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  • 1
    Keywords: Immunology ; Cancer Research ; Neurology  ; Oncology   ; Immunology ; Cancer Research ; Neurology ; Oncology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Part I: Basic Understanding of Co-signal Molecules in T cell activation -- Chapter 1 Co-signal molecules in T cell activation -- Chapter 2 The CD28-B7 family of co-signaling molecules -- Chapter 3 The TNF YNFR family of co-signal molecules -- Chapter 4 Signal transduction via co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors -- Chapter 5 Molecular dynamics of co-signal molecules in t cell activation -- Chapter 6 Role of co-stimulatory molecules in T helper cell differentiation -- Chapter 7 Control of regulatory T cells by co-signal molecules -- Part II: Co-signal Molecules in Health and Disease -- Chapter 8 Stimulatory and inhibitory co-signals in autoimmunity -- Chapter 9 Co-signaling molecules in neurological diseases -- Chapter 10 Costimulation blockade in transplantation -- Chapter 11 Immunotherapy targeting co-signal molecules
    Abstract: This book equips young immunologists and health professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamental concepts and roles of co-signal molecules and in addition presents the latest information on co-stimulation. The first part of the book is devoted to co-signal molecules and the regulation of T cells. Following an initial overview, subsequent chapters examine each co-signal molecule in turn and discuss the mechanisms by which co-signal molecules regulate the different types of T cell. The second part covers various clinical applications, including in autoimmune disease, neurological disorders, transplantation, graft-versus-host disease, and cancer immunotherapy. To date, co-stimulation blockade and co-inhibition blockade have shown beneficial effects and many additional clinical trials targeting co-signal molecules are ongoing. The mechanisms underlying these successful treatments are explained and the future therapeutic potential in the aforementioned diseases is evaluated. Co-signal Molecules in T Cell Activation will be a valuable reference guide to co-stimulation for basic and clinical researchers in the fields of both immunology and pharmaceutical science
    Pages: VI, 326 p. 22 illus., 21 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2019.
    ISBN: 9789813297173
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human perforin cDNA was isolated and the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of human perforin showed 68.4% similarity to that of mouse perforin. RNA blot analysis of the human perforin gene revealed that the gene product is expressed preferentially in killer-type cells among cell lines tested, and in large granular lymphocytes among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In situ hybridization analysis with a human perforin cDNA probe revealed that the human perforin (PFP) gene is located on chromosome17q11-21.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Gene transfection ; interleukin-2 Immunotherapy ; Peritoneal exudate cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To study the antitumor effect of local production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) from tumor cells, the poorly immunogenic murine colon cancer cells, colon26, was transfected with murine IL-2 cDNA in a bovine papilloma virus vector. IL-2 gene transfectants (mIL2+colon26) did not alter their growth rate compared with parental colon26 cells in vitro, but reduced their tumorigenicity in vivo. Immunization with mIL2+colon26 cells could induce protective immunity against parental colon26 cells. Following intravenous challenges, the colonies of lung metastasis were also inhibited. Moreover, inoculation of mIL2+ colon26 cells slowed the growth of challenged renal cell carcinoma cells, RenCa. Intraperitoneal inoculation of IL-2 gene transfectants generated a large number of peritoneal exudate cells and these cells had a highly cytolytic activity against colon26 and YAC-1. These results suggest that inoculation with IL-2 transfected tumor cells can stimulate not only cytotoxic T lymphocytes but also natural killer cells, and that these cells will act as antitumor effector cells in host animals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words: Bispecific antibody (BsAb) – Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) – Short-term-cultured LAK – Long-term-cultured LAK
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells exhibit a potent cytotoxicity to malignant cells in vitro. However, a satisfactory effect has not been obtained in many clinical studies except for a few cases. One of the most important reasons why cytolytic activity could not be exhibited in vivo is that LAK cells do not accumulate in the tumor tissue because of a lack of specificity. In the present study, we show the effect of a bispecific antibody (bsAb) on the accumulation of LAK cells around the small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell and the subsequent enhancement of LAK cell cytotoxicity against SCLC. When short-term(4 days)-cultured LAK cells were used, OKT3×LU246 bsAb, which direct CD3+ T-LAK cells to the target cell, induced a similar level of cytotoxicity to that induced by 3G8×LU246 bsAb, which directs CD16+ LAK cells. Long-term(21 days)-cultured LAK cells exhibited a reduced spontaneous cytotoxicity but retained high cytotoxic activity, which could be directed by OKT3×LU246 or 3G8×LU246 bsAb. The inhibitory effect of LAK cells on tumor cell clonogenicity in soft agar was also enhanced by both bsAb. These results indicate that application of the therapy with LAK cells and OKT3×LU246 bsAb to SCLC patients might be a promising new method of adoptive immunotherapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Bispecific antibody (BsAb) ; Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) ; Short-term-cultured LAK ; Longterm-cultured LAK
