation period up to 240 days. The surface modification method may afford an effective way for adjustment of the surface (interface) of membrane (scaffolds) of different biomaterials, beyond polylactide.
    Keywords: biomaterials
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Conditional knockout mice with targeted disruption of B-cell associated protein (BAP)31 in adult mouse liver were generated and challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 36 or 96 days and markers of obesity, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis were determined. Mutant mice were indistinguishable from WT littermates, but exhibited increased HFD-induced obesity. BAP31-deletion in hepatocytes increased the expression of SREBP1C and the target genes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and HFD-induced liver steatosis. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAP31 interacts with SREBP1C and insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1), and BAP31-deletion reduces INSIG1 expression, suggesting that BAP31 may regulate SREBP1C activity by modulating INSIG1 protein levels. Additionally, BAP31-deletion induced glucose and insulin intolerance, decreased Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation, and enhanced hepatic glucose production in mice. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers was significantly induced in BAP31-mutant mice. HFD-induced inflammation was aggravated in mutant mice, along with increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-B activation. These findings demonstrate that BAP31-deletion induces SREBP activation and promotes hepatic lipid accumulation, reduces insulin signaling, impairs glucose/insulin tolerance, and increases ER stress and hepatic inflammation, explaining the protective roles of BAP31 in the development of liver steatosis and insulin resistance in HFD-induced obesity in animal models.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2275
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-7262
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Purpose: Emerging studies demonstrate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) participate in the regulation of various cancers. In the current study, a novel lncRNA-TTN-AS1 has been identified and explored in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Experimental Design: To discover a new regulatory circuitry in which RNAs crosstalk with each other, the transcriptome of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA from ESCC and adjacent nonmalignant specimens were analyzed using multiple microarrays and diverse bioinformatics platforms. The functional role and mechanism of a novel lncRNA-TTN-AS1 were further investigated by gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays in vivo and in vitro . An ESCC biomarker panel, consisting of lncRNA-TTN-AS1 , miR-133b , and FSCN1 , was validated by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization using samples from 148 patients. Results: lncRNA-TTN-AS1 as an oncogene is highly expressed in ESCC tissues and cell lines, and promotes ESCC cell proliferation and metastasis. Mechanistically, lncRNA-TTN-AS1 promotes expression of transcription factor Snail1 by competitively binding miR-133b , resulting in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) cascade. Moreover, lncRNA-TTN-AS1 also induces FSCN1 expression by sponging miR-133b and upregulation of mRNA-stabilizing protein HuR, which further promotes ESCC invasion cascades. We also discovered and validated a clinically applicable ESCC biomarker panel, consisting of lncRNA-TTN-AS1 , miR-133b , and FSCN1 , that is significantly associated with overall survival and provides additional prognostic evidence for ESCC patients. Conclusions: As a novel regulator, lncRNA-TTN-AS1 plays an important role in ESCC cell proliferation and metastasis. The lncRNA-TTN-AS1/miR133b/FSCN1 regulatory axis provides bona fide targets for anti-ESCC therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 24(2); 486–98. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric diseases with risks contributed by multiple genes. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in these disorders, but little is known about such dysregulation in the human brain. We analyzed three transcriptome datasets from 394 postmortem brain tissue samples from patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder or from healthy control individuals without a known history of psychiatric disease. We built genome-wide coexpression networks that included microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a coexpression network module that was differentially expressed in the brain tissue from patients compared to healthy control individuals. This module contained genes that were principally involved in glial and neural cell genesis and glial cell differentiation, and included schizophrenia risk genes carrying rare variants. This module included five miRNAs and 545 mRNAs, with six transcription factors serving as hub genes in this module. We found that the most connected transcription factor gene POU3F2 , also identified on a genome-wide association study for bipolar disorder, could regulate the miRNA hsa-miR-320e and other putative target mRNAs. These regulatory relationships were replicated using PsychENCODE/BrainGVEX datasets and validated by knockdown and overexpression experiments in SH-SY5Y cells and human neural progenitor cells in vitro. Thus, we identified a brain gene expression module that was enriched for rare coding variants in genes associated with schizophrenia and that contained the putative bipolar disorder risk gene POU3F2 . The transcription factor POU3F2 may be a key regulator of gene expression in this disease-associated gene coexpression module.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: The ultrafast laser excitation of matters leads to nonequilibrium states with complex solid-liquid phase-transition dynamics. We used electron diffraction at mega–electron volt energies to visualize the ultrafast melting of gold on the atomic scale length. For energy densities approaching the irreversible melting regime, we first observed heterogeneous melting on time scales of 100 to 1000 picoseconds, transitioning to homogeneous melting that occurs catastrophically within 10 to 20 picoseconds at higher energy densities. We showed evidence for the heterogeneous coexistence of solid and liquid. We determined the ion and electron temperature evolution and found superheated conditions. Our results constrain the electron-ion coupling rate, determine the Debye temperature, and reveal the melting sensitivity to nucleation seeds.
    Keywords: Physics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Purpose: This study aims to construct the stromal immunotype, which could improve the prediction of postsurgical survival and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Experimental Design: A total of 118 patients with MIBC from Shanghai Cancer Center, 140 patients with MIBC from Zhongshan Hospital, and 287 patients with MIBC from TCGA cohort were included in the study. Immune cell infiltration was evaluated by IHC staining or CIBERSORT method. Five immune features were selected out of 22 immune features to construct immunotypes based on the LASSO Cox regression model. Results: Using the LASSO model, we classified patients with MIBC into stromal immunotype A subgroup (CTL high NK high Treg low Macrophage low MC low ) and stromal immunotype B subgroup (CTL low NK low Treg high Macrophage high MC high ). Significant differences were found between immunotype A and immunotype B in the combined cohort with 5-year overall survival (OS, 76.0% vs. 44.0%; P 〈 0.001) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS, 62.8% vs. 48.3%; P 〈 0.001). Stromal immunotype was revealed to be an independent prognostic indicator in multivariate analysis in all cohorts separately. Either OS or DFS was not improved by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) in pT2 stage patients or pT3+pT4 patients, but further analysis revealed that OS and disease-free was significantly improved by ACT in pT3+pT4 patients ( P = 0.016 and P = 0.006, respectively). Finally, stromal immunotype A showed higher immune checkpoint molecules (PD-L1, PD-1, and CTLA-4) expression. Conclusions: The stromal immunotypes could effectively predict survival and recurrence of MIBC. Furthermore, the immunotypes might be a practical predictive tool to identify pT3+pT4 patients who would benefit from ACT. Clin Cancer Res; 24(13); 3069–78. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Purpose: The third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor osimertinib is approved to treat patients with EGFR T790M-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have developed resistance to earlier-generation drugs. Acquired EGFR C797S mutation has been reported to mediate osimertinib resistance in some patients. However, the remaining resistance mechanisms are largely unknown. Experimental Design: We performed mutation profiling using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for 416 cancer-relevant genes on 93 osimertinib-resistant lung cancer patients' samples, mainly cell-free DNAs (cfDNAs), and matched pretreatment samples of 12 patients. In vitro experiments were conducted to functionally study the secondary EGFR mutations identified. Results: EGFR G796/C797, L792, and L718/G719 mutations were identified in 24.7%, 10.8%, and 9.7% of the cases, respectively, with certain mutations coexisting in one patient with different prevalence. L792 and L718 mutants markedly increased the half inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of osimertinib in vitro , among which the L718Q mutation conferred the greatest resistance to osimertinib, as well as gefitinib resistance when not coexisting with T790M. Further analysis of the 12 matched pretreatment samples confirmed that these EGFR mutations were acquired during osimertinib treatment. Alterations in parallel or downstream oncogenes such as MET, KRAS , and PIK3CA were also discovered, potentially contributing to the osimertinib-resistance in patients without EGFR secondary mutations. Conclusions: We present comprehensive mutation profiles of a large cohort of osimertinib-resistance lung cancer patients using mainly cfDNA. Besides C797 mutations, novel secondary mutations of EGFR L718 and L792 residues confer osimertinib resistance, both in vitro and in vivo , and are of great clinical and pharmaceutical relevance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(13); 3097–107. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-14
    Description: Phosphorus donor impurities in silicon are a promising candidate for solid-state quantum computing due to their exceptionally long coherence times and high fidelities. However, individual addressability of exchange coupled donors with separations ~15 nm is challenging. We show that by using atomic precision lithography, we can place a single P donor next to a 2P molecule 16 ± 1 nm apart and use their distinctive hyperfine coupling strengths to address qubits at vastly different resonance frequencies. In particular, the single donor yields two hyperfine peaks separated by 97 ± 2.5 MHz, in contrast to the donor molecule that exhibits three peaks separated by 262 ± 10 MHz. Atomistic tight-binding simulations confirm the large hyperfine interaction strength in the 2P molecule with an interdonor separation of ~0.7 nm, consistent with lithographic scanning tunneling microscopy images of the 2P site during device fabrication. We discuss the viability of using donor molecules for built-in addressability of electron spin qubits in silicon.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) interrupting malaria transmission are an integrated tool for malaria eradication. We characterized a sexual-stage-specific gene (PBANKA_060330) from Plasmodium berghei and studied its potential for use as a TBV. This gene, referred to as pbg37 , encodes a protein of 37 kDa with a signal peptide and multiple transmembrane domains and is preferentially expressed in gametocytes. A recombinant Pbg37 (rPbg37) protein targeting the N-terminal 63 amino acids (amino acids 26 to 88) expressed in bacteria elicited strong antibody responses in mice. Western blotting demonstrated Pbg37 expression in gametocytes, zygotes, and, to a lesser extent, ookinetes and its predominant association with the membranes of gametocytes. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed an abundant surface localization of Pbg37 on gametes and zygotes but reduced amounts on retorts and ookinetes. Knockout of pbg37 ( pbg37 ) led to a considerable reduction in gametocytemia, which translated into a ~92.1% decrease in the oocyst number in mosquitoes. Deletion of pbg37 had a more substantial influence on the development and maturation of microgametocytes. As a result, the pbg37 lines exhibited a higher female/male gametocyte ratio, fewer mature male gametocytes, and defects in the exflagellation of mature microgametocytes. To test the transmission-blocking potential of Pbg37, an in vitro ookinete assay showed that the major inhibitory effects of anti-Pbg37 antiserum were on the exflagellation and fertilization processes. Direct feeding of mosquitoes on mice immunized with rPbg37 or a control protein showed that rPbg37-immunized and P. berghei -infected mice had a significant reduction (49.1%) in oocyst density compared to the controls. The conservation of this gene in Plasmodium warrants further investigations in human malaria parasites.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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