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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-03
    Description: Because the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays a critical role in tumor growth, metastasis, tumor angiogenesis, and drug resistance, the c-Met axis represents an attractive therapeutic target. Herein, we report the first preclinical characterization of SCC244, a novel, potent, and highly selective inhibitor of c-Met kinase. SCC244 showed subnanomolar potency against c-Met kinase activity and high selectivity versus 312 other tested protein kinases, making it one of the most selective c-Met inhibitors described to date. Moreover, this inhibitor profoundly and specifically inhibits c-Met signal transduction and thereby suppresses the c-Met–dependent neoplastic phenotype of tumor and endothelial cells. In xenografts of human tumor cell lines or non–small cell lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived tumor tissue driven by MET aberration, SCC244 administration exhibits robust antitumor activity at the well-tolerated doses. In addition, the in vivo antitumor activity of SCC244 involves the inhibition of c-Met downstream signaling via a mechanism of combined antiproliferation and antiangiogenic effects. The results of the current study provide a strong foundation for the clinical investigation of SCC244 in patients with tumors harboring c-Met pathway alterations. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(4); 751–62. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-03-05
    Description: Recognition of modified histones by 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of chromatin. H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) is deposited onto the nucleosomes in the transcribed regions after RNA polymerase II elongation. In yeast, this mark in turn recruits epigenetic regulators to reset the chromatin to a relatively repressive state, thus suppressing cryptic transcription. However, much less is known about the role of H3K36me3 in transcription regulation in mammals. This is further complicated by the transcription-coupled incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 in gene bodies. Here we show that the candidate tumour suppressor ZMYND11 specifically recognizes H3K36me3 on H3.3 (H3.3K36me3) and regulates RNA polymerase II elongation. Structural studies show that in addition to the trimethyl-lysine binding by an aromatic cage within the PWWP domain, the H3.3-dependent recognition is mediated by the encapsulation of the H3.3-specific 'Ser 31' residue in a composite pocket formed by the tandem bromo-PWWP domains of ZMYND11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing shows a genome-wide co-localization of ZMYND11 with H3K36me3 and H3.3 in gene bodies, and its occupancy requires the pre-deposition of H3.3K36me3. Although ZMYND11 is associated with highly expressed genes, it functions as an unconventional transcription co-repressor by modulating RNA polymerase II at the elongation stage. ZMYND11 is critical for the repression of a transcriptional program that is essential for tumour cell growth; low expression levels of ZMYND11 in breast cancer patients correlate with worse prognosis. Consistently, overexpression of ZMYND11 suppresses cancer cell growth in vitro and tumour formation in mice. Together, this study identifies ZMYND11 as an H3.3-specific reader of H3K36me3 that links the histone-variant-mediated transcription elongation control to tumour suppression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wen, Hong -- Li, Yuanyuan -- Xi, Yuanxin -- Jiang, Shiming -- Stratton, Sabrina -- Peng, Danni -- Tanaka, Kaori -- Ren, Yongfeng -- Xia, Zheng -- Wu, Jun -- Li, Bing -- Barton, Michelle C -- Li, Wei -- Li, Haitao -- Shi, Xiaobing -- CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):263-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13045. Epub 2014 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3]. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [3]. ; 1] Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2]. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3] Genes and Development Graduate Program, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Teaxs 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590075" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Co-Repressor Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disease-Free Survival ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Histones/chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/*metabolism ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oncogenes/genetics ; Prognosis ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA Polymerase II/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: Sirtuin proteins regulate diverse cellular pathways that influence genomic stability, metabolism and ageing. SIRT7 is a mammalian sirtuin whose biochemical activity, molecular targets and physiological functions have been unclear. Here we show that SIRT7 is an NAD(+)-dependent H3K18Ac (acetylated lysine 18 of histone H3) deacetylase that stabilizes the transformed state of cancer cells. Genome-wide binding studies reveal that SIRT7 binds to promoters of a specific set of gene targets, where it deacetylates H3K18Ac and promotes transcriptional repression. The spectrum of SIRT7 target genes is defined in part by its interaction with the cancer-associated E26 transformed specific (ETS) transcription factor ELK4, and comprises numerous genes with links to tumour suppression. Notably, selective hypoacetylation of H3K18Ac has been linked to oncogenic transformation, and in patients is associated with aggressive tumour phenotypes and poor prognosis. We find that deacetylation of H3K18Ac by SIRT7 is necessary for maintaining essential features of human cancer cells, including anchorage-independent growth and escape from contact inhibition. Moreover, SIRT7 is necessary for a global hypoacetylation of H3K18Ac associated with cellular transformation by the viral oncoprotein E1A. Finally, SIRT7 depletion markedly reduces the tumorigenicity of human cancer cell xenografts in mice. Together, our work establishes SIRT7 as a highly selective H3K18Ac deacetylase and demonstrates a pivotal role for SIRT7 in chromatin regulation, cellular transformation programs and tumour formation in vivo.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412143/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412143/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barber, Matthew F -- Michishita-Kioi, Eriko -- Xi, Yuanxin -- Tasselli, Luisa -- Kioi, Mitomu -- Moqtaderi, Zarmik -- Tennen, Ruth I -- Paredes, Silvana -- Young, Nicolas L -- Chen, Kaifu -- Struhl, Kevin -- Garcia, Benjamin A -- Gozani, Or -- Li, Wei -- Chua, Katrin F -- 1018438-142/PHS HHS/ -- 3T32DK007217-36S1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DP2OD007447/OD/NIH HHS/ -- GM 30186/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG 4558/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K08 AG028961/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG028867/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM030186/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079641/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009302/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 DA025956/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 DA025956-01/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01DA025956/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jul 5;487(7405):114-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11043.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722849" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Adenovirus E1A Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Chromatin/metabolism ; Contact Inhibition ; Disease Progression ; Histone Deacetylases/*metabolism ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/*metabolism ; Mice ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Phenotype ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Repressor Proteins/metabolism ; Sirtuins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transplantation, Heterologous ; ets-Domain Protein Elk-4/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Three-component fermions with surface Fermi arcs in tungsten carbide Three-component fermions with surface Fermi arcs in tungsten carbide, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0021-8 Triply degenerate electronic structure—three-component fermions—protected by crystal symmetries is observed in tungsten carbide. The observed Fermi arcs associated with the surface states provide evidence of the non-trivial topology of the states.
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-12-24
    Description: Broadly, tissue regeneration is achieved in two ways: by proliferation of common differentiated cells and/or by deployment of specialized stem/progenitor cells. Which of these pathways applies is both organ- and injury-specific. Current models in the lung posit that epithelial repair can be attributed to cells expressing mature lineage markers. By contrast, here we define the regenerative role of previously uncharacterized, rare lineage-negative epithelial stem/progenitor (LNEP) cells present within normal distal lung. Quiescent LNEPs activate a DeltaNp63 (a p63 splice variant) and cytokeratin 5 remodelling program after influenza or bleomycin injury in mice. Activated cells proliferate and migrate widely to occupy heavily injured areas depleted of mature lineages, at which point they differentiate towards mature epithelium. Lineage tracing revealed scant contribution of pre-existing mature epithelial cells in such repair, whereas orthotopic transplantation of LNEPs, isolated by a definitive surface profile identified through single-cell sequencing, directly demonstrated the proliferative capacity and multipotency of this population. LNEPs require Notch signalling to activate the DeltaNp63 and cytokeratin 5 program, and subsequent Notch blockade promotes an alveolar cell fate. Persistent Notch signalling after injury led to parenchymal 'micro-honeycombing' (alveolar cysts), indicative of failed regeneration. Lungs from patients with fibrosis show analogous honeycomb cysts with evidence of hyperactive Notch signalling. Our findings indicate that distinct stem/progenitor cell pools repopulate injured tissue depending on the extent of the injury, and the outcomes of regeneration or fibrosis may depend in part on the dynamics of LNEP Notch signalling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312207/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312207/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vaughan, Andrew E -- Brumwell, Alexis N -- Xi, Ying -- Gotts, Jeffrey E -- Brownfield, Doug G -- Treutlein, Barbara -- Tan, Kevin -- Tan, Victor -- Liu, Feng Chun -- Looney, Mark R -- Matthay, Michael A -- Rock, Jason R -- Chapman, Harold A -- F32 HL117600-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL44712/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL099995/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL099999/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL111054/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 29;517(7536):621-5. doi: 10.1038/nature14112. Epub 2014 Dec 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California 94143, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California 94143, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25533958" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bleomycin ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Separation ; Cysts/metabolism/pathology ; Epithelial Cells/*cytology/metabolism/*pathology ; Female ; Humans ; Keratin-5/metabolism ; Lung/*cytology/*pathology/physiology ; Lung Injury/chemically induced/*pathology/virology ; Male ; Mice ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology/virology ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; *Re-Epithelialization ; Receptors, Notch/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Stem Cell Transplantation ; Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-03-21
