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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The effect of ammonium ions in the medium on production of thiostrepton byStreptomyces laurentii was investigated. In batch cultures, the excessive initial concentration of ammonium ions inhibited thiostrepton production. Moderate feeding of ammonia accelerated, however, not only microbial growth but also thiostrepton production. Fed-batch cultures with various feed rates of ammonia and a kinetic study clarified the effect of ammonium ion consumption rate on thiostrepton production. A modified kinetic model is proposed that takes product inhibition and the influence of maximum thiostrepton content into account.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary High concentration production of an antibiotic, thiostrepton, was achieved by the fed-batch culture of Streptomyces laurentii. To produce thiostrepton efficiently, the pH of the medium had to be maintained in a very narrow range between 6.0 and 6.2. As the substrates, not only glucose but also natural nutrients such as defatted soy bean meal and corn steep liquor were demanded. All of these substrates (multi-substrate) had to be supplied during the cultivation. pH was used as the indicator to detect the deficiency of substrates. When the glucose in the medium had been exhaustively consumed, the pH increased immediately; the multi-substrate solution (MS-solution) was then supplied. The composition of the feeding solution was determined from data obtained in batch cultures. During the fed-batch culture, glucose concentration was kept lower than 5 g/l by regulating the feed amount of MS-solution with this pH-stat modal control. By this control strategy a high concentration of thiostrepton, 10.5 g/l, was obtained, while total cell mass concentration reached 157 g/l. The productivity of thiostrepton was greatly increased compared with the conventional batch culture.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary To control molecular weight of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) produced in a fedbatch culture of Protomonas extorquens, the effects of cultural temperature, pH, molar ratio of methanol and ammonia, and concentration of methanol in the medium on polymerization were inverstigated. Change of methanol concentration affected average molecular weight of PHB. When the cultivation was carried out at 0.05 g/l of methanol, average molecular weight of PHB reached above 8×105. On the other hand, in the case of 32 g/l of methanol average molecular weight of PHB was less than 0.5×105. Although every sample had a wide molelcular weight distribution, it became possible to control voluntarily average molecular weight of PHB.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A kinetic study of the production of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by a fed-batch culture of Protomonas extorquens showed that a nitrogen source was necessary even in the PHB production phase. The effect of ammonia feeding on PHB production was consequently investigated. The nitrogen source (ammonia water) was supplied at a low constant feeding rate after the growth phase in which cell mass concentration reached 60 g/l. Feeding with a small quantity of ammonia resulted in a more rapid increase in intracellular PHB content than was the case without ammonia feeding. Excessive feeding of ammonia, however, caused not only degradation of accumulated PHB but also reduction of microbial PHB synthetic activity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The effect of the ratio of methanol to ammonia, in the feeding solution the C/N ratio, on microbial PHB production was investigated. A constant C/N ratio regulated both the PHB content and the specific rate of PHB production. The results indicated that to produce the maximum PHB effectively in a short time the C/N ratio should be controlled automatically according to the increase in PHB content. Variation of the PHB content was estimated by tracing the timecourse of CO2 concentration in exhaust gas. When the cell concentration reached 70 g/l, C/N ratio was gradually increased from the initial C/N ratio of 10 (mol methanol/mol ammonia). At 121 h, concentration of PHB reached 136 g/l, which was the maximum level so far obtained. The reaction time was considerably shortened compared with our previous study (175 h). Furthermore, PHB concentration reached 149 g/l at 170 h and total cell concentration became 233 g/l. PHB yield from methanol was 0.20 (g PHB/g methanol), which was also superior to the previous result of 0.18.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Bacillus stearothermophilus esterase contains two free cysteine residues at positions of 45 and 115, which react with sulfhydryl reagents resulting in a significant decrease in the enzymatic activity. To understand the role of the cysteine residues in catalytic regions of the esterase, the residues were replaced with serine or alanine by site-directed mutagenesis to construct four single-mutated enzymes (C45A, C45S, C115A, C115S) and two double-mutated ones (C45/115A and C45/115S). Wild-type and mutant enzymes were produced in Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity to examine their chemical and kinetic properties. These mutant enzymes had esterase activity, which suggested that none of the cysteines were required for its activity. Moreover, replacement of both two-cysteine residues made the enzyme insensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid and extensively stabilized it at high temperatures of around 70°C. These results demonstrate that replacement of free cysteine residues by site-directed mutagenesis can improve the thermostability