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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have recently shown that TNF is produced in liver rapidly after partial hepatectomy and that TNF can stimulate DNA synthesis of hepatocyte primary culture with its inhibition by interleukin 6 and transforming growth factor-β, indicating a pivotal role of TNF and TNF-driven cytokine induction in liver regeneration. We here examined the effects of biological or inflammatory mediators of low molecular weight on the in vitro DNA synthesis of hepatocytes stimulated by TNF. Simultaneous addition of dexamethasone markedly suppressed the growth-stimulating action of TNF, maximally at 10-7 M and effectively at about 10-8 M. However, the growth-stimulating effect of EGF was not affected by dexamethasone at all. Physiological glucocorticoids, corticosterone, and hydrocortisone showed virtually the same effect, but other steroid hormones, β-estradiol, or progesterone did not. Retinoic acid at 10-7 M, however, enhanced TNF-stimulated hepatocyte DNA synthesis and even more effectively the growth response to FGF. PGD2 at 20 μM was markedly suppressive but PGE2 was not. The addition of indomethacin enhanced the hepatocyte in vitro growth by TNF and EGF at 2-20 μM. These results indicate that the growth of hepatocytes stimulated by TNF is up and down-regulated by inflammatory mediators and hormones as well as cytokines and suggest the biological significance of TNF and TNF-driven inflammatory reactions in liver regeneration. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In a previous study, we revealed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was secreted in mouse liver at an early phase of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Here, we investigated direct actions of TNF on the in vitro DNA synthesis of adult mouse hepatocytes in primary culture. TNF enhanced both 3H-TdR uptake and the number of 3H-TdR-labeled nuclei of hepatocytes. Their time courses were similar to those by epidermal growth factor (EGF) with about a 15 h lag period and a peak period of 24-48 h. This action of TNF was abrogated by DNA polymerase α inhibitor, aphidicolin and blocked specifically by anti-TNF antibody. The actions of rm TNF were not distinguishable; ED50 was about 7.5U/ml (5ng/ml) and 30U/ml (20ng/ml) for maximal response (about 2-fold or more of control). Other inflammatory monokines showed differential effects on in vitro DNA synthesis of hepatocyte. Neither type of interleukin 1 affected hepatocyte DNA synthesis in the range examined (up to 50 ng/ml). IL-6 markedly inhibited the hepatocyte DNA synthesis stimulated by TNF and EGF. The action of TNF was completely suppressed by transforming growth factor β, which is known as a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte growth. Interferon γ also blocked this TNF action when added simultaneously. These results indicate that the activation of tissue macrophages and local secretion of TNF in liver after partial hepatectomy is of physiological importance in liver regeneration, in part by a direct stimulation of hepatocyte DNA synthesis. Cytokines induced by TNF may also participate in the later termination of liver regeneration.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words: ONO-4007 – Lipid A – Antitumor effect – TNF – TIM
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. ONO-4007 is a novel synthetic analog of lipid A subunit and has been shown to exert antitumor activities on various experimental tumors with less toxicity than lipopolysaccharide. It remains unclear, however, what biological activities of this compound are relevant to its antitumor effects. We therefore investigated the activation of macrophages by ONO-4007 in vitro and in vivo and its implication in antitumor effects, using mouse MM46 mammary tumor as an experimental model. Intravenous injection of ONO-4007 produced significant therapeutic effects on this solid tumor. ONO-4007 could stimulate glycogen-elicited peritoneal macrophages in vitro, not only to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but also to exert cytocidal activities against MM46 cells in vitro. Substantial TNF production was induced in tumor tissue by i. v. injection of ONO-4007, and its successive administration to tumor-bearing mice gave tumor-infiltrating macrophages a prominent in vitro tumoricidal activity and primed them for in vitro TNF secretion. These results suggest that activation of tumor-infiltrating macrophages to a direct tumoricidal state as well as to TNF secretion in tumor tissues may be at least some of the antitumor effects of this novel lipid A analog.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: ONO-4007 ; Lipid A ; Antitumor effect ; TNF ; TIM
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract ONO-4007 is a novel synthetic analog of lipid A subunit and has been shown to exert antitumor activities on various experimental tumors with less toxicity than lipopolysaccharide. It remains unclear, however, what biological activities of this compound are relevant to its antitumor effects. We therefore investigated the activation of macrophages by ONO-4007 in vitro and in vivo and its implication in antitumor effects, using mouse MM46 mammary tumor as an experimental model. Intravenous injection of ONO-4007 produced significant therapeutic effects on this solid tumor. ONO-4007 could stimulate glycogen-elicited peritoneal macrophages in vitro, not only to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but also to exert cytocidal activities against MM46 cells in vitro. Substantial TNF production was induced in tumor tissue by i. v. injection of ONO-4007, and its successive administration to tumor-bearing mice gave tumor-infiltrating macrophages a prominent in vitro tumoricidal activity and primed them for in vitro TNF secretion. These results suggest that activation of tumor-infiltrating macrophages to a direct tumoricidal state as well as to TNF secretion in tumor tissues may be at least some of the antitumor effects of this novel lipid A analog.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) may be related to AF-induced electrical remodeling characterized by shortening of the atrial action potential duration (APD) and loss of its rate adaptation. We investigated the effects of pretreatment with oral d,l-sotalol on rate-dependent changes in atrial monophasic action potential (MAP) duration after cardioversion of chronic AF with reference to the efficacy in preventing the arrhythmia recurrence. Methods and Results: MAPs were recorded from the right atrium at six pacing cycle lengths (CLs) from 300 to 750 ms in 19 chronic AF patients after electrical cardioversion; 9 had been pretreated with oral d,l-sotalol (196 ± 42 mg/day) for 7 days and 10 were untreated. MAP duration at 90% repolarization (MAPD90) in 11 control patients increased progressively with increases in CLs from 209 ± 19 ms at CL = 300 ms to 264 ± 28 ms at CL = 750 ms. In AF patients without sotalol, the CL-MAPD relation was shifted downward and flattened at longer CLs; MAPD90 values were 206 ± 11 ms and 227 ± 16 ms at CLs of 300 and 750 ms, respectively. MAPD90 values at CLs ≥500 ms in AF were significantly shorter than controls. In AF patients with sotalol, the normal CL-MAPD relation was preserved; MAPD90 increased from 226 ± 19 ms to 282 ± 46 ms in the CL range. AF recurred within 2 weeks after cardioversion in 14 of 24 patients pretreated with d,l-sotalol (216 ± 51 mg/day) despite of continuation of sotalol treatment. Conclusion: Sotalol reverses AF-induced decrease in MAPD adaptation to rate in the atria of chronic AF patients, but this effect does not lead to prevention of AF recurrence.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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