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells exhibit a potent cytotoxicity to malignant cells in vitro. However, a satisfactory effect has not been obtained in many clinical studies except for a few cases. One of the most important reasons why cytolytic activity could not be exhibited in vivo is that LAK cells do not accumulate in the tumor tissue because of a lack of specificity. In the present study, we show the effect of a bispecific antibody (bsAb) on the accumulation of LAK cells around the small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell and the subsequent enhancement of LAK cell cytotoxicity against SCLC. When short-term (4 days)-cultured LAK cells were used, OKT3xLU246 bsAb, which direct CD3+ T-LAK cells to the target cell, induced a similar level of cytotoxicity to that induced by 3G8xLU246 bsAb, which directs CD16+ LAK cells. Longterm (21 days)-cultured LAK cells exhibited a reduced spontaneous cytotoxicity but retained high cytotoxic activity, which could be directed by OKT3xLU246 or 3G8xLU246 bsAb. The inhibitory effect of LAK cells on tumor cell clonogenicity in soft agar was also enhanced by both bsAb. These results indicate that application of the therapy with LAK cells and OKT3xLU246 bsAb to SCLC patients might be a promising new method of adoptive immunotherapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Gene transfection ; interleukin-2 ; Immunotherapy ; Peritoneal exudate cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  To study the antitumor effect of local production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) from tumor cells, the poorly immunogenic murine colon cancer cells, colon26, was transfected with murine IL-2 cDNA in a bovine papilloma virus vector. IL-2 gene transfectants (mIL2+colon26) did not alter their growth rate compared with parental colon26 cells in vitro, but reduced their tumorigenicity in vivo. Immunization with mIL2+colon26 cells could induce protective immunity against parental colon26 cells. Following intravenous challenges, the colonies of lung metastasis were also inhibited. Moreover, inoculation of mIL2+ colon26 cells slowed the growth of challenged renal cell carcinoma cells, RenCa. Intraperitoneal inoculation of IL-2 gene transfectants generated a large number of peritoneal exudate cells and these cells had a highly cytolytic activity against colon26 and YAC-1. These results suggest that inoculation with IL-2 transfected tumor cells can stimulate not only cytotoxic T lymphocytes but also natural killer cells, and that these cells will act as antitumor effector cells in host animals.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words CD95L ; CD95 (Fas/Apo-1) ; lpr ; Apoptosis ; Antitumor activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Lymph node (LN) cells of Fas-mutant mice lpr/lpr (lpr) and lpr cg /lpr cg (lpr cg ) express an increased level of Fas ligand (FasL) (CD95L). We examined the antitumor potential of cell-bound FasL on these LN cells against Fas+ tumor cells. Fas+ F6b and Fas− N1d cells were produced from murine hepatoma MH134 (Fas−) by gene transfection. lpr and lpr cg LN cells inhibited growth of F6b but not N1d cells in vitro. Neither gld/gld lpr/lpr (gld/lpr) LN cells, which lack both FasL and Fas, nor wild-type LN cells showed growth-inhibitory activities against F6b and N1d cells. The effector cells and molecule were CD4−CD8− T cells and FasL, respectively. The tumor neutralization test and adoptive transfer demonstrated that lpr and lpr cg , but not gld/lpr, LN cells retarded the growth of F6b cells. Although anti-Fas antibody and FasL cause severe liver failure, wild-type mice injected with lpr LN cells appeared clinically normal. Adoptive transfer of lpr LN cells to F6b-bearing mice exerted the same antitumor activity in wild-type and gld/lpr recipient mice, indicating the applicability of cell-bound FasL for Fas-mediated target therapy of cancer. These results suggest that antitumor activity was dependent on the Fas-FasL system and that lymphoid cells overexpressing FasL can be powerful antitumor effector cells against Fas+ tumor cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 379 (1996), S. 682-682 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - Bellgrau et al.1 suggested that testi-cular allografts expressing functional CD95 ligand (CD95L) evade rejection by inducing apoptotic death of CD95-expressing recipient T cells activated in response to graft antigens. This implied that CD95L might be useful for creating immune-privileged ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Chimaeric fusion proteins containing the extracellular domain of CTLA-4 (ref. 23) and immunoglobulin Cy bind B7 with a greater affinity than CD28 (ref. 24) and efficiently block T-cell-dependent immune responses in vitro and in vivo9'11. Thus, CTLA4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4-Ig) fusion proteins can be ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various tumor cells in vitro, but its physiological role in tumor surveillance remains unknown. Here, we report that TRAIL is constitutively expressed on murine natural killer (NK) cells in the liver and plays a ...
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