of thermophilic enzymes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract. Bacillus stearothermophilus esterase contains two free cysteine residues at positions of 45 and 115, which react with sulfhydryl reagents resulting in a significant decrease in the enzymatic activity. To understand the role of the cysteine residues in catalytic regions of the esterase, the residues were replaced with serine or alanine by site-directed mutagenesis to construct four single-mutated enzymes (C45A, C45S, C115A, C115S) and two double-mutated ones (C45/115A and C45/115S). Wild-type and mutant enzymes were produced in Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity to examine their chemical and kinetic properties. These mutant enzymes had esterase activity, which suggested that none of the cysteines were required for its activity. Moreover, replacement of both two-cysteine residues made the enzyme insensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid and extensively stabilized it at high temperatures of around 70° C. These results demonstrate that replacement of free cysteine residues by site-directed mutagenesis can improve the thermostability of thermophilic enzymes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Attempts were made to entrap enzymes or microbial cells with water-insoluble photo-crosslinkable resin prepolymers of different types in organic solvent systems in the presence or absence of water. Acetone-dried cells of Artbrobacter simplex immobilized in a maleic polybutadiene gel (PBM-2000) converted hydrocortisone to prednisolone in a phosphate buffer. 4-Androstene-3,17-dione was converted to androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione in benzene-n-heptane solution by Nocardia rhodocrous which was immobilized by a hydrophobic prepolymer, ENTP-2000. The ENTP-2000 had been synthesized from poly(propylene glycol)-2000, hydroxyethylacrylate and isophorone diisocyanate. Even enzymes catalyzing aqueous phase reactions, such as catalase and invertase, were immobilized in a polybutadiene resin (PB-200k) to give active gel-entrapped preparations. The cells and enzymes immobilized in these hydrophobic resins exhibited moderate activities compared with those of the free cells and enzymes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary CO2 gas, evolved during alcohol fermentation using immobilized yeast, causes several undesirable problems in a packed-bed bioreactor installed vertically as it increases the dead space and causes hydrostatic pressure. In order to reduce this “CO2 gas phase effect” which lowers the efficiency of ethanol production, a shallow, horizontal packed-bed bioreactor has been developed with a free space above the gel bed. The horizontal packed-bed bioreactor was 1.5 times more productive than the vertical packed-bed bioreactor when operated continuously. Yeast cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel reached a steady state much quicker than those immobilized in polyacrylamide gels. In the horizontal packed-bed bioreactors, calcium alginate gel was also superior to polyacrylamide gel with respect to ethanol productivity. The profiles of both glucose and ethanol concentrations against axial sampling sites suggested that the horizontal packed-bed bioreactor was similar to a plug flow reactor. The mean gel size gradually increased upstream (1.9 mm to 3.3 mm). With the economic production of ethanol in view, the published data on different continuous alcohol production processes have been compared by plotting their productivities (y-coordinate) against the ethanol concentrations in the effluents (x-coordinate) for the dilution rate or space velocity at which the yield of ethanol from glucose was 95%. The horizontal packed-bed bioreactor has a very high performance which makes this bioreactor promising for the economic production of ethanol.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Fifty-one methylotrophs were checked with respect to their ability of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) production from methanol. One of them, Pseudomonas sp. K, was chosen from its good growth on a minimum synthetic medium. Optimal temperature and pH for its growth were 30° C and 7.0, respectively. Concentrations of PO 4 3- and NH 4 + in the medium should be kept at low levels. PHB formation was stimulated by deficiency of nutrient such as NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , Mg2+, Fe2+ or Mn2+. Among them, nitrogen deficiency was chosen from its effectiveness and easiness for PHB accumulation. The microorganism was cultivated to produce a large amount of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) from methanol by means of microcomputer-aided fully automatic fed-batch culture technique. During the cultivation, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), and methanol concentration in the culture broth were maintained at 30° C 2.5±0.5 ppm and 0.5±0.2 g/l, respectively. Other nutrients, nitrogen source and mineral ions, were also controlled to maintain their initial concentrations in the medium during cell growth phase. When the high cell concentration was achieved (160 g/l), feedings of ammonia and minerals were stopped and only methanol was supplied successively to accumulate PHB. At 175 h, high concentration of PHB (136 g/l) was obtained and total cell concentration became 206 g/l. DO must be maintained above the critical level during the PHB formation phase, too. PHB yield from methanol (g PHB/g methanol) was 0.18 and the maximum PHB content reached 66% of dry weight. Solid PHB produced by the strain had the melting point of 176° C and the average molecular weight of 3.0x105.
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