    Description: Deterioration of adult stem cells accounts for much of aging-associated compromised tissue maintenance. How stem cells maintain metabolic homeostasis remains elusive. Here, we identified a regulatory branch of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), which is mediated by the interplay of SIRT7 and NRF1 and is coupled to cellular energy metabolism and proliferation. SIRT7 inactivation caused reduced quiescence, increased mitochondrial protein folding stress (PFS(mt)), and compromised regenerative capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). SIRT7 expression was reduced in aged HSCs, and SIRT7 up-regulation improved the regenerative capacity of aged HSCs. These findings define the deregulation of a UPR(mt)-mediated metabolic checkpoint as a reversible contributing factor for HSC aging.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4447312/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4447312/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mohrin, Mary -- Shin, Jiyung -- Liu, Yufei -- Brown, Katharine -- Luo, Hanzhi -- Xi, Yannan -- Haynes, Cole M -- Chen, Danica -- R01 AG040990/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG040061/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- T32 AG000266/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 20;347(6228):1374-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2361.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Metabolic Biology, Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology Allied Program, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY, USA. ; Program in Metabolic Biology, Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. danicac@berkeley.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792330" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Aging ; *Cell Cycle Checkpoints ; Energy Metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism/*physiology ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Mitochondria/*metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1/*metabolism ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Sirtuins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Unfolded Protein Response
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4447309/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4447309/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xi, Yannan -- Chen, Danica -- AG040990/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG040990/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 5;345(6201):1122-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1259601.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Metabolic Biology, Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Program in Metabolic Biology, Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. danicac@berkeley.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190781" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Liver/*metabolism ; Sirtuins/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), such as scrapie or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system caused by a yet unidentified virus. They are accompanied by a brain specific amyloidosis, during which a host coded protein irreversibly aggregates to form the scrapie-associated fibrils. The diagnosis of TSE relies on histopathological detection of spongiform lesions, on electron microscopical detection of fibrils, or on the immunological detection of SAF protein, which is the most specific diagnostic marker. In order to improve the diagnosis of TSE, we developed a protocol for rapid tissue fractionation and enrichment of SAF protein which subsequently allows the specific detection of SAF protein by western blotting and immunodetection. Using some new antisera raised against synthetic peptides with sequences specific for the hamster, sheep, cattle and human SAF protein, several samples can be diagnosed for TSE within 24 hours, starting with only 10–100 mg of brain tissue from different species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Viremia is found in intraperitoneally scrapie-injected hamsters. The absence of a viremic peak before the beginning of scrapie replication in the brain suggests either that the spread of the agent to the brain is not via the blood or that early after infection, circulating monocytes carry the agent to the brain where it remains silent until the neural cells start replicating it.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Scrapie ; Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ; Therapy ; Amphotericin B ; Sulphate Polyanions ; Pathogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pharmacological treatment with polyanions or amphotericin B in hamsters with experimental scrapie reveals that it is possible to delay the appearance of the disease only when the drug is given before the invasion of the agent into the clinical target areas of the brain. We suggest such early treatment may be possible for individuals at high risk of acquiring the disease, such as healthy mutation-positive relatives of patients with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome, or recipients of potentially contaminated pituitary-extracted human growth hormone